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Renascence Editions

The Arte of Rhetorique

Thomas Wilson

Introduction | Book I | Book II | Book III

Note on the e-text: this Renascence Editions text was transcribed by Judy Boss, Omaha, NE, 1998, from Wilson's Arte of Rhetorique 1560. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. Ed. G. H. Mair. Content unique to this presentation is copyright © 1998 The University of Oregon and Judy Boss. For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher, rbear at uoregon.edu.

The arte of Rhetorique.

What is Rhetorique.

RHetorique is an Arte to set foorth by vtteraunce of words, matter at large, or (as Cicero doth say) it is a learned, or rather an artificiall declaration of the mynd, in the handling of any cause, called in contention, that may through reason largely be discussed.

The matter whereupon an
Oratour must speake.
Rhetorique occupied
about all lawes,
concerning man.
AN Orator must be able to speake fully of al those questions, which by lawe & mans ordinance are enacted, and appointed for the vse and profite of man, such as are thought apt for the tongue to set forwarde. Nowe Astronomie is rather learned by demonstration, then taught by any great vtterance. Arithmetique smally needeth the vse of Eloquence, seeing it may be had wholy by nombring only. Geometrie rather asketh a good square, then a cleane flowing tongue to set out the art. Therefore an Orators profession, is to speake only of all such matters, as may largely be expounded for mans behoue, and may with much grace be set out, for all men to heare them.
Of questions.
Questions of two sort.
EVery question or demaund in things, is of two sortes. Either it is an infinite question, & without end, or els it is definite, and comprehended within some ende.

Questions infinite.
Those questions are called infinite, which generally are propounded, without the comprehension of tyme, place, and persone, or any such like: that is to say, when no certaine thing is named, but onely words are generally spoken. As thus, whether it be best to marrie, or to liue single. Which is better, a courtiers life, or a Scholers life.

Questions definite.
Those questions are called definite, which set forth a matter, with the appointment and naming of place, time, and person. As thus. Whether now it be best here in Englande, for a Priest to Marrie, or to liue single. Whether it were meete for the kings Maiestie that nowe is, to marrie with a stranger, or to marrie with one of his owne Subiects. Now the definite
Questions definite, belong
properly to an Orator.
question (as the which concerneth some one person) is most agreeing to the purpose of an Orator, considering particuler matters in the law, are euer debated betwixt certaine persons, the one affirming for his parte, and the other denying as fast againe for his parte.

Thinges generally spoken without all circumstaunces, are more proper vnto the Logician, who talketh of thinges vniuersally,
Questions infinite,
proper vnto
without respect of person, time, or place. And yet notwithstanding, Tullie doth say, that whosoeuer will talke of particuler matter must remember, that within the same also is comprehended a generall. As for example. If I shall aske this question, whether it bee lawfull for William Conquerour to inuade England, and win it by force of Armour, I must also consider this, whether it bee lawfull for any man to vsurpe power, or it bee not lawful. That if the greater cannot be borne withall, the lesse can not bee neither. And in this respect, a generall question agreeth well to an Orators profession, and ought well to bee knowne for the better furtheraunce of his matter, notwithstanding the particuler question is euer called in controuersie, and the generall only thereupon considered, to comprehend and compasse the same, as the which is more generall.

The ende of Rhetorique.
Three thinges are required of an Orator.
Orators bound
to performe
three thinges.
{To teach.
{To delight.
{And to perswade.
FIrst therefore, an Orator must labour to tell his tale, that the hearers may well knowe what he meaneth, and vnderstand him wholy, the which he shall with ease vse, if he
Plaine words
proper vnto
an Orator.
vtter his minde in plaine words, such as are vsually receiued, and tell it orderly, without going about the bush. That if he doe not this, he shall neuer doe the other. For what man can be delited, or yet be perswaded with the only hearing of those thinges, which he knoweth not what they meane. The tongue is ordeined to expresse the minde, that one may vnderstand an others meaning: now what auaileth to speake, when none can tell what the speaker meaneth? Therefore Phauorinus the Philosopher (as Gellius telleth the tale) did hit a yong man ouer the Thumbes very handsomely, for vsing ouer old, and ouer straunge wordes. Sirha (quoth he) when our olde great auncesters and Graundsires were aliue, they spake plainly in their mothers tongue, and vsed olde language, such
A Philosophers
wittie saying to a
yong man that
sought to speake
dark language.
as was spoken then at the building of Roome. But you talke me such a Latine, as though you spake with them euen now, that were two or three thousand yeres agoe, and onely because you would haue no man to vnderstand what you say. Now, were it not better for thee a thousande fold, (thou foolish fellowe) in seeking to haue thy desire, to holde thy peace, and speake nothing at all? For then by that meanes, fewe should knowe what were thy meaning. But thou saiest, the olde antiquitie doth like thee best, because it is good, sober, and modest. Ah, liue man, as they did before thee, and speake thy mind now as men doe at this day. And remember that which Cæsar saieth, beware as long as thou liuest of straunge wordes, as thou wouldest take heede and eschue great Rockes in the Sea.

The next part that he hath to play, is to chere his geastes, and to make them take pleasure, with hearing of thinges
Orators must vse delitefull
wordes and sayinges.
wittely deuised, and pleasauntly set foorth. Therefore euery Orator should earnestly labour to file his tongue, that his words may slide with ease, and that in his deliueraunce he may have such grace, as the sound of a Lute, or any such Instrument doth giue. Then his sentences must be wel framed, and his words aptly vsed, through the whole discourse of his Oration.

Thirdly, such quicknesse of witte must bee shewed, and such pleasaunt sawes so well applied, that the eares may finde much delite, whereof I will speake largely, when I shall intreate of mouing laughter. And assuredly nothing is more needfull, then to quicken these heauie loden wittes of ours,
Preachers not so diligently
heard as common Players.
and much to cherish these our lompish and vnweldie Natures, for except men finde delite, they will not long abide: delite them, and winne them: wearie them, and you lose them for euer. And that is the reason, that men commonly tarie the ende of a merie Play, and cannot abide the halfe hearing of a sower checking Sermon. Therefore euen these auncient Preachers, must now and then play the fooles in the pulpit, to serue the tickle eares of their fleting audience, or els they are like sometimes to preach to the bare walles, for though their spirite bee apt, and our will prone, yet our flesh is so heauie, and humours so ouerwhelme vs, that we cannot without
Preachers must sometimes be
mery when they speake
to the people.
Deliting needful.
Scurrilitie odious.
Affections must be moued.
refreshing, long abide to heare any one thing. Thus we see, that to delite is needfull, without the which weightie matters will not be heard at all, and therefore him cunne I thanke, that both can and will ever, mingle sweete among the sower, be he Preacher, Lawyer, yea, or Cooke either hardly, when hee dresseth a good dish of meate: now I need not to tell that scurrilitie, or ale-house iesting, would bee thought odious, or grosse mirth would be deemed madnesse: considering that euen the meane witted do knowe that alreadie, and as for other that haue no wit, they will neuer learne it, therfore God speede them. Now when these two are done, hee must perswade, and moue the affections of his hearers in such wise, that they shalbe forced to yeeld vnto his saying, whereof (because the matter is large, and may more aptly be declared, when I shall speake of Amplification) I will surcease to speake any thing thereof at this tyme.

By what meanes Eloquence
is attained.
FIrst needfull it is that hee, which desireth to excell in this gift of Oratorie, and longeth to proue an eloquent man, must naturally haue a wit, and an aptnesse thereunto: then must he to his Booke, and learne to bee well stored with knowledge, that he may be able to minister matter for al causes necessarie. The which when he hath got plentifully, he must vse much exercise, both in writing, and also in speaking. For though hee haue a wit and learning together,
Practise maketh
al things perfect.
yet shall they both little auaile without much practise. What maketh the Lawyer to haue such utteraunce? Practise. What maketh the Preacher to speake so roundly? Practise. Yea, what maketh women goe so fast awaye with their wordes? Mary practise I warrant you. Therefore in all faculties, diligent practise, and earnest exercise, are the onely things that make men proue excellent. Many men know the art very well, and be in all points throughly grounded and acquainted with the precepts, & yet it is not their hap to proue eloquent. And the reason is, that eloquence it selfe, came not vp first by the art, but the arte rather was gathered vpon eloquence. For wisemen seeing by much obseruation and diligent practise,
Rhetorique first made by wise
men, and not wisemen
first made by Rhetorique.
the compasse of diuers causes, compiled thereupon precepts and lessons, worthy to be knowne and learned of all men. Therefore before arte was inuented, eloquence was vsed, and through practise made perfect, the which in all things is a soueraigne meane, most highly to excell.

Now, before we vse either to write, or speake eloquently, wee must dedicate our myndes wholy, to followe the most wise and learned men, and seeke to fashion as wel their
Imitation or following the
waies of wisemen, is needfull.
speache and gesturing, as their witte or endyting. The which when we earnestly mynd to doe, we can not but in time appere somewhat like them. For if they that walke much in the Sunne, and thinke not of it, are yet for the most part Sunne burnt, it can not be but that they which wittingly and willingly trauayle to counterfect other, must needes take some colour of them, and be like vnto them in some one thing or other, according to the Prouerbe, by companying with the wise, a man shall learne wisedome.

To what purpose this arte is set forthe.
TO this purpose and for this vse, is the arte compiled together, by the learned and wisemen, that those which
Rhetorique to what
purpose it serueth.
Arte a surer guide
then Nature.
are ignorant might iudge of the learned, and labour (when time should require) to followe their woorkes accordingly. Againe, the arte helpeth well to dispose and order matters of our owne inuention, the which wee may followe as well in speaking as in writing, for though many by nature without art, haue proued worthy men, yet is arte a surer guide then nature, considering we see as liuely by arte what we do, as though we read a thing in writing, where as Natures doings are not so open to all men. Againe, those that haue good wittes by Nature, shall better encrease them by arte, and the blunt also shall bee whetted through arte, that want Nature to helpe them forward.
Fiue things to be considered
in an Oratour.
ANy one that will largely handle any matter, must fasten his mynde first of all, vppon these fiue especiall pointes that followe, and learne them euery one.
{i.     Inuention of matter.
{ii.    Disposition of the same.
{iii.   Elocution.
{iiii.  Memorie.
{v.    Utteraunce.
Oratours must have v. things
to make them perfite.

THe finding out of apt matter, called otherwise Inuention, is a searching out of things true, or things likely, the which may reasonablie set forth a matter, and make it appeare probable. The places of Logique, giue good occasion to finde out plentifull matter. And therefore, they that will proue any cause, and seeke onely to teach thereby the trueth, must search out the places of Logique, and no doubt they shall finde much
Inuention, what it is.
Disposition, what it is.
plentie. But what auaileth much treasure and apt matter, if man can not apply it to his purpose. Therefore, in the second place is mentioned, the setling or ordering of things inuented for this purpose, called in Latine Dispositio, the which is nothing els but an apt bestowing, and orderly placing of things, declaring where euery argument shall be set, and in what maner euery reason shalbe applied for confirmation of the purpose.

But yet what helpeth it though wee can finde good reasons, and knowe how to place them, if wee haue not apt words and picked Sentences, to commende the whole matter. Therefore,
Elocution, what it is.
Memorie, what it is.
this point must needes followe to beautifie the cause, the which being called Elocution, is an applying of apt wordes and sentences to the matter, found out to confirme the cause. When all these are had together it auaileth little, if man haue no Memorie to containe them. The Memorie therefore must be cherished, the which is a fast holding both of matter and words couched together, to confirme any cause.

Be it now that one haue all these fower, yet if he want the fift all the other doe little profite. For though a man can finde out good matter and good wordes, though hee can handsomely set them together, and carie them very well awaie
what it is.
in his minde, yet it is to no purpose if he haue no vtterance, when he should speake his minde, and shewe men what he hath to saie. Vtterance therefore, is a framing of the voyce, countenaunce, and gesture after a comely maner.

Thus we see, that euery one of these must goe together, to make a perfite Oratour, and that the lack of one, is a hinderance of the whole, and that as well all may be wanting as one, if wee looke to haue an absolute Oratour.

There are seuen partes in euery Oration.
Orations in general
consist vpon seuen
{i.    The Enterance or beginning.
{ii.   The Narration.
{iii.  The Proposition.
{iiii. The Deuision or seuerall parting of things.
{v.    The [C]onfirmation.
{vi.   The [C]onfutation.
{vii.  The Conclusion.

Entraunce, what it is.

The Entraunce or beginning is the former parte of the Oration, whereby the will of the standers by, or of the Iudge is sought for, and required to heare the matter.

The Narration is a plaine and manifest pointing of the matter, and an euident setting forth of all things that belong vnto the same, with a breefe rehersall grounded vpon some reason.

The proposition is a pithie sentence comprehended in a small roome, the somme of the whole matter.

The Deuision is an opening of things, wherein we agree and rest vpon, and wherein we sticke and stand in trauers, shewing what we haue to say in our owne behalfe.

The Confirmation is a declaration of our owne reasons, with assured and constant proofes.

The Confutation is a dissoluing, or wyping away of all such reasons as make against vs.

The Conclusion is a clarkly gathering of the matter spoken before, and a lapping vp of it altogether.

Now, because in euery one of these greate heede ought to bee had, and much arte must be vsed, to content and like all parties: I purpose in the second booke to set foorthe at large euery one of these, that both we may know in all partes what to followe, and what to eschue. And first, when time shalbe to talke of any matter I would aduise euery man to consider the nature of the cause it self, that the rather he might frame his whole Oration thereafter.

Euery matter is contained in
one of these fower.
EIther it is an honest thing whereof we speake, or els it is filthie and vile, or els betwixt both: and doubtfull what
Matters in generall stand in
fower pointes.
it is to bee called, or els it is some trifeling matter, that is of small weight.

Matters honest.
1 That is called an honest matter, when either we take in hande such a cause that all men would maintayne, or els gainsaie such a cause, that no man can well like.

Matters filthie.
2 Then doe wee holde and defend a filthie matter, when either we speake against our owne conscience in an euill matter, or els withstand an upright trueth.

Matters doubtfull.
3 The cause then is doubtfull, when the matter is halfe honest, and halfe vnhonest.

Matters trifeling.
4 Such are trifling causes when there is no weight in them, as if one should phantasie to praise a goose before any other beast liuing, (as I knowe who did) or of fruite to commende Nuttes chiefly, as Ouid did, or the Feuer quartaine as Phauorinus did, or the Gnat as Virgil did, or the battaile of Frogges as Homer did, or dispraise beardes, or commend shauen heddes.

Good heede to be taken at the first, vpon the handling
of any matter in Iudgement.
Circumstances necessarie in
all causes to be noted.
Fauor winning, and affections
mouing when they are most
Aduersaries reasons when
they should best be confuted.
NOT onely it is necessarie to knowe what maner of cause we haue taken in hande, when we first enter vppon any matter, but also it is wisedome to consider the tyme, the place, the man for whom we speake, the man against whom we speake, the matter whereof we speake, and the Iudges before whom wee speake, the reasons that best serue to further our cause, and those reasons also that may seeme somewhat to hinder our cause, and in nowise to vse any such at all, or els warely to mitigate by protestation the euill that is in them, and alwaies to vse whatsoeuer can be saied, to win the chief hearers good willes, and to perswade them to our purpose. If the cause goe by fauour, and that reason can not so much auaile, as good will shal be able to doe: or els if mouing affections can doe more good, then bringing in of good reasons, it is meete alwaies to vse that way, whereby wee may by good helpe get the ouerhand. That if myne aduersaries reasons, by mee being confuted serue better to helpe forward my cause, then myne owne reasons confirmed, can be able to doe good: I should wholy bestowe my tyme, and trauaile to weaken and make slender, all that euer he bringeth with him. But if I can with more ease proue mine own sayings, either with
Arguments when they should
chiefly be vsed.
witnesses, or with wordes, then bee able to confute his with reason, I must labour to withdrawe mens mindes from mine aduersaries foundation, and require them wholy to harken vnto that which I haue to say, being of it selfe so iust and so reasonable, that none can rightly speake against it, & shew them that great pitie it were, for lacke of the onely hearing, that a true matter should want true dealing. Ouer & besides al these, there remaine two lessons, the which wisemen haue alwaies obserued, and therefore ought of all men assuredly to bee learned. The one is, that if any matter be laied against
Matters hard to auoyde
should alwaies be past
ouer, as though wee sawe
them not at all.
Good to be bold in most
daunger, if otherwise
we cannot escape.
vs, which by reason can hardly be auoyded, or the which is so open, that none almost can deny: it were wisedome in confuting all the other reasons, to passe ouer this one, as though we saw it not, and therefore speake neuer a word of it. Or els if necessitie shall force a man to say somewhat, he may make an outward bragge, as though there were no matter in it, euer so speaking of it, as though he would stand to the triall, making men to beleeue he would fight in the cause, when better it were (if necessitie so required) to run cleane awaie. And therein though a man do flie and giue place, euermore the gladder the lesse rauing there is, or stirring in this matter: yet he flieth wisely and for this ende, that being sensed otherwise, and strongly appointed, hee may take his aduersarie at the best aduauntage, or at the least wearie him with much lingering, and make him with oft such flying, to forsake his cheefe defence.

The other lesson is, that whereas we purpose alwaies to haue the victorie, we should so speake that we may labour, rather not to hinder or hurt our cause, then to seeke meanes
Better not to hurte
a good matter by ill
speeche then to further
it by good talke.
Warenesse in speaking,
and forbearing to speake[.]
to further it. And yet I speake not this, but that both these are right necessary, and euery one that will doe good, must take paines in them both, but yet notwithstanding, it is a fouler fault a great deale for an Orator, to be found hurting his owne cause, then it should turne to his rebuke, if he had not furthered his whole entent. Therfore not onely is it wisedome, to speake so much as is needefull, but also it is good reason to leaue vnspoken so much as is needelesse, the which although the wisest can doe and neede no teaching, yet these common wittes offende now and then in this behalf. Some man being stirred, shall hurt more our cause then twentie other. Taunting woordes before some men, will not bee borne at all. Sharpe rebuking of our aduersarie, or frumpes giuen before some persons, can not be suffered at all. Yea, sometymes a man must not speake all that he knoweth, for if he do, he is like to find small fauour, although he haue iust
The persone before
whom we speake must be
well marked.
Time must be
cause to speake, and may with reason declare his mynd at large. And albeit that witlesse folke, can sooner rebuke that which is fondly spoken, then redily praise that which is wisely kept close, yet the necessitie of the matter must rather be marked, then the fond iudgement of the people esteemed. What a sore saying were this: When a Lawier should take in hande a matter concerning life and death: and an other should aske how he hath sped, to heare tell that the Lawyer hath not only cast away his client, but vndoen himself also, in speaking thinges, inconsideratly, as no doubt it often happeneth that wisemen and those also that be none euill men neither, may vnwares speake things, which afterward they sore repent, and would call backe againe with losse of a great somme. Now what folly it is, not to remember the time, and the men. Or who will speake that which he knoweth will not be liked, if he purpose to finde fauour at their hands, before whome he speaketh, what man of reason, will praise that before the Iudges (before whom he knoweth the determination of his cause resteth) which the Iudges them selues cannot abide to heare spoken at all? Or doeth not so much hinder his owne matter, that without all curtesie or preface made, will largely speake euill of those men, whom the hearers of his cause tenderly do fauour? Or be it that there be some notable fault in thine aduersarie, with which the Iudges also are infected, were it not folly for thee to charge thine aduersarie with the same. Considering the Iudges thereby may think, thou speakest against them also, and so thou maiest perhaps lose their fauour, in seeking such defence made without all discretion. And in framing reasons to confirme the purpose, if any be spoken plainly false, or els contrarie to that which was spoken before, doeth it not much hinder a good matter? Therefore in all causes this good heed ought to be had, that alwaies we labour to do some good in furthering of our cause, or if we cannot so doe, at the least that we do no harme at al.

There are three kindes of causes or Orations,
which serue for euery matter.
Orations or causes
of iii. kinds.
NOthing can be handled by this arte, but the same is conteined within one of these three causes. Either the matter consisteth in praise, or dispraise of a thing or els in consulting, whether the cause be profitable, or vnprofitable: or lastly, whether the matter be right or wrong. And yet this one thing is to be learned, that in euery one of these three causes, these three seuerall endes, may euery one of them be conteined in any one of them. And therefore, he that shall haue cause to praise any one bodie, shall haue iust cause to speake of Iustice, to entreate of profite, and ioyntly to talke of one thing with an other. But because these three causes, are commonly and for the most part seuerally parted, I will speake of them one after an other, as they are set forth by wise mens iudgements, and particularly declare their properties all in order.

Oration demonstratiue.
The Oration demonstratiue standeth either in praise, or dispraise of some one man, or of some one thing, or of some one deed doen.

The kind Demonstratiue, wherein
cheefly it standeth.
THere are diuers things which are praised and dispraised, as men, Countries, Cities, Places, Beastes, Hilles, Riuers, Houses, Castles, deedes doen by worthy men, and pollicies euented by great Warriors, but most commonly men are praised for diuers respectes, before any of the other things are taken in hande.

Noble persones, how
they should be praised.
Now in praysing a noble personage, and in setting foorth at large his worthinesse: Quintillian giueth warning, to vse this threefold order.

{ Before this life.
To obserue things. { In his life.

{ After his death.

Before a mans life, are considered these places.
{The Realme.
{The Sheire.
{The towne.
{The Parentes.
{The Auncesters.

IN a mans life, praise must bee parted threefolde. That is to say, into the giftes of good things of the mynde, the body, and of fortune. Now the giftes of the body & of fortune, are not praise worthy of their owne nature: but euen as they are vsed, either to or fro, so they are either praised, or dispraised. Giftes of the mind deserue the whole trompe & sound commendation aboue all other, wherein we may vse the rehearsal of vertues, as they are in order, and beginning at his infancie, tel all his doings till his last age.

The places whereof are these.
{ The birthe, and }
{Whether the persone be a
{     infancie.}
{man, or a woman.

{The brynging vp, the
{ The childhood. }
{nurturing, and the behauour

{of his life.
{ The Striplyng }
{To what study he taketh
{ age, or Springtide. } Whereunto {himself vnto, what company

are referred {he useth, how he liueth.
{ The mannes } these. {Prowesse doen, either
{ state. }
{abrode, or at home.

{His pollicies and wittie
{ The olde age. }
{deuises, in behoufe of the

{publique weale.
{ The tyme of his}
{Things that haue happened
{ departure, or }
{about his death.
{ death. }

NOw to open all these places more largely, as well those that are before a mannes life, as such as are in his life, and after his death, that the Reader may further see the profite will I doe the best I can.

The house or auncestrie
whereof a noble
personage commeth.
The house whereof a noble personage came, declares the state and natures of his auncesters, his alliance, and his kinsfolke. So that such worthie feates as they haue hertofore done, & al such honors as they haue had for such their good seruice, redounds wholy to the encrease and amplifying of his honor, that is now liuing.

ij. The Realme.
The Realme declares the nature of the people. So that some Countrey bringeth more honor with it, then an other doth. To be a French man, descending there of a noble house, is more honor then to be an Irish man: To bee an English man borne, is much more honor then to bee a Scot, because that by these men, worthie Prowesses haue beene done, and greater affaires by them attempted, then haue beene done by any other.

iij. The Shire
or Towne.
The Shire or Towne helpeth somewhat, towardes the encrease of honor: As it is much better to bee borne in Paris, then in Picardie: in London then in Lincolne. For that both the ayre is better, the people more ciuill, and the wealth much greater, and the men for the most part more wise.

iiij. The sexe or kinde.
To bee borne a manchilde, declares a courage, grauitie, and constancie. To be borne a woman, declares weakenesse of spirit, neshnesse of body, and ficklenesse of minde.

v. Education.
Now, for the bringing vp of a noble personage, his nurse must bee considered, his play fellowes obserued, his teacher and other his seruaunts called in remembraunces. How euery one of these liued then, with whom they haue liued afterwards, and how they liue now.

vi. Inclination of nature.
By knowing what he taketh himselfe vnto, and wherein hee most delighteth, I may commend him for his learning, for his skill in the French, or in the Italian, for his knowledge in Cosmographie: for his skill in the Lawes, in the histories of all Countries, and for his gift of enditing. Againe, I may commend him for playing at weapons, for running vpon a great Horse, for charging his staffe at the Tilt, for vawting, for playing vpon Instruments, yea, and for painting, or drawing of a Plat, as in old time noble Princes much delighted therein.

vij. Attempts worthie[.]
Prowesse done, declare his seruice to the King, and his Countrey, either in withstanding the outward enemie, or els in aswaging the rage of his owne Countreymen at home.

His wise counsaile, and good aduise giuen, sets forth the goodnesse of his wit.

ix. Time of departing
this world.
At the time of his departing, his sufferaunce of all sicknesse, may much commende his worthinesse. As his strong heart, and cherefull pacience euen to the ende, cannot want great praise. The loue of all men towards him, and the lamenting generally for his lacke, helpe well most highly to set forth his honour.

After departure.
After a mans death, are considered his Tombe, his Cote armour set vp, and all such honours as are vsed in Funeralles. If any one list to put these precepts in practise, he may doe as him liketh best. And surely I doe thinke, that nothing so
Duke of Suffolke,
and Lorde Charles.
much furthereth knowledge as dayly exercise, and enuring our selues to doe that in deede, which we knowe in worde. And because examples giue great light, after these precepts are set forth, I will commend two noble Gentlemen, Henry Duke of Suffolke, and his brother Lord Charles Duke with him.

An example of commending
a noble personage.
BEtter or more wisely can none do, then they which neuer bestowe praise, but vpon those that best deserue praise, rather minding discretely what they ought to doe, then vainely deuising what they best can doe, seeking rather to praise men, such as are found worthie, then curiously finding meanes to praise matters, such as neuer were in any. For they which speake otherwise then trueth is, minde not the commendation of the person, but the setting forth of their owne learning. As Gorgias in Plato, praysing vnrighteousnesse,
Heliogabalus Oratours commending whoredome, Phaphorinus the Philosopher, extolling the Feuer quartain, thought not to speake as the cause required, but would so much say as their witte would giue, not weighing the state of the cause, but minding the vaunt of their braine, looking how much could bee sayd, not passing how little should bee sayd. But I both knowing the might of Gods hande, for such as loue Fables, and the shame that in earth redoundeth to euill reporters, will not commend that in those, which neede no good praise, but will commend them that no man iustly can dispraise, nor yet any one is well able worthely to praise. Their towardnesse was such, and their giftes so great, that I know none which loue learning, but hath sorrowed the lacke of their being. And I knowe that the onely naming of them, will stirre honest hearts to speake well of them. I will speake of two bretheren that lately departed, the one Henry Duke of Suffolke, and the other Lord Charles his brother, whom GOD thinking meeter for heauen, then to liue here vpon earth, tooke from vs in his anger, for the bettering of our doinges, and amendment of our euill liuing. These two Gentlemen were borne in noble Englande, both by father and mother of an high parentage. The father called Duke Charles, by Mariage
Henry Duke of
Suffolke and
Lorde Charles
his brother.
beeing brother to the worthie King of famous memorie Henry the eight, was in such fauour, and did such seruice, that all England at this howre doth finde his lacke, and France yet doth feele that such a Duke there was, whom in his life time the Godly loued: the euill feared, the wise men honoured for his witte, and the simple vsed alwaies for their counsaile. Their mother of birth noble, and witte great, of nature gentle, and mercifull to the poore, and to the Godly, and especially to the learned an earnest good Patronesse, and most helping Ladie aboue all other. In their youth their father died, the eldest of them beeing not past nine yeares of age. After whose death, their mother knowing, that wealth without wit, is like a sworde in a naked mans hande, and assuredly certaine, that knowledge would confirme iudgement, prouided so for their bringing vp in all vertue and learning, that two like were not to bee had within this Realme againe. When they began both to ware somewhat in yeares, being in their primetide and spring of their age, the elder wayting on the Kings Maiestie that now is, was generally wel esteemed, and such hope was conceiued of his towardnesse, both for learning and al other things, that fewe were like vnto him in al the Court. The other keeping his booke among the Cambrige men profited (as they well knowe) both in vertue and learning, to their great admiration. For the Greeke, the Latine, and the Italian, I know he could do more, then would be thought true by my report. I leaue to speake of his skill in pleasant Instrumentes, neither will I vtter his aptnesse in Musicke, and his toward Nature, to all exercises of the body. But his elder brother in this time (besides his other giftes of the minde, which passed all other, and were almost incredible) following his fathers nature, was so delited with ryding, and runnyng in armour vpon horsebacke, and was so comely for that fact, and could dooe so well in charging his Staffe, beeing but xiiii. yeeres of age, that men of warre, euen at this howre, mone much the want of such a worthy Gentleman. Yea, the French men that first wondered at his learning, when he was there among them, and made a notable oration in Latine: were much more astonied when they sawe his comely riding, and little thought to finde these two ornaments ioyned both in one, his yeares especially being so tender, and his practise of so small tyme. Afterward comming from the Court, as one that was desirous to be among the learned, he lay in Cambridge together with his brother, where they both so profited, and so gently vsed themselues, that all Cambridge did reuerence, both him and his brother, as two Iewels sent from God. The elders nature was such, that hee thought himself best, when he was among the wisest, and yet contemned none, but thankfully vsed al, gentle in behauiour without childishnesse, stout of stomack without al pride, bold with all warenesse, and friendly with good aduisement. The yonger being not so ripe in yeres, was not so graue in looke, rather cherefull, then sad: rather quicke, then auncient: but yet if his brother were set aside, not one that went beyond him. A child, that by his owne inclination, so much yeelded to his ruler, as few by chastment haue done the like: pleasant of speech, prompt of wit, stirring by nature, hault without hate, kind without craft, liberall of heart, gentle in behauiour, forward in all things, greedie of learning, & loth to take a foile in any open assembly. They both in all attempts, sought to haue the victorie, and in exercise of wit, not only the one with the other, did oft stand in contention, but also they both would match with the best, and thought them selues most happie, when they might haue any iust occasion, to put their wittes in triall. And now when this greene fruite began to waxe ripe, and all men longed to haue a taste of such their great forwardnesse: God preuenting mans expectation, tooke them both about one howre, and in so shorte time, that first they were knowne to be dead, or any abroad could tel they were sicke. I neede not to rehearse, what both they spake, before their departure (considering, I haue seuerally written, both in Latine and in English, of the same matter) neither will I heape here so much together, as I can, because I should rather renew great sorrow to many, then doe most men any great good, who loued them so well generally, that fewe for a great space after, spake of these two Gentlemen, but they shewed teares, with the only vtterance of their wordes, and some through ouer much sorrowing, were faine to forbeare speaking. GOD graunt vs all to liue, that the good men of this world, may bee alwaies loth to forsake vs, and God may still be glad to haue vs, as no doubt these two children so died, as all men should wish to liue, and so they liued both, as al should wish to dye. Seeing therefore, these two were such, both for birth, nature, and all other giftes of grace, that the like are hardly found behind them: Let vs so speak of them, that our good reporte may warne vs, to followe their godly natures, and that lastly, we may enioye that inheritance, whereunto God hath prepared them and vs (that feare him) from the beginning. Amen.

{The Enteraunce.
The partes of an {The Narration.
Oration made in {Sometimes the confutation.
praise of a man. {The Conclusion.

IF any one shall haue iust cause, to dispraise an euill man, he shall sone doe it, if he can praise a good man. For (as Aristotle doth say) of contraries, there is one and the same doctrine, and therefore, hee that can doe the one, shall soone bee able to doe the other.

Of an Oration demonstratiue,
for some deede done.
Oration demonstratiue
of a deede.
THe kind demonstratiue of some thing done, is this, when a man is commended, or dispraised, for any act committed in his life.
The places to confirme this cause, why any one
is commended, are sixe in number.

{i. It is honest.

{ii. It is possible.
The places of confirmation. {iii. Easie to be done.

{iiii. Hard to be done.

{v. Possible to be done.

{vi. Impossible to be done.

Seuen circumstaunces, which are to bee considered in diuers matters.

{i. Who did the deede.

{ii. What was done.
The circumstaunces. {iii. Where it was done.

{iiii. What helpe had he to doe it.

{v. Wherefore he did it.

{vi. How he did it.

{vii. At what time he did it.

The circumstaunces in Meter.
Who, what, and where, by what helpe, and by whose:
Why, how, and when, doe many things disclose.

THese places helpe vonderfully to set out any matter, and to amplifie it to the vttermost, not onely in praysing, or dispraysing, but also in all other causes, where any aduisement is to bee vsed. Yet this one thing is to be learned, that it shal not be necessarie to vse them altogether, euen as they stand in order: but rather as time and place shall best require, they may be vsed in any part of the Oration, euen as it shall please him that hath the vsing of them. Againe, if any man be disposed to rebuke any offence, he may vse the places contrary vnto them, that are aboue rehearsed, and applie these circumstaunces, euen as they are, to the proofe of his purpose.

An example of commending King Dauid, for killing great Goliah,
gathered and made, by obseruation of circumstances.
Dauid commended
for killing Goliah.
GOD being the aucthour of mankinde, powring into him the breath of life, and framing him of clay, in such a comely wise as wee all now see, hath from the beginning, beene so carefull ouer his elect and chosen, that in al daungers, he is euer readie to assist his people, keeping them harmlesse, when they were often past all mans hope. And among all other his fatherly goodnesse, it pleased him to shewe his power to his chosen seruaunt Dauid, that al might learne
Who? Dauid
against Goliah.
to knowe his might, and recken with themselues, that though man giue the stroke, yet God it is that giueth the ouerhand. For wher as Dauid was of small stature, weake of bodie, poore of birth, and base in the sight of the worldlings, God called him first to match with an huge monster, a little bodie, against a mightie Gyaunt, an abiect Israelite, against a most valiaunt Philistine, with whom no Israelite durst encounter. These Philistines, trusting in their owne strength so much that they feared no perrill, but made an accompt, that all was theirs before hand. Now, when both these armies were in sight, the Philistines vpon an hill of the one side, and the Israelites vpon an hill of the other side, a vale beeing betwixt them both, there marched out of the Campe, a base borne Philistine, called Goliah of Geth, a man of sixe Cubites high. This Souldier, when through his bignesse and stature of his bodie, and also with great bragges, and terrible threatninges, he had wonderfully abashed the whole Armie of the Israelites, so that no man durst aduenture vpon him. God to the end he might deliuer Israell, and shew that mans helpe, with all his armour, litle auaile to get victorie, without his especiall grace: and againe, to the end he might set vp Dauid, and make him honourable among the Israelites, did then call out Dauid, the sonne of Ephrateus, of Bethleem Iuda, whose name was Isaie,
What? Dauid
killed Goliah.
Where? About
the vale of
who being but a childe in yeres, did kill out of hand, by Gods might and power, Goliath the most terrible enemie of all other, that bare hate against the children of Israell. When this mightie fellowe was slaine, about the vale of Terebinthus, betwixt both the Armies, the Israelites reioysed, that before quaked, and wondered at him then, whom they would scant knowe before, and no doubt this deede was not only wonderfull, but also right godly. For in battaile to kill an enemie, is thought right worthie, or to aduenture vpon a Rebell (though the successe followe not) is generally commended, yea, to put one to the worse, or to make him flie the ground, is called manly, but what shal we say of Dauid, that not onely had the better hande, not onely bet his enemie, but killed streight his enemie, yea, and not an enemie of the common stature of men, but a mightie Gyant, not a man, but a
Dauids enterprise, honest
& godly. By what help,
& by whose, alone and
without the helpe of
any man liuing.
monster, yea, a deuill in heart, and a beast in bodie? Can any be compted more honest then such as seeke to saue their Countrey, by hassarding their carcasses, and shedding of their bloud? Can loue shew it self greater, then by yeelding of life, for the health of an army? It had been much, if halfe a dosen had dispatched such a terrible Giaunt, but now, when Dauid without helpe, being not yet a man but a boye in yeares, slewe him hand to hand, what iust praise doth he deserue? If we praise other, that haue slaine euil men, and compt them haultie, that haue killed their matches, what shall wee say of Dauid, that being wonderfully ouermatched, made his partie
Dauids enterprise,
praise worthie.
good, and got the Gole of a Monster. Let other praise Hercules, that thinke best of him: let Cæsar, Alexander, and Hanniball, bee bruted for Warriers: Dauid in my iudgement, both did more manly, then all the other were able, and serued his Countrey in greater daunger, then euer any one of them did. And shall we not call such a noble Captaine, a good man of warre. Deserueth not his manhoode and stout attempt, wonderfull praise? If vertue could speake, would she not sone
Why? for the sauegard
of his Countrie.
confesse, that Dauid had her in full possession? And therefore, if well doinges, by right may chalenge worthie Brute, Dauid will be knowne, and neuer can want due praise, for such an honest deede. And what man will not say, but that Dauid did minde nothing els herein, but the sauegarde of his Countrey, thinking it better for himselfe to dye, and his Countrey to liue, then himselfe to liue, and his Countrey to dye. What gaine got Dauid, by the death of Goliath, or what could he hope, by the death of such a Monster, but onely that the loue which he bare to the Israelites, forced him to hassarde his
Dauids enterprise, profitable
to himself and his Countrey.
owne life: thinking that if the Philistines should preuaile, the Israelites were like to perrish, euery mothers sonne of them? Therefore, hee hassarding this attempt, considered with himselfe, the sauegarde of the Israelites, the maintenaunce of Iustice, his duetie towards GOD, his obedience to his Prince, and his loue to his Countrey. And no doubt, God made
Dauids enterprise, appereth
easie to himselfe.
this enterprise appere full easie, before Dauid could haue the heart to match himselfe with such a one. For though his heart might quake, being voyde of Gods helpe, yet assuredly he wanted no stomacke, when God did set him on. Let Tyraunts rage, let Hell stande open, let Sathan shewe his might, if God be with vs, who can be against vs? Though this Goliah appeared so strong, that ten Dauids were not able to stande in his hande: yet tenne Goliahs were all euer weake for Dauid alone. Man can not judge, neither can reason comprehend the mightie power of God.

When Pharao with all his Armie, thought fully to destroye the children of Israell in the red Sea, did not God preserue Moses, and destroyed Pharao? What is man, and all his power that he can make, in the handes of GOD, vnto whom all creatures both in heauen and in earth, are subiect at his commaundement? Therefore, it was no masterie for Dauid, beeing assisted with GOD, aswell to match with the whole
Dauids enterprise
accompted of his
friends hard and
Armie, as to ouerthrow this one man. But what did the Israelites, when they sawe Dauid take vppon him such a bolde enterprise? Some sayd he was rash, other mocked him to scorne, and his brethren called him foole. For thought they, what a mad fellowe is he, being but a lad in yeares, to match with such a monster in bodie? How can it be possible otherwise, but that he shall be torne in peeces, euen at the first comming? For if the Philistine may once hit him, he is gon though he had ten mens liues. Now what should he meane, so vnegally to match himselfe, except he were wearie of his life, or els were not well in his wittes? Yea, and to giue his enemies all the aduauntage that could be, he came vnarmed, and whereas the Philistine had very strong Armour, both to defende himselfe, and a strong weapon to fight withall: Dauid came with a Sling onely, as though he would
How? with
a Sling.
kill Crowes, whereat, not onely the Philistine laughed and disdained his follie, but also both the Armies thought he was but a dead man, before he gaue one stroke. And in deede, by all reason and deuise of man, there was none other way, but death with him out of hande. Dauid notwithstanding, beeing kindeled in heart, with Gods might, was strong enough for him, in his owne opinion, and forced nothing though all other were much against him. And therefore, made no more a doe, but being readie to reuenge in Gods name, such great blasphemie, as the Philistine then did vtter: marched towarde his enemie, and with casting a stone out of a Sling, he ouerthrew the Philistine at the first. The which when he had done, out with his sworde and chopt of his head, carying it with his armour, to the Campe of the Israelites: whereat the Philistines were greatly astonied, and the Israelites much praised GOD, that had giuen such grace to such a one, to compasse such a deede. And the rather this manly act, is highly to bee praised, because he subdued this huge enemie, when Saull first reigned King of Israel, and was sore assailed with the great armie of the Philistines. Let vs therefore that be now liuing, when this act or such like, come into our mindes: remember what God is, of how infinite power he is, and let vs praise God in them, by whom he hath wrought such wonders, to the strengthning of our faith, and constaunt keeping of our profession, made to him by euery one of vs in our Baptisme.

Examining of the circumstaunces.
i. Who did the deede?
DAuid beeing an Israelite, did this deede, beeing the sonne of Isaie, of the tribe of Iuda, a boye in yeares. This circumstaunce was vsed, not onely in the narration, but also when I spake of the honesty and godlinesse, which Dauid vsed, when he slue Goliah.
ii. What was done?
He slue Goliah, the strongest Giaunt among the Philistines. This circumstance I vsed also, when I spake of the honestie, in killing Goliah.
iii. Where was it done?
About the vale of Terebinthus.
iiii. What helpe had he to it?
He had no help of any man but went himself alone. And whereas, Saull offered him Harnesse, he cast it away, and trusting only in God, tooke him to his Sling, with fower or fiue small stones in his hand, the which were thought nothing in mans sight, able either to doe little good, or els nothing at all. This circumstaunce I vsed, when I spake of the easinesse and possibilitie, that was in Dauid to kill Goliah, by Gods helpe.
v. Wherefore did he it?
He aduentured his life, for the loue of his Countrey, for the maintenance of iustice, for the aduauncement of Gods true glorie, and for the quietnesse of all Israel, neither seeking fame, nor yet looking for any gaine. I vsed this circumstance when I shewed what profite he sought in aduenturing this deede.
vi. How did he it?
Marie, he put a stone in his Sling, and when he had cast it at the Philistine Goliah fell downe straight. I vsed this circumstaunce, when I spake of the impossibilitie of the thing.
vii. What time did he it?
This deede was done, when Saull reigned first King ouer the Israelites, at what time the Philistines came against the Israelites. Thus by the circumstaunces of things, a right worthie cause may be plentifully enlarged.
Of the Oration demonstratiue, where things are
set forth, and matter commended.
THE kind demonstratiue of things, is a meane wherby we doe praise, or dispraise things, as Vertue, Vice, Townes, Cities, Castelles, Woodes, Waters, Hilles and Mountaines.
Places to confirme things are fower.

{i. Things honest.

{ii. Profitable.
Places of confirmation. {iii. Easie to be done.

{iiii. Hard to be done.

MAny learned will haue recourse to the places of Logicke, in steede of these fower places, when they take in hand to commend any such matter. The which places if they make them serue, rather to commende the matter, then onely to teach men the trueth of it, it were wel done, and Oratour like, for seing a man wholly bestoweth his witte to play the Oratour, he should chiefly seeke to compasse that, which he entendeth, and not doe that only which he neuer minded, for by plaine teaching, the Logician shewes himselfe, by large amplification, and beautifying of his cause, the Rhetorician is alwaies knowne.

The places of Logicke are these.
{Things adioyning.

I Doe not see otherwise, but that these places of Logicke are confounded with the other fower of confirmation, or rather I thinke these of Logicke must first bee minded, ere the other
Logicke must be learned for
confirmation of causes.
can well be had. For what is he, that can cal a thing honest, and by reason proue it, except he first know what the thing is: the which he cannot better doe, then by defining the nature of the thing. Againe, how shall I know, whether mine attempt be easie or hard if I know not the efficient cause, or be assured how it may be done. In affirming it to bee possible, I shall not better knowe it then by searching the ende, and learning by Logicke, what is the finall cause of euery thing.

An example in commendation of
Iustice, or true dealing.
Iustice commended.
SO many as looke to liue in peaceable quietnesse, being minded rather to follow reason, then to be led by wilfull affection: desire Iustice in all things, without the which no countrey is able long to continue. Then may I be bolde to commende that, which all men wish, and fewe can haue, which all men loue, and none can want: not doubting, but as I am occupied in a good thing, so al good men will heare me with a good will. But would God I were so well able, to perswade all men to Iustice, as all men knowe the necessarie vse thereof: and then vndoubtedly, I would bee much bolder, and force some by violence, which by faire wordes cannot bee entreated. And yet what needes any perswasion for that thing, which by nature is so needfull, & by experience so profitable, that looke what we want, without Iustice we get not, looke what we haue: without Iustice wee keepe not. God graunt vs his grace so to worke in the hearts of al men, that they may aswell practise well doing in their owne life, as they would that other should followe Iustice in their life: I for my part will bestowe some labour, to set forth the goodnesse of vpright dealing, that all other men the rather may doe thereafter. That if through my wordes, GOD shall worke with any man, then may I thinke my selfe in happie case, and reioyce much in the trauaile of my witte. And how can it be otherwise, but that all men shalbe forced inwardly to
Iustice naturally in
euery one of vs.
allow that, which in outwarde act many doe not followe: seeing God powred first this lawe of nature, into mans heart, and graunted it as a meane, whereby wee might knowe his will, and (as I might saye) talke with him, grounding still his doinges vppon this poinct, that man should doe as he would bee done vnto, the which is nothing els, but to liue vprightly, without any will to hurt his neighbour. And therefore, hauing this light of Gods will opened vnto vs, through his mere goodnesse, we ought euermore, to referre all our actions vnto this ende, both in giuing iudgement, and deuising Lawes
Iustice what it is,
and how largely it
necessarie for mans life. And hereupon it is, that when men desire the Lawe, for triall of a matter, they meane nothing els but to haue Iustice, the which Iustice is a vertue that yeeldeth to euery man his owne: to the euer liuing God loue aboue all things: to the King obedience: to the inferiour good counsaile: to the poore man, mercy: to the hatefull and wicked, sufferaunce: to it self, trueth: and to all men, perfite peace and charitie. Now, what can be more saied, in praise of this vertue, or what thing can be like praised? Are not all things in good case, when all men haue their owne? And what other thing doth Iustice, but seeketh meanes to content all parties? Then how greatly are they to be praised, that meane truely in al their doinges, not onely doe no harme to any, but seeke meanes to helpe al. The Sunne is not so wonderfull to the world (saith Aristotle) as the iust dealing of
a gouernour, is marueilous to all men. No, the earth yeeldeth no more gaine to all creatures, then doth the Iustice of a Magistrate, to his whole Realme. For by a Lawe, we liue, and take the fruites of the earth, but where no Lawe is, nor Iustice vsed: there nothing can bee had, though all thinges be at hand: for in hauing the thing, we shall lacke the vse, and liuing in great plentie, wee shall stande in great neede. The meane therefore, that maketh men to enioye their owne, is Iustice, the which being once taken away, all other thinges are lost with it, neither can any one saue that he hath, nor
Wrong dealing
deserueth death.
yet get that he wanteth. Therefore, if wrong doing should be borne withall, and not rather punished by death, what man could liue in rest? Who could bee sure either of his life, or of his liuing one whole day together? Now, because euery man desireth the preseruation of himselfe, euery man should in like case desire the sauegard of his neighbour. For if I should wholly minde myne owne ease, and followe gaine without respect, to the hinderaunce of myne euen Christian: why should not other vse the same libertie, and so euery man for himselfe, and the Deuill for vs al, catch that catch may? The which custome if all men followed, the earth would sone be voyd, for want of men one would be so greedy to eate vp an other. For in seeking to liue, wee would lose our liues, and in gaping after goodes, wee should soone goe naked. Therefore, to represse this rage, and with wholsome deuises to traine men in an order, GOD hath lightened man with knowledge, that in all thinges he may see what is right, and what
Iustice necessarie
for all men.
is wrong, and vpon good aduisement deale iustly with all men. God hath created all thinges for mans vse, and ordeined man, for mans sake, that one man might helpe an other. For though some one haue giftes more plentifully then the common sorte, yet no man can liue alone, without helpe of other. Therefore wee should striue one to helpe an other by iust dealing, some this way, and some that way, as euery one
From the lesse
to the greater.
shal haue neede, and as we shalbe alwaies best able, wherein the lawe of nature is fulfilled, and Gods commaundement followed. Wee loue them here in earth, that giue vs faire wordes, and wee can bee content, to speake well of them, that speake well of vs? and shall we not loue them, and take them also for honest men, which are contented from time to time, to yeeld euery man his owne, and rather would dye then consent to euill doing: If one be gentle in outward behauiour, we like him well, and shall we not esteeme him that is vpright in his outward liuing? And like as wee desire, that other should bee to vs, ought not wee to bee likewise,
Young Storkes.
affected towardes them? Euen among brute Beastes, nature hath appointed a lawe, and shall wee men liue without a lawe? The Storke being not able to feede her self for age, is fed of her young ones, wherein is declared a naturall loue, and shall wee so liue that one shall not loue an other? Man should be vnto man as a God, & shal man be vnto man as a deuil? Hath
Vnnaturalnesse in
man towards God.
God created vs, and made vs to his owne likenesse, enduing vs with all the riches of the earth, that wee might bee obedient to his will, and shall wee neither loue his, nor like his? How can we say that we loue God, if there be no charitie in vs? Doe I loue him, whose minde I will not followe, although it be right honest? If you loue me (sayth Christ) followe my Commaundements. Christes will is such, that wee should
Ihon xiiii.
Math. xix.
Mark. x.
Prouer. xvi.
Prouer. iiii.
Psal. xcvi.
Profite of Iustice.
loue God aboue all things, and our neighbour as our self. Then if we doe not iustice (wherein loue doth consist) we do neither loue man, nor yet loue God. The Wiseman saith: The beginning of a good life, is to doe Iustice. Yea, the blessing of the Lord, is vpon the head of the iust. Heauen is theirs (saith Dauid) that doe iustly from time to time. What els then shall we doe, that haue any hope of the generall resurrection, but doe the will of God, and liue iustly all the daies of our life? Let euery man, but consider with himselfe, what ease he shall finde thereby, and I doubt not, but euery one deepely waying the same, will in heart confesse, that Iustice maketh plentie, & that no man could long hold his own if lawes were not made, to restraine mans will. We trauaile now, Winter and Sommer, we watch and take thought, for maintenaunce of wife and children, assuredly purposing (that though God shall take vs immediatly) to
Sauegard had
by Iustice.
leaue honestly for our familie. Now, to what ende were all our gathering together, if iust dealing were set a side, if Lawes bare no rule, if that the wicked list, that they may, and what they may, that they can, and what they can, that they dare, & what they dare, the same they doe, & whatsoeuer they doe, no man of power is agreeued therwith? What maketh wicked men (which els would not) acknowledge the King as their soueraigne Lord, but the power of a law, & the practise of Iustice for euill doers? Could a Prince maintaine his state
The necessitie
of Iustice.
royall, if law and right had not prouided, that euery man should haue his owne? Would seruaunts obeye their maisters, the sonne his father, the Tenaunt his Landlord, the Citezein his Maior or Sherief if orders were not set, & iust dealing appointed for all states of men? Therfore, the true meaning folke in al ages giue themselues some to this occupation, and some to that, seking therin nothing els but to maintain a poore life, and to kepe themselues true men, both to GOD and the world. What maketh men to performe their bargaines, to stand to their promises, and yeeld their debtes, but an order of a law grounded vpon Iustice? Where right beareth rule,
Where iustice is
executed, vice is
there craft is compted vice. The liar is much hated, where trueth is well esteemed. The wicked theeues are hanged, where good men are regarded. None can hold vp their heads, or dare shewe their faces, in a well ruled common weale, that are not thought honest, or at the least haue some honest way to liue. The Egiptians therefore, hauing a worthy and a wel gouerned commonweale, prouided that none should liue idly, but that euery one monthly should giue an accompt,
Egiptians, what order
they vsed to banish
how he spent his time, and had his name regestred in a booke for the same purpose. But Lord, if this law were vsed in England, how many would come behind hand with their reckenings at the audite day. I feare me their doings would be such, that it would be long ere they got their quietus est. Therfore the worse is our state, the lesse that this euill is looked vnto. And surely, if in other thinges wee should bee as negligent, this Realme could not long stand. But thankes be to God, wee hang them a pace, that offend a lawe, and therefore, wee put it to their choyce, whether they wilbe idle, and so fall to stealing or no? they knowe their reward, goe to it when they wil. But if therewithal some good order were taken, for education of youth, and setting loyterers on worke (as thanks be to God, the Citie is most godly bent that way) all would sone be well, without all doubt. The wise and discrete persons in al ages, sought all meanes possible, to haue an order in all thinges, and loued by Iustice to direct all their doinges, whereby appeareth both an apt will in such men, and a naturall stirring by Gods power, to make all men
Iustice, easie to
be obserued if will
be not wanting.
good. Therefore if we do not well, we must blame our selues, that lack a will, & do not call to God for grace. For though it appere hard to do wel, because no man can get perfection, without continuance: yet assuredly to an humble mind that calleth to God, & to a willing heart that faine would do his best, nothing can be hard. God hath set al things to sale for labor, & keepeth open shop come who wil. Therefore in all ages, whereas we see the fewest good we must well thinke, the most did lacke good will to aske, or seeke for the same. Lord what loue had that worthie Prince Seleucus to maintaine Iustice, and to haue good lawes kept, of whom such a wonderfull thing is written. For whereas he established most wholesome lawes, for sauegard of the Locrensians, and his owne sonne thereupon taken in adultery, should lose both his eyes, according to the lawe then made, and yet notwithstanding, the whole Citie thought, to remit the necessitie of his punishment, for the honour of his father,
Valer. li. vi.
Seleucus would none of that in any wise. Yet at last, through importunitie being ouercome, he caused first one of his own eyes to be pluckt out, and next after, one of his sonnes eyes, leauing onely the vse of sight, to himselfe and his sonne. Thus through equitie of the law, he vsed the due meane of chastisement, shewing himselfe by a wonderfull temperature, both a mercifull father, and a iust law maker. Now happie are they that thus obserue a Lawe, thinking losse of bodie, lesse hurt to the man, then sparing of punishment, meete for the soule. For GOD will not faile them, that haue such a desire to followe his will, but for his promise sake, he will rewarde them for euer. And now, seing that Iustice naturally is giuen to al men, without the which he could not liue, being warned also by GOD, alwaies to doe vprightly, perceiuing againe the commodities, that redounde vnto vs, by liuing vnder a Lawe, and the sauegarde, wherein we stand, hauing Iustice to assist vs: I trust that not onely all men, will commend Iustice in worde, but also will liue iustly in deede, the which that we may doe: God graunt vs of his grace. Amen.
An Oration deliberatiue.
AN Oration deliberatiue, is a meane, whereby we doe perswade, or disswade, entreate, or rebuke, exhorte, or dehort, commend, or comforte any man. In this kind of Oration, wee doe not purpose wholy to praise any bodie, nor yet to determine any matter in controuersie, but the whole compasse of this cause is, either to aduise our neighbour to that thing, which wee thinke most needefull for him, or els to call him backe from that follie, which hindereth much his estimation. As for example, if I would counsaile my friend to trauaile beyond the Seas, for knowledge of the tongues, and experience in forraine Countries: I might resort to this kinde of Oration, and finde matter to confirme my cause plentifully. And the reasons, which are commonly vsed to enlarge such matters, are these that followe.
{The thing is honest.

{Lawfull and meete.

{Praise worthie.

Honestie comprehendeth
all vertues.

NOW in speaking of honestie, I may by deuision of the vertues make a large walke. Againe, looke what lawes, what customes, what worthie deedes, or sayinges haue been vsed heretofore, all these might serue well for the confirmation of this matter, lastly where honestie is called in to establish a cause: there is nature and GOD himselfe present, from
Profite how largely it
extendeth. Profite beareth
the name of goodnesse,
which is three folded.
whom commeth all goodnesse. In the seconde place, where I spake of profite, this is to be learned, that vnder the same is comprehended the getting of gaine, and the eschuing of harme. Againe, concerning profite (which also beareth the name of goodnesse) it partly perteineth to the bodie, as beautie, strength, and health, partly to the minde, as the encrease of witte, the getting of experience, and heaping together of much learning: and partly to fortune (as Philosophers take it) whereby both wealth, honour, and friends are gotten. Thus he that deuideth profite cannot want matter. Thirdly, in declaring it is pleasant, I might heape together
Pleasures, largely
set out.
the varietie of pleasures, which come by trauaile, first the sweetnesse of the tongue, the wholesomnes of the ayre in other Countries, the goodly wittes of the Gentlemen, the straunge and auncient buildings, the wonderfull Monuments, the great learned Clarkes in al faculties, with diuers otherlike, & almost infinite pleasures.

Easinesse of
The easinesse of trauaile, may thus be perswaded, if we shewe that free passage is by wholesome lawes appointed, for al straungers and way fairers. And seeing this life is none other thing but a trauell, and we as Pilgrimes, wander from place to place, much fondnesse it were to thinke that hard, which nature hath made easie, yea, and pleasaunt also. None are more healthfull, none more lustie, none more merrie, none more strong of bodie, then such as haue trauailed Countries.
Trauaile vnto whom
it is hard.
Mary vnto them, that had rather sleepe al day, then wake one houre (chosing for any labor, slothfull idlenesse) thinking this life to be none other, but a continuall resting place, vnto such pardie, it shall seeme painefull to abide any labour. To learne Logicke, to learne the Law, to some it seemeth so hard, that nothing can enter into their heades: and the reason is, that they want a will, and an earnest minde, to doe their endeuour.
Good will makes great
burdeines light.
For vnto a willing heart, nothing can be hard, lay lode on such a mans back and his good heart, may soner make his backe to ake, then his good will can graunt to yeeld, and refuse the weight. And now where the sweete hath his sower ioyned with him, it shalbe wisedome to speake somewhat of it, to mitigate the sowernesse thereof, as much as may be possible.

That is lawfull and praise worthie, which Lawes doe graunt, good men doe allowe, experience commendeth, and men in all ages haue most vsed.

Necessary two
waies taken.
A thing is necessarie two maner of waies. First, when either wee must doe some one thing, or els doe worse. As if one should threaten a woman, to kill her if she would not lye with him, wherein appeareth a forcible necessitie. As touching trauaile we might say, either a man must bee ignoraunt of many good thinges, and want great experience, or els he must trauaile. Now to be ignoraunt, is a great shame, therefore to trauaile is most needfull, if we will auoyde shame. The other kind of necessitie is, when wee perswade men to beare those thinges paciently, when wee perswade men to beare those crosses paciently, which God doth send vs, considering, will we, or nill we, needes must we abide them.

To aduise one, to studie the lawes of England.
Lawes of England.
AGaine, when we see our frend enclined to any kind of learning, we must counsaile him to take that way still, and by reason perswade him, that it were the meetest way for him to doe his Countrie most good. As if he giue his minde to the lawes of the Realme, and finde an aptnesse therunto, we may aduise him, to continue in his good entent, and by reason perswade him, that it were most meete for him so to do.
Vertues especiall &
chief, fower in number.
And first we might shewe him that the studie is honest and godly, considering it onely foloweth Iustice, and is grounded wholy vpon naturall reason. Wherein we might take a large scope, if we should fully speake of all thinges, that are comprehended vnder honestie. For he that will knowe what honestie is, must haue an vnderstanding, of all the vertues together. And because the knowledge of them is most necessarie, I will briefly set them forth. There are fower especiall and chief vertues, vnder whom all other are comprehended.
{Prudence, or wisedome.
what it is.
PRudence, or wisedome (for I will here take them both for one) is a vertue that is occupied euermore in searching out the trueth. Now, we all loue knowledge, and haue a desire to passe other therin, and think it shame to be ignoraunt: and by studying the lawe, the trueth is gotten out, by knowing the trueth, wisedome is attained. Wherefore, in perswading one to studie the lawe, you may shewe him, that he shall get wisedome thereby. Vnder this vertue are comprehended.

Partes of Prudence.
THE memorie, calleth to accompt those things, that were done heretofore, and by a former remembraunce getteth an after wit, and learneth to auoyde deceipt.

Vnderstanding, seeth thinges presently done, and perceiueth what is in them, weighing and debating them, vntill his minde be fully contented.

Foresight, is a gathering by coniectures, what shall happen, and an euident perceiuing of thinges to come, before they doe come.

Iustice, what it is.
Iustice is a vertue, gathered by long space, giuing euery one his owne, minding in all thinges, the common profite of our Countrey, whereunto man is most bound and oweth his full obedience.

Now, Nature first taught man, to take this way, and would euery one so to doe vnto an other, as he would be doen vnto himselfe. For whereas Raine watereth al in like, the Sunne shineth indifferently ouer all, the fruite of the earth encreaseth equally. God warneth vs to bestowe our good will after the same sorte, doing as duetie bindeth vs, and as necessitie shall best require. Yea, God graunteth his giftes diuersly among men, because hee would man should knowe and feele, that man is borne for man, and that one hath neede of an other. And therefore though nature hath not stirred some, yet through the experience that man hath, concerning his commoditie:
Nature, what it is.
many haue turned the lawe of nature into an ordinarie custome, and followed the same as though they were bound to it by a law. Afterward, the wisedome of Princes, and the feare of Gods threate, which was vttered by his worde, forced men by a lawe, both to allowe things confirmed by nature, and to beare with old custome, or els they should not onely suffer in body temporall punishment, but also lose their soules for euer. Nature is a right that phantasie hath not framed, but God hath graffed and giuen man power thereunto, whereof these are deriued.
{Religion, and acknowledging of God.
{Naturall loue to our children, and other.
{Thankfulnesse to all men.
{Stoutnesse, both to withstand and reuenge.
{Reuerence to the superiour.
{Assured and constaunt trueth in things.

REligion, is an humble worshipping of GOD, acknowledging him to be the creatour of Creatures, and the onely giuer of all good things.

Naturall loue.
Naturall loue, is an inward good will, that we beare to our parents, wife, children, or any other that be nigh of kinne vnto vs, stirred thereunto not onely by our flesh, thinking that like as we would loue our selues, so wee should loue them, but also by a likenesse of minde: and therefore generally we loue all, because all be like vnto vs, but yet we loue them most, that both in bodie and mynd be most like vnto vs. And hereby it commeth, that often we are liberall and bestowe our goodes vpon the needie, remembring that they are all one flesh with vs, and should not want when we haue it, without our great rebuke and token of our most vnkind dealing.

Thankfulnesse is a requiting of loue, for loue, and will, for will, shewing to our freendes, the like goodnesse that we finde in them: yea, striuing to passe them in kindnesse, losing neither time nor tide to doe them good.

Stoutnesse to withstand and reuenge euil, is then vsed when either we are like to haue harme, & doe withstand it, or els when we haue suffered euill for the trueth sake, and thereupon doe reuenge it, or rather punish the euill, which is in the man.

Reuerence, is an humblenesse in outward behauour, when we doe our duetie to them, that are our betters, or vnto such as are called to serue the King in some greate vocation.

Assured and
constant trueth.
Assured and constant trueth is, when we do beleeue that those things, which are, or haue bene, or hereafter are about to be, can not otherwise be, by any meanes possible.

Right by custome.
That is right by custome, which long time hath confirmed, being partly grounded vpon nature, & partly vpon reason, as where wee are taught by nature, to knowe the euer liuing God, and to worship him in spirite, we turning natures light, into blind custome, without Gods will, haue vsed at length
Custome with our
natures ground
to beleeue, that he was really with vs here in earth, and worshipped him not in spirite, but in Copes, in Candlesticks, in Belles, in Tapers, and in Censers, in Crosses, in Banners, in shauen Crownes, and long Gownes, and many good morowes els, deuised only by the phantasie of man, without the expresse will of God. The which childish toyes, time hath so long confirmed, that the trueth is scant able to trie them out, our hearts be so hard, and our wits be so far to seeke. Again, where we see by nature, that euery one should deale truely, custome encreaseth natures wil, & maketh by auncient demeane things to be iustly obserued, which nature hath appointed.

As {Commons, or equalitie.

{Iudgement giuen.

BArgaining is, when two haue agreed for the sale of some one thing, the one will make his fellowe to stand to the bargaine though it be to his neighbours vndoing, resting vpon this point, that a bargaine is a bargaine, and must stande without all exception, although nature requireth to haue things doen by conscience, and would that bargaining should be builded vpon iustice, whereby an vpright dealing, and a charitable loue, is vttered amongst all men.

Commons or equalitie, is when the people by long time haue a ground, or any such thing among them, the which some of them will keep still for custome sake, and not suffer it to be fenced, and so turned to pasture, though they might gaine ten times the value: but such stubburnesse in keeping of commons for custome sake, is not standing with Iustice, because it is holden against al right.

Iudgement giuen.
Iudgement giuen, is when a matter is confirmed by a Parliament, or a Lawe, determined by a Iudge, vnto the which many hedstrong men will stand to dye for it, without sufferaunce of any alteration, not remembring the circumstaunce of things, and that time altereth good actes.

Right by Lawe.
That is right by a law, when the trueth is vttered in writing, and commaunded to be kept, euen as it is set forth vnto them.

Fortitude or manhood.
FOrtitude, is a considerate hassarding vpon daunger, and a willing heart to take paines, in behalfe of the right. Now, when can stoutnesse be better vsed, then in a iust maintenaunce of the Lawe, and constaunt trying of the trueth: Of this vertue, there are fower branches.

HOnorablenesse is a noble ordering of weightie matters, with a lustie heart, and a liberall vsing of his wealth, to encrease of honour.

Stoutnesse, is an assured trust in himselfe, when he mindeth the compasse of most weightie matters, and a couragious defending of his cause.

Sufferaunce, is a willing and a long bearing of trouble and taking of paines: for the maintenaunce of vertue, and the wealth of his Countrey.

Continuance, is a stedfast and constaunt abiding, in a purposed and well aduised matter, not yeelding to any man in quarell of the right.

TEmperance, is a measuring of affections according to the will of reason, and a subduing of lust vnto the Square of honestie. Yea, and what one thing doth soone mitigate the immoderate passions of our nature, then the perfect knowledge of right & wrong, & the iust execution appointed by a law, for asswaging the wilfull? Of this vertue there are three partes.

Sobrietie, is a brideling by discretion, the wilfulnesse of desire.

Gentlenesse, is a caulming of heate, when we begin to rage, and a lowly behauiour in al our bodie.

Modestie, is an honest shamefastnesse, whereby we keepe a constant looke, & appere sober in all our outward doings. Now, euen as we should desire the vse of al these vertues, so should we eschue not only the contraries hereunto, but also auoid al such euils, as by any meanes do withdrawe vs from well doing.

It is profitable.
Hope of reward
maketh men take paines.
AFter we haue perswaded our freend, that the lawe is honest, drawing our arguments from the heape of vertues, wee must goe further with hym, and bryng him in good beleeue that it is very gainfull. For many one seeke not the knowledge of learning for ye goodnes sake, but rather take paines for the gaine, which they see doeth arise by it. Take away the hope of lucre, and you shall see fewe take any paines: no not in the Vineyard of the Lorde. For although none should followe any trade of life for the gaine sake, but euen as he seeth it is most necessarie, for the aduauncement of Gods glorie, and not passe in what estimation things are had in this worlde: yet because we are all so weake of witte in our tender yeres, that we can not weigh with our selues what is best, and our bodie so nesh, that it loketh euer to be cherished, we take that which is moste gainefull for vs, and forsake that altogether, which wee ought most to followe. So, that for lacke of honest meanes, and for want of good order: the best way is not vsed, neither is Gods honour in our first yeeres remembred. I had rather (sayde one) make my child a Cobler, then a Preacher, a Tankerd bearer, then a Scholer. For what shal my sonne seeke for learning, when hee shall neuer get thereby any liuing? Set my sonne to that, whereby he may get somewhat? Doe ye not see, how euery one catcheth and pulleth from the Church what thei can? I feare me one day, they wil pluck doune Church and all. Call you this the Gospell, when men seeke onely to prouide for their bellies, and care not a groate though their soules go to Hell? A patrone of a Benefice, will haue a poore yngrame soule, to beare the name of a Parson, for twentie marke or ten pound: and the patrone him self, will take vp for his snapshare, as good as an hundred marke. Thus God is robbed, learning decaied, England dishonoured, and honestie not regarded. The old Romaines not yet knowing Christ, and yet being led by a reuerent feare towards God made this lawe. Sacrum sacroue commendatum qui clepserit, rapseritue, paricida est.
The Romaines lawes
for Church dignities.
He that shall closely steale, or forciblie take awaie that thing which is holy, or giuen to the holy place, is a murderer of his countrey. But what haue I said? I haue a greater matter in hande, then whereof I was aware, my penne hath runne ouer farre, when my leasure serueth not, nor yet my witte is able to talke this case in such wise, as it should bee, and as the largenesse thereof requireth. Therefore, to my Lawyer againe, whom I doubt not to perswade, but that he shal haue the Deuill and al, if he learne a pace, and doe as some haue doen before him. Therefore, I will shewe how largely this profite extendeth, that I may haue him the soner take this matter in hande. The law therefore, not onely bringeth much gaine with it, but also aduaunceth men, both to worship, renowne, and honour. All men shall seeke his fauour for his learning sake, the best shall like his company for his calling: and his wealth with his skill shall be such, that none shal be able to work him any wrong. Some consider profite, by these circumstances following.
{To whom.

Circumstances in
obseruing profite.
NEther can I vse a better order, then these circumstaunces minister vnto mee. To whom therefore is the Law profitable? Marie, to them that be best learned, that haue readie wittes, and will take paines. When is the law profitable? Assuredly, both now and euermore, but especially in this age, where all men goe together by the eares, for this matter, and that matter. Such alteration hath beene heretofore, that hereafter needes must ensue much alteration. And where is al this a doe? Euen in little England, or in Westminster hall, where neuer yet wanted businesse, nor yet euer shal. Wherefore is the Law profitable? vndoubtedly, because no man could hold his owne, if there were not an order to staie vs, and a Lawe to restraine vs. And I praie you, who getteth the money? The Lawiers no doubt. And were not
Folly in many that
go to the Lawe.
Land sometimes cheaper bought, then got by the triall of a Law? Do not men commonly for trifles fall out? Some for lopping of a Tree, spendes all that euer they haue, an other for a Gose that graseth vpon his ground, tries the lawe so hard, that he proues himself a Gander. Now, when men be so mad, is it not easie to get money among them? Undoubtedly,
Lawyers, neuer
dye beggers.
the Lawier neuer dieth a begger. And no maruaile. For an C. begges for him, and makes awaie all that they haue, to get that of him, the which, the oftener he bestoweth, the more still he getteth. So that he gaineth alwaies, aswel by encrease of learning, as by storing his purse with money, whereas the other get a warme Sunne oftentimes, and a flappe with a Foxe taile, for all that euer they haue spent. And why would they? Tush if it were to doe againe, they would doe it: therefore, the Lawyer can neuer want liuing till the earth want men and all be voyde.

The Lawe easie to many,
and hard to some.
I Doubt not, but my Lawyer is perswaded that the Lawe is profitable, now must I beare him in hand that it is an easie matter to become a Lawier. The which, if I shall bee able to proue. I doubt not, but he will proue a good Lawyer, and that right shortly: the Lawe is grounded vpon reason. And what hardnesse is it for a man by a reason, to finde out reason. That can not be straunge vnto him, the ground whereof is graffed in his breast. What, though the Lawe be in a straunge tongue, the wordes may bee gotte without any paine, when the matter it self is compast with ease. Tush, a little Lawe will make a greate shewe, and therefore, though it bee much to become excellent, yet it is easie to get a taste. And surely for getting of money, a little will doe asmuch good oftentymes, as a great deale. There is not a word in the Law, but it is a grote in the Lawiers purse. I haue knowne diuers, that by familiar talking and mouting together, haue come to right good learning, without any great booke skill, or much beating of their braine, by any close studie or secret musing in their Chamber. But where some saie the Lawe is very hard, and discourage yong men from the studie thereof, it is to bee vnderstande of such as will take no paines at al, nor yet mind the knowledge thereof. For what is not hard to man, when he wanteth will to doe his best. As good sleepe, and say it is hard: as wake and take no paines.

The Lawe. {Iuste.



WHat needeth mee, to prooue the Lawe to be Godly, iust, or necessarie, seeing it is grounded vpon Gods will, and all Lawes are made for the maintenaunce of Iustice. If we wil not beleeue that it is necessarie, let vs haue Rebels againe to disturbe the Realme. Our nature is so fonde, that we knowe not the necessitie of a thing, till wee finde some lacke of the same. Bowes are not esteemed, as they haue beene among vs Englishmen, but if we were once well beaten by our enemies, we should soone knowe the want, and with feeling the smart, lament much our folly. Take away the
Lawes maintaine
Law, and take away our liues, for nothing maintaineth our wealth, our health, and the sauegard of our bodies, but the Law of a Realme, whereby the wicked are condemned, and the Godly are defended.

An Epistle to perswade a yong Gentleman to mariage,
deuised by Erasmus, in the behalfe of his freend.
ALbeit, you are wise enough of your selfe, through that singulare wisedome of yours (most louing Cosine) and litle needes the aduise of other, yet either for that olde freendshippe, which hath bene betwixt vs, and continued with our age, euen from our Cradles, or for such your great good turnes, shewed at all times towardes me, or els for that fast kinred and aliaunce, which is betwixt vs: I thought my self thus much to owe vnto you, if I would be such a one in deed, as you euer haue taken mee, that is to say, a man both freendly and thankfull, to tell you freely (whatsoeuer I iudged to appertaine either to the sauegard or worship of you, or any of yours) and willingly to warne you of the same. Wee are better seen oftentimes in other mens matters, then we are in our owne. I haue felt often your aduise in mine owne affaires, and I haue found it to be fortunate vnto me, as it was frendly. Now, if you will likewise in your owne matters, follow my counsaile. I trust it shall so come to passe, that neither I shall repent me, for that I haue giuen you counsaile, not yet you shall forethinke your selfe, that you haue obeyed and followed mine aduise.

There was at supper with me the twelue day of Aprill, when I laie in the Countrie, Antonius Baldus, a man (as you knowe) that most earnestly tendereth your welfare, and one that hath been alwaies of great acquaintaunce, and familiaritie with your sonne in Lawe: a heauie feast wee had, and full of much mourning. He tolde me greatly to both our heauinesse, that your mother that most Godly woman, was departed this life, and your sister being ouercome with sorowe and heauinesse, had made her self a Nunne, so that in you only remaineth the hope of issue, and maintenance of your stocke. Whereupon your freends with one consent, haue offered you in Mariage, a Gentlewoman of a good house, and much wealth, faire of bodie, very well brought vp, and such a one as loueth you with all her heart. But you (either for your late sorowes, which you haue in fresh remembraunce, or els for religion sake) haue so purposed to liue a single life, that neither can you for loue of your stock, neither for desire of Issue, nor yet for any entreatie of your freendes can make, either by praying, or by weeping: be brought to chaunge your minde. And yet notwithstanding all this (if you will followe my counsayle) you shall be of an other minde, and leauing to liue single, whiche both is barraine, and smally agreeing with the state of mans Nature, you shal giue your selfe wholy to most holy Wedlocke. And for this parte, I will neither wish, that the loue of your freends (which els ought to ouercome your nature) nor yet mine authoritie that I haue ouer you, should doe me any good at all, to compasse this my request, if I shall not proue vnto you by most plaine reasons, that it will be both much more honest, more profitable, and also most pleasant for you to marrie, then to liue otherwise. Yea, what will you say if I proue it also, to be necessary for you at this tyme to marrie. And first of all, if honestie may moue you in this matter (the which among all good men, ought to bee of much weight) what is more honest then Matrimonie, the which Christ himselfe did make honest, when not onely hee, vouchsaued to bee at the Mariage with
Praise worthy
to marrie.
his mother, but also did consecrate the Mariage feast, with the first miracle, that euer hee did vpon earth? What is more holy then Matrimonie, which the Creatour of all things did institute, did fasten and make holy, and nature it selfe did establish? What is more prayse worthie, then that thing, the which, whosoeuer shall dispraise, is condemned straight for an Heretique? Matrimonie, is euen as honourable, as the name of an Heretique is thought shamefull. What is more right or meete, then to giue that vnto the posteritie, the which we haue receiued of our auncesters? What is more inconsiderate, then vnder the desire of holinesse, to eschue that as vnholy,
Right and meete
to marrie.
which God himself, the fountaine and father of all holinesse, would haue to be compted is most holy? What is more vnmanly then that man should goe against the lawes of mankind? What is more vnthankfull, then to denie that vnto younglings, the which (if thou haddest not receiued of thine elders) thou couldest not haue bene the man liuing, able to haue denied it vnto them. That if you would knowe, who
Mariage first
made by God.
was the first founder of Mariage, you shall vnderstande, that it came not vp by Licurgus, nor yet by Moses, nor yet by Solon: but it was first ordeined and instituted, by the cheefe founder of all things, commended by the same, made honourable, and made holy by the same. For, at the first when he made man of the earth, he did perceiue that his life should be miserable and vnsauerie, except he ioyned Eue as mate vnto
After man was made,
the woman was ioyned
vnto him.
Matrimonie renewed
after the flood.
him. Whereupon he did not make the wife vpon the same clay, whereof he made man: but he made her of Adams Ribbes, to the end we might plainly vnderstande, that nothing ought to be more deare vnto vs then our wife, nothing more nigh vnto vs, nothing surer ioyned, and (as a man would saie) faster glewed together. The self same God, after the generall flood being reconciled to mankinde, is said to proclaime this law first of all, not that men should liue single, but that they should encrease, bee multiplied and fill the earth. But howe I pray you could this thing bee, sauing by Mariage and lawfull comming together? And first least we should alledge here, either the libertie of Moses lawe, or els the necessitie of that tyme: what other meaning els, hath that common and
Natures worke,
allowed by Gods
commendable report of Christ in the Gospell, for this cause (saieth he) shall man leaue father and mother, and cleaue to his wife. And what is more holy then the reuerence and loue due vnto parents? And yet the trueth promised in Matrimonie, is preferred before it, and by whose meanes? Marie by God himself, at what time? Forsooth not only among the Iewes, but also among the Christians. Men forsake father and mother, and takes themselues wholy to their wiues. The sonne being past twentie yeeres, is free and at libertie. Yea, the sonne being abdicated be commeth no sonne. But it is death onely that parteth maried folke, if yet death doth parte them. Nowe, if the other Sacraments (whereunto the Church of Christ chiefly leaneth) be reuerently vsed, who doeth not see, that this Sacrament, should haue the most reuerence of all, the which was instituted of God, and that first and before all other. As for the other, they were instituted vpon earth, this was ordeined in Paradise: the other were giuen for a remedie, this was appointed for the felowship of felicitie: the other were applied to mans nature, after the fal this only was giuen, when man was in most perfite state. If we coumpt those Lawes good, that mortall men haue enacted, shall not the lawe of Matrimonie bee most holy, which wee haue receiued of him, by whom we haue receiued life, the which Lawe was then together enacted, when man was first created? And lastly, to strengthen this Lawe, with an example and deede doen, Christ being a yong man (as the storie reporteth) was called to Mariage, and came
Mariage beautified
by a miracle.
thether willingly with his mother, and not only was he there present, but also he did honest the feast with a wonderfull maruaile, beginning first in none other place, to worke his wonders and to doe his miracles. Why then I praie you (will one saie) how happeneth it, that Christ forbare Mariage? As though good sir, there are not many things in Christ, at the which we ought rather to maruaile, then seeke to follow. He was borne, and had no father, he came into this world, without his mothers painfull trauaile, he came out of the graue when it was closed vp, what is not in him aboue nature? Let these things be proper vnto him. Let vs that liue within the bounds of nature, reuerence those things that are aboue nature, and followe such things as are within our reache, such as wee are able to compasse. But yet (you say) hee would bee borne of a virgin: of a virgin (I graunt) but yet of a maried virgin. A virgin being a mother did moste become God, and being maried, she shewed what was best for vs to do. Virginitie did become her, who being vndefiled brought him forth by heauenly inspiration, that was vndefiled. And yet Ioseph being her housbande, doeth commend vnto vs the lawe of chast Wedlock. Yea, how could he better set out the societie in Wedlocke, than that willing to declare the secrete societie of his Diuine nature, with the bodie and soule of man which is wonderfull, euen to the heauenly Angels, and to shewe his vnspeakable and euer abiding loue toward his church: He doth call himself the Bridegrome, and her the bride. Greate is the Sacrament of Matrimonie (saieth Paule) betwixt Christ and his Church. If there had been vnder heauen, any holier yoke, if there had bene any more religious
couenaunt, then is Matrimonie, without doubt the example thereof had bene vsed. But what like thing to you reade in all scripture of the single life? The Apostle S. Paule in the thirteene Chapter of his Epistle to the Hebrues, calleth Matrimonie honorable among all men, and the bed vndefiled, & yet the single life is not so much as once named in the same place. Nay, they are not borne withall that liue single, except they make some recompence, with doing some great thing. For els, if a man following the law of Nature, doe labour to get children, he is euer to be preferred before him, that liueth still vnmaried, for none other end, but because he would bee out of trouble, and liue more free. We doe reade, that such as are in very deede chast of their body, and liue a virgines life, haue bene praised: but the single life was neuer praised of it selfe. Now, againe the law of Moses, accursed the barrennesse of maried folk: and we doe reade that some were excommunicated, for the same purpose, and banished from the Altar. And wherfore I praie you? Marie
Deut. vi.
sir, because that they like vnprofitable persons, and liuing onely to themselues, did not encrease the worlde with any issue. In Deuteronomi, it was the cheefest token of Gods blessinges vnto the Israelites, that none should be barren among them, neither man, nor yet woman. And Lia is
thought to be out of Gods fauour because she could not bring forth children. Yea, and the Psalme of Dauid. 128. it is coumpted on of the cheefest partes of blisse, to be a fruitfull woman. Thy wife (saieth the Psalme) shalbe plentifull like a Vine. And thy children like the branches of Oliues, round about thy table. Then if the law doe condemne, and vtterly disalowe barren Matrimonie, it hath alwaies muche more condemned the single life of Batchlars. If the fault of nature
Hebrues law for
maried folke.
hath not escaped blame, the will of man can neuer want rebuke. If they are accursed that would haue children, and can get none, what deserue thei which neuer trauaile to escape barrennes? The Hebrues had such a reuerence to maried folke, that he which had maried a wife, the same yeere should not be forced to goe on warfare. A Citie is like to fal to ruine, except there be watchmen to defend it with armor. But assured destruction must here nedes folow, except men through the benefite of mariage supplie issue, the which through mortalitie, doe from time to time decaie.

Plutarchus in the
life of Cato.
Ouer and besides this, the Romaines did laie a penaltie vpon their backe, that liued a single life, yea, they would not suffer them to beare any office in the Commonweale. But they that had encreased the world with issue, had a rewarde by common assent, as men that did deserue well of their countrey. The olde foren lawes did appoint penalties for such as liued single, the which although, they were qualified by Constancius the Emperour, in the fauour of Christes Religion: yet these lawes doe declare, how little it is for the common weales aduauncement, that either a Citie should be lesned for loue of sole life, or els that the Countrey should be
Augustus Cæsar.
filled full of Bastards. And besides this, the Emperour Augustus, being a sore punisher of euill behauiour, examined a soldiour because he did not marie his wife, according to the lawes, the which soldiour had hardly escaped iudgement, if he had not got three children by her. And in this point doe the lawes of the Emperours, seeme fauourable to maried
folke, that they abrogate such vowes, as were proclaimed to be kept, and brought in by Miscella, and would that after the penaltie were remitted, such couenaunts being made against all right and conscience, should also be taken of none effect, and as voyde in the lawe. Ouer and besides this, Vlpianus
doth declare, that the matter of Dowries was euermore, and in al places the chiefest aboue all other, the which should neuer haue been so, except there came to the Common weale, some especiall profite by Mariage. Mariage hath euer beene reuerenced, but fruitfulnesse of body, hath been much more, for so soone as one got the name of a father, there discended not onely vnto him inheritaunce of land, but all bequestes, and
goods of such his freendes, as dyed intestate. The which thing appeareth plainly, by the Satyre Poet.

Through me thou art made, an heire to haue lande,
   Thou hast all bequestes one with an other:
All goodes and cattell are come to thy hande,
   Yea goodes intestate, thou shalt haue sure.

Now he that hath three children, was more fauoured, for he was exempted from all outwarde ambassages. Againe, hee that had fiue children, was discharged & free from all personall office, as to haue the gouernaunce, or patronage of young Gentlemen, the which in those daies was a greate charge, and full of paines, without any profite at al. He that had thirtene children, was free by the Emperour Iulianus lawe, not onely from being a man of armes, or a Captaine ouer horsemen: but also from all other offices in the common weale. And the wise founders of al lawes, giue good reason why such fauour was shewed to maried folke. For what is more blesseful then to liue euer? Now, where as nature hath denied this, Matrimonie doeth giue it by a certaine sleight, so much as may be. Who doth not desire to bee bruted, and liue through fame among men hereafter? Now, there is no building of Pillers, no erecting of Arches, no blasing of Armes, that doth more set forth a mans name, then doth the encrease of children. Albinus obteined his purpose of the Emperour Adrian, for none other desert of his, but that he had begot an house full of children. And therefore the Emperour (to the hinderance of his treasure) suffered the children to enter wholy vpon their fathers
Licurgus law against
vnmaried folke.
possession, for asmuch as he knewe well, that his Realme was more strengthened with encrease of children, then with store of money. Againe, all other Lawes are neither agreeing for all Countries, not yet vsed at all time. Licurgus made a lawe, yt they which maried not, should be kept in Sommer from the sight of stage Plaies, and other wonderfull shewes, and in Winter, they should go naked about the Market place, and accursing themselues, they should confesse openly that they
Punishments appointed
for breaking of Wedlock.
The Grecians reuengement
for aduoutry.
had iustly deserued such punishment, because they did not liue according to the Lawes. And without any more adoe, will yee knowe how much our olde auncesters heretofore esteemed Matrimonie? Weigh well, and consider the punishment for breaking of wedlock. The Greekes heretofore thought it meete, to punish the breach of Matrimonie with battaile, that continued ten yeres. Yea, moreouer not onely by the Romaine Lawe, but also by the Hebrues and straungers, aduouterers persons were punished with death. If a theefe paied fower times the value of that which he tooke awaie, he was deliuered: but an aduouterers offence, was punished with
The Hebrues stoned
ye sword. Among the Hebrues, the people stoned the aduouterers to death with their owne handes, because they had broken that, without which the worlde could not continue. And yet they thought not this sore Law sufficient enough, but graunted further to run him through without Lawe, that was taken in aduoutrie, as who should say, they graunted that to the greefe of maried folke, the which they would hardly
Lawfull for the
maried man among the
Hebrues, to kill
the aduouterer.
graunt to him, that stood in his owne defence for saufegard of his life, as though he offended more hainously that tooke a mans wife, then hee did that tooke away a mans life. Assuredly Wedlocke must needes seeme to be a most holy thing, considering, that being once broken, it must needes bee purged with mans bloud, the reuenger whereof, is not forced to abide, either Lawe or Iudge, the which libertie is not graunted any, to vse vpon hym that hath killed, either his father or his mother. But what doe wee with these Lawes written? This is the law of nature, not written in the Tables of Brasse, but firmely printed in our mindes, the which Lawe, whosoeuer doth not obeye, he is not worthie to be called a man, much lesse shall he be compted a Citezen. For,
if to liue well (as the Stoikes wittely doe dispute) is to followe the course of nature, what thing is so agreeing with nature, as Matrimonie? For there is nothing so naturall, not onely vnto mankind, but also vnto all other liuing creatures, as it is for euery one of them, to keepe their owne kind from decaie, and through increase of issue, to make their whole kinde immortall. The which thing (all men knowe) can neuer be doen without Wedlocke, and carnall copulation. It were a foule thing that brute beastes should obey the Lawe of nature, and men like Giauntes should fight against Nature. Whose worke, if we would narrowly looke vpon, we shall perceiue that in al things here vpon earth, she would there should be a certaine spice of Mariage.

I will not speake now of Trees, wherein (as Plinie most certainly writeth) there is found Mariage, with some manifest difference of both kindes, that except the houseband Tree,
Mariage among
doe leane with his boughes, euen as though he should desire copulation vpon the women Trees, growing round about him: They would els altogether waxe barraine. The same Plinie also doeth reporte, that certaine Authours doe thinke there is both Male, and Female, in all things that the earth yeeldeth.

Mariage among
precious stones.
I will not speake of precious Stones, wherein the same Authour affirmeth, and yet not he onely neither, that there is bothe Male, and Female among them. And I pray you, hath not GOD so knitte all things together with certaine linkes, that one euer seemeth to haue neede of an other? What say you of the Skie or Firmament, that is euer stirring
Mariage betwene the
firmament and
the earth.
with continuall moouing? Doth it not plaie the part of a houseband, while it puffeth vp the earth, the mother of all things, and maketh it fruitfull, with casting seede (as a man would say) vpon it. But I thinke it ouer tedious, to runne ouer all things. And to what end are these things spoken? Mary sir, because we might vnderstande, that through Mariage, all things are and doe still continue, and with out the same, all things doe decay and come to naught. The olde auncient
The fable of Giauntes
that fought against
and most wise Poets doe feigne (who had euer a desire vnder the colour of fables, to set forth precepts of Philosophie) that the Giauntes, which had Snakes feete, and were borne of the earth, builded great hilles that mounted vp to heauen, minding thereby to bee at vtter defiance with God, and all his Angels. And what meaneth this fable? Marie, it sheweth vnto vs, that certaine fierce and sauage men, such as were vnknowne, could not abide wedlock for any worlds good, and therefore they were striken doune hedlong with lidghtning, that is to say: they were vtterly destroyed, when they sought to eschue that, whereby the weale and saufegard of all mankind, onely doth consist.

Now againe, the same Poets doe declare that Orpheus the Musition and Minstrell, did stirre and make soft with his pleasaunt melodie, the most harde Rockes and stones. And what is their meaning herein? Assuredly nothing els, but that a wise and well spoken man, did call backe harde harted men, such as liued abrode like beastes from open whoredom, & brought them to liue after the most holy lawes of Matrimonie. Thus we see plainly, that such a one as hath no mind of mariage, seemeth to be no man but rather a stone, an enemie to nature, a rebell to God himselfe, seeking through his owne folly, his last ende and destruction.

The most wicked can
not chose but allow
Well, let vs goe on still (seeing we are fallen into fables, that are not fables altogether) when the same Orpheus, in the middes of Hell, forced Pluto himselfe and all the Deuils there, to graunt him leaue, to cary away his wife Euridice what other thing doe we thinke, that the Poets meant, but onely to set forth vnto vs, the loue in wedlocke, the which euen among the Deuilles, was coumpted good and godly.

And this also makes well for the purpose, that in olde tyme they made Iupiter Gamelius, the God of Marriage, and Iuno Lucina, Lady Midwife, to helpe such women as laboured in childbed, being fondly deceiued, and supersticiously erring in naming of the Gods: and yet not missing the trueth, in declaring that Matrimony is an holy thing, and meete for the worthinesse therof, that the Gods in heauen should haue care ouer it. Among diuers Countries and diuers men, there haue beene diuers lawes and Customes vsed. Yet was there neuer any Countrey so sauage, none so farre from al humanitie, where the name of Wedlocke was not coumpted holie, and
All Nations euer
estemed Mariage.
had in great reuerence. This the Thracian, this the Sarmate, this the Indian, this the Grecian, this the Latine, yea, this the Britaine that dwelleth in the furthest part of all the world, or if there be any that dwell beyond them? Marie, because that thing must needes be common to all, which the common mother vnto all, hath graffed in vs all, and hath so throughly graffed the same in vs, that not only Stockdoues and Pigions, but also the most wilde beasts, haue a Naturall feeling of this thing. For the Lions are gentle against the Lionesse. The Tygers fight for safegarde of their young whelpes. The Asse runnes through the hot fire (which is made to keepe her away) for safegarde of her issue. And this they call the lawe of Nature, the which as it is of most strength & force, so it spreadeth abroad most largely. Therefore, as he is coumpted no good Gardener, that being content with thinges present, doth diligently proyne his olde Trees, and hath no regarde either to ympe or graffe yong Settes: because the selfe same Orchard (though it bee neuer so well trimmed) must needes decay in time, & all the Trees dye within fewe yeares: so he is not to be coumpted halfe a diligent Citizein, that beeing content with the present multitude, hath no regarde to encrease the number. Therefore, there is no one man, that euer hath been coumpted a worthie Citezein, who hath not laboured to get children, and sought to bring them vp in godlinesse.

The Hebrues and Persians
had a number of wiues.
Among the Hebrues and the Persians, he was most commended that had most wiues, as though the Countrey were most beholding to him, that encrease the same with the greatest number of children. Doe you seeke to be coumpted more holy then Abraham himselfe? Well, he should neuer haue beene coumpted the Father of many Nations, and that through Gods furtheraunce, if he had forborne the companie of his wife. Do you looke to be reckened more deuout then Iacob. He doubted nothing to raunsome Rachell from
her great bondage. Will you bee taken for wiser then Salomon? And yet I pray you, what a number of wiues kept he in one house? Will you bee coumpted more chast then Socrates, who is reported to beare at home with Zantippe, that very shrowe, and yet not so much therefore (as he is wont to iest, according to his olde maner) because he might learne pacience at home, but also because he might not seeme to come behinde with his duetie, in doing the will of Nature. For he being a man, such a one (as Appollo iudged him by his Oracle to bee wise) did well perceiue that he was got for this cause, borne for this cause, and therefore bounde to yeeld so much vnto Nature. For, if the olde auncient Philosophers have said well, if our Diuines haue proued the thing not without reason, if it be vsed euery where, for a common Prouerbe, and almost in euery mans mouth, that neither GOD, nor yet Nature, did euer make any thing in vaine. Why did he giue vs such members, how happeneth wee haue such lust, and such power to get issue, if the single life and none other, bee altogether praise worthie? If one should bestowe vpon you a very good thing: as a Bowe, a Coate, or a Sworde, all men would thinke you were not worthie to haue the thing, if either you could not, or you would not vse it and occupie it. And whereas all other thinges, are ordeined vpon such great considerations, it is not like that Nature slipt, or forgat her selfe when she made this one thing. And now here will some say, that this foule and filthie desire and stirring vnto lust, came neuer in by Nature, but through sinne: for whose wordes I passe not a strawe, seeing their sayinges are as false as God is true. For I pray you was not Matrimonie instituted (whose woorke cannot bee done without these members) before there was no sinne. And againe, whence haue all other Beastes their prouocations? Of Nature, or of sinne? A man would thinke they had them of Nature. But shall I tell you at a worde, wee make that filthie by our owne immagination, which of the owne Nature is good and godlie. Or els if wee will examine matter (not according to the opinion of men, but waigh them as they are of their owne Nature) how chaunceth it, that we thinke it lesse filthie to eate, to chewe, to disgest, to emptie the bodie, and to sleepe, then it is to vse carnall Copulation, such as is lawfull and permitted. Now sir (you may say) wee must followe vertue, rather then Nature. A gentle dish. As though any thing can bee called vertue, that is contrary vnto Nature. Assuredly there is nothing that can bee perfectly gotte, either through labour, or through learning, if man grounde not his doinges altogether vpon Nature.

But you will liue an Apostles life, such as some of them did that liued single: and exhorted other to the same kinde of life. Tush, let them followe the Apostles that are Apostles in deede, whose office seeing it is both to teach, and bring vp the people in Gods doctrine: they are not able to discharge their dueties, both to their flocke, and to their wife and familie: although it is well knowne, that some of the Apostles had wiues. But be it that Bishoppes liue single, or graunt we them to haue no wiues. What, doe ye followe the profession of the Apostles, beeing one that is farthest in life from their vocation: being both a Temporal man, and one that liueth of your owne. They had this Pardon graunted them to be cleane voyd from Mariage, to the end they might bee at leasure, to get vnto Christ a more plentifull number of his children. Let this be the order of Priestes and Monkes, who belike haue entred into Religion and rule of the Essens (such as among the Iewes lothed Mariage) but your calling is an other way. Nay, but (you will say) Christ himself hath coumpted them blessed, which haue gelded themselues for the kingdome of God. Sir, I am content to admit the aucthoritie, but thus I expound the meaning. First, I thinke that this doctrine of Christ, did chiefly belong vnto that time, when it behoued them chiefly to be voyde of all cares and businesse of this world. They were faine to trauaile into all places, for the persecutors were euer readie to lay hands on them. But now the world is so, that a man can find in no place, the vprightnesse of behauiour lesse strained, then among married folke.

Let the swarmes of Monkes and Nunnes, set forth their order neuer so much, let them boast and bragge their bellies full, of their Ceremonies and Church seruice, wherein they chiefly passe all other: yet is Wedlocke (beeing well and truely kept) a most holy kinde of life. Againe, would to God they were gelded in very deede, whatsoeuer they bee that colour their naughtie liuing, with such a ioylie name of gelding, liuing in much more filthie lust, vnder the cloake and pretence of Chastitie. Neither can I reporte for very shame, into how filthie offences they doe often fall, that will not vse that remeadie, which Nature hath graunted vnto man. And last of all, where doe you reade, that euer Christ commaunded any man to liue single, and yet he doth openly forbid diuorcement.

Then he doth not worst of all (in my iudgement) for the Common weale of mankinde, that graunted libertie vnto Priestes: yea, and Monkes also (if neede bee) to marrie, and to take them to their wiues, namely, seing there is such an
Priestes mariage.
vnreasonable number euery where, among whom I pray you, how many bee there that liue chast. How much better were it, to turne their Concubines into wiues, that whereas they haue them now to their great shame, with an vnquiet conscience, they might haue the other openly with good reporte, and get children, and also bring them vp godlie, of whom they themselues, not onely might not be ashamed, but also might be compted honest men for them. And I thinke the Bishops officers would haue procured this matter long agoe, if they had not found great gaines by Priestes Lemmans, then they were like to haue by Priestes wiues.

But virginitie forsooth is an heauenly thing, it is an Angels life. I answere: Wedlocke is a manly thing, such as is meete for man. And I talke now as man vnto man. I graunt you, that virginitie is a thing praise worthie, but so farre I am content to speake in praise of it, if it bee not so praised, as though the iust should altogether followe it. For if men commonly should begin to like it, what thing could be inuented more perilous to a common weale then virginitie? Now, bee it that other deserue great praise for their maidenhead, you notwithstanding cannot want great rebuke, seeing it lieth in your handes to keepe that house from decay, wherof your lineally descended, and to continue still the name of your auncesters, who deserue most worthely to bee knowne for euer. And last of all, he deserueth as much praise as they which keepe their maidenhood: that keepes himselfe true to his wife, & marieth rather for encrease of children, then to satisfie his lust. For if a brother be commaunded to stirre vp seede to his brother that dieth without issue, will you suffer ye hope of al your stocke to decay: namely, seeing there is none other of your name and stocke but your self alone, to continue the posteritie. I know well enough, that the auncient Fathers haue set foorth in great volumes the praise of virginitie,
Hieromes praise
vpon Virginitie.
among whom Hierome doth so take on, and praiseth it so much aboue the Starres, that he fell in maner to depraue Matrimonie, and therefore was required of godlie Bishops, to call backe his words that he had spoken. But let vs beare with such heate for that time sake, I would wish now, that they which exhort young folke euery where, and without respect (such as yet knowe not themselues) to liue a single life, and to professe virginitie: that they would bestowe the same labor in setting forth the discription of chast and pure wedlocke. And yet those bodies that are in such great loue with virginitie, are well contented that men should fight against the Turkes, which in number are infinitely greater then we are. And now if these men thinke right in this behalfe, it must needes be thought right, good, and godly, to labour earnestly for children getting, and to substitute youth from time to time for the maintenance of warre. Except peraduenture they thinke that Gunnes, Billes, Pikes, and Nauies should be prouided for battaill, and that men stand in no steede at all with them. They also allowe it wel, that we should kill miscreant and Heathen Parents, that the rather their children not knowing of it, might bee Baptized and made Christians. Now if this bee right and lawfull, how much more gentlenesse were it to haue children baptized, being born in lawfull mariage. There is no Nation so sauage, nor yet so hard harted within the whole worlde, but the same abhorreth murdering of Inphants, and new borne babes. Kings also and head rulers, doe likewise punish most streightly, all such as seeke meanes to be deliuered before their time, or vse Phisicke to waxe barraine, and neuer to beare Children. What is the reason? Marie they coumpt it small difference betwixt him that killeth the childe, so sone as it beginneth to quicken: & the other that seeketh all meanes possible, neuer to haue any childe at all. The self same thing that either withereth and drieth awaie in the bodie, or els putrifieth within thee, and so hurteth greatly thy health, yea, that selfe same which falleth from thee in thy sleepe, would haue beene a man, if thou thy selfe haddest beene a man. The Hebrewes abhorre that man, and wish him Gods cursse, that
(being commaunded to marrie with the wife of his dead brother) did cast his seede vpon the grounde, least any issue should be had, and he was euer thought vnworthie to liue here vpon earth, that would not suffer that childe to liue, which was quicke in the mothers wombe. But I praie you, how little doe they swarue from this offence, which binde them selues to liue barraine all the daies of their life? Doe they not seeme to kill as many men as were like to haue beene borne, if they had bestowed their endeuours to haue got children? Now I pray you, if a man had lande that were very fat and fertile, and suffered the same for lacke of mannering, for euer to waxe barraine, should he not, or were he not worthie to be punished by the Lawes, considering it is for the common weales behoue, that euery man should well and truely husband his own. If that man be punished, who little heedeth the maintenaunce of his Tillage, the which although it bee neuer so well mannered, yet it yeeldeth nothing els but Wheate, Barley, Beanes, and Peason: what punishment is he worthie to suffer, that refuseth to Plowe that land which being Tilled, yeeldeth children. And for plowing lande it is nothing els, but painfull toyling from time to time: but in getting children there is a pleasure, which being ordeined as a readie rewarde for paines taking, asketh a short trauaile for all the Tillage. Therfore if the working of Nature, if honestie, if vertue, if inward zeale, if godlinesse, if duetie maie moue you, why can you not abide that which God hath ordeined, Nature hath established, reason doth counsaile, Gods worde and mans worde doe commende, all Lawes doe commende, the consent of all Nations doth allowe, whereunto also the example of all good men doth exhort you. That if euery honest man should desire many thinges that are most painfull for none other cause, but only for that they are honest, no doubt but Matrimony ought aboue all other, most of all to be desired, as the which wee may doubt, whether it haue more honestie in it, or bring more delight and pleasure with it. For what can be more pleasant then to liue with her, with whom not onely you shall be ioyned in fellowship of faithfulnesse, and most heartie good will, but also you shall be coupled together most assuredly, with the company of both your bodies: If we count that great pleasure, which we receiue of the good will of our friends and acquaintance, how pleasant a thing is it aboue all other to haue one, with whom you may breake the bottome of your heart, with whom you may talke as freely as with your self, into whose trust you may safely commit your self, such a one as thinketh all your goodes to bee her charge. Now what an heauenly blisse (trowe you) is the companie of man and wife together, seeing that in all the world there can nothing bee found, either of greater weight & worthines, or els of more strength and assurance. For with friends we ioyne onely with them in good wil, and faithfulnesse of mind, but with a wife we are matched together, both in heart and mind, in body and soule, sealed together with the bond & league of an holy sacrament, and parting all the goods we haue indifferently betwixt vs. Againe, when other are matched together in friendship, doe we not see what dissembling they vse, what falshod they practise, & what deceiptful parts they play? Yea, euen those whom we thinke to be most assured friends: as Swalowes flie away when Sommer is past, so they hide their heads when fortune gins to faile. And oft times when wee get a new frend, we straight forsake our old. We heare tel of very few that haue continued friends euen till their last end: whereas the faithfulnes of a wife is not stained with deceipt, nor dusked with any dissembling, nor yet parted with any charge of the world, but disseuered at last by death only, no not by death neither. She forsakes and sets light by father & mother, sister & brother for your sake, and for your loue only. She only passeth vpon you, yea, she desires to dye with you. Haue you any worldly substaunce? You haue one that wil maintaine it, you haue one wil encrease it. Haue you none? You haue a wife that will get it. If you liue in prosperitie, your ioye is doubled: if the world goe not with you, you haue a wife to put you in good comfort, to be at your commaundement, and readie to serue your desire, and to wish that such euill as hath happened vnto you, might chaunce vnto her selfe. And doe you thinke that any pleasure in all the world is to bee compared, with such a goodly fellowshippe and familier liuing together? If you keepe home, your wife is at hand to keepe your companie, the rather that you might feele no wearines of liuing al alone: if you ride forth, you haue a wife to bid you farewell with a kisse, longing much for you beeing from home, and glad to bid you welcome home at your next returne. A sweete mate in your youth, thankfull comfort in your age. Euery societie or companying together is delightfull, & wished for by Nature of al men, for asmuch as Nature hath ordeined vs to be sociable, friendly, & louing together. Now how can this fellowship of man and wife be otherwise then most pleasaunt, where all things are common together betwixt them both. Now I thinke he is most worthie to bee despised aboue all other, that is borne as a man would say for himself, that liueth to himself, that seeketh for himself, that spareth for himself, maketh cost onely vpon himselfe, that loueth no man, and no man loueth him. Would not a man thinke that such a monster, were meete to be cast out of all mens companie (with Tymon that careth for no man) into the
Tymon a deadly
hater of all
middest of the Sea. Neither doe I here vtter vnto you these pleasures of the body, the which whereas Nature hath made to bee most pleasant vnto man, yet these great witted men rather hide them and dissemble them (I cannot tell how) then vtterly contemne them. And yet what is he that is so sower of witte, and so drouping of braine (I will not say) blockheaded, or insensate, that is not mooued with such pleasure: namely, if hee may haue his desire without offence: either of God or man, and without hinderance of his estimation. Truly I would take such a one not to be a man, but rather bee a stone. Although this pleasure of the body, is the least part of all those good things that are in wedlocke. But be it that you passe not vpon this pleasure, and thinke it vnworthie for man to vse it, although in deede wee deserue not the name of man without it, but coumpt it among the least and vttermost profites that Wedlocke hath. Now I pray you, what can bee more hartely desired then chast loue, what can bee more holie, what can bee more honest? And among all these pleasures, you get vnto you a ioyly sort of kinsfolk, in whom you may take much delite. You haue other parents, other bretherne, sisterne, and nephewes. Nature in deed can giue you but one father, and one mother: by Mariage you get vnto you an other father, and an other mother, who cannot chuse but loue you with all their hearts, as the which haue put into your handes, their owne flesh and blood. Now againe, what a ioye shall this be vnto you, when your most faire wife shall make you a Father, in bringing forth a faire Childe vnto you, where you shall haue a pretie little boye, running vp and downe your house, such a one as shall expresse your looke, and your wiues looke, such a one as shall call you dad with his sweete lipsing wordes. Now last of all, when you are thus lincked in Loue, the same shall bee so fastned and bounde together, as though it were with an Adamant stone, that Death it selfe can neuer bee able to vndoe it. Thrise happie are they (quoth Horace) yea, more then thrise happie are they, whom these sure bands doe holde: neither though they are by euill reporters full oft set asunder, shall Loue bee vnlosed betwixt them two, till Death them both depart. You haue them that shall comfort you in your latter daies, that shall close vp your eyes when God shall call you, that shall burie you, and fulfill all thinges belonging to your Funerall, by whom you shall seeme to bee newe borne. For so long as they shall liue, you will neuer bee thought dead your selfe. The goodes and lands that you haue got, goe not to other heires then to your owne. So that vnto such as haue fulfilled all thinges, that belong vnto mans life, Death it selfe cannot seeme better. Old age commeth vpon vs al, will we, or nill we, and this way Nature prouided for vs, that we should waxe yong again in our children & nephewes. For what man can be greeued that he is old, when he seeth his owne countenance, which he had being a childe, to appeare liuely in his sonne? Death is ordained for all mankind, & yet by this meanes only, Nature by her prouidence, mindeth vnto vs a certain immortalitie, while she encreaseth one thing vpon an other, euen as a yong graffe buddeth out, when the old Tree is cut doune. Neither can he seeme to dye, that when God calleth him, leaueth a yong childe behind him. But I know well enough, what you say to your self al this while of my long talke. Mariage is an happie thing, if all thinges hap well, what if one haue a curst wife? What if she be light? What if his children bee vngracious? Thus I see you remember all such men, as by Mariage haue beene vndone. Well, goe to it, tell as many as you can, and spare not: you shall finde all these were the faults of the persons, and not the
Euill wiues happen
to euil men only.
faultes of Marriage. For beleeue me, none haue euill wiues, but such as are euill men. And as for you sir, you may chuse a good wife if you list. But what if she bee crooked and mard altogether, for lacke of good ordering. A good honest wife, may be made an euill woman by a naughtie husband, and an euill wife hath beene made a good woman, by an honest man. Wee crye out of wiues vntruely, and accuse them without cause. There is no man (if you will beleeue me) that euer had an euill wife, but through his owne default. Now againe, an honest Father, bringeth forth honest children, like vnto himselfe. Although euen these children, howsoeuer they are borne, commonly become such men, as their education
Ielousie vnknowne
to wisemen.
and bringing vp is. And as for Ielousie, you shall not neede to feare that fault at all. For none bee troubled with such a disease but those only that are foolish Louers. Chast, godlie, and lawfull loue, neuer knewe what Ielousie ment. What meane you to call to your minde, and remember such sore Tragedies, and dolefull dealinges, as haue beene betwixt man and wife. Such a woman beeing naught of her bodie, hath caused her husband to lose his head: an other haue poysoned her good man, the third with her churlish dealing (which her husband could not beare) hath beene his vtter
vndoing, and brought him to his ende. But I pray you sir, why doe you not think vpon Cornelia, wife vnto Tiberius Graccus? Why doe ye not minde that most worthie wife, or that most vnworthie man Alcestes? Why remember ye not Iulia Pompeies wife, or Porcia Brutus wife? And why not
Alcestes' Wife. Iulia.
Porcia. Artemesia.
Tertia Aemilia.
Turia. Lucretia.
Lentula. Arria.
Artemesia, a woman most worthie euer to bee remembred? Why not Hipsicratea, wife vnto Mithridates King of Pontus? Why doe you not call to remembraunce, the gentle nature of Tertia Aemilia? Why doe ye not consider the faithfulnesse of Turia? Why commeth not Lucretia and Lentula to your rememberaunce? And why not Arria? Why not a thousand other, whose chastitie of life, and faithfulnesse towardes their husbands, could not bee chaunged, no not by death. A good woman (you will say) is a rare bird, and hard to bee found in all the world. Well then sir, imagine your selfe worthie to haue a rare wife, such as fewe man haue. A good woman (saith the wiseman) is a good portion. Be you bold to hope for such a one, as is worthie your maners. The chiefest point standeth in this, what maner of woman you chuse, how you vse her, how you order your selfe towards her.
Prouer. x.
But libertie (you will say) is much more pleasaunt: for whosoeuer is married, weareth fetters vpon his legges, or rather carieth a clog, the which he can neuer shake of, till Death part their yoke. To this I aunswer, I cannot see what pleasure a man shall haue, to liue alone. For if libertie bee delightfull, I would thinke you should get a mate vnto you, with whom you should part stakes, and make her priuie of all your ioyes. Neither can I see any thing more free, then is the seruitude of these two, where the one is so much beholding and bound to the other, that neither of them both would be lose though they might. You are bound vnto him, whom you receiue into your friendship: but in Marriage neither partie findeth fault, that their libertie is taken away from them. Yet once againe you are sore afraied, least when your children are taken away by death, you fall to mourning for want of issue. Well sir, if you feare lack of issue, you must marie a wife for ye self same purpose, the which only shalbe a meane, that you shal not want issue. But what doe you search so diligently, nay so carefully, all the incommodities of Matrimonie, as though single life had neuer any incommoditie ioyned with it at all. As though there were any kinde of life in al the world, that is not subiect to al euils that may happen. He must needes goe out of this world, that lookes to liue without feeling of any greefe. And in comparison of that life, which the Saincts of God shall haue in heauen, this life of man is to bee coumpted a death, and not a life. But if you consider things within the compasse of mankinde, there is nothing either more safe, more quiet, more pleasaunt, more to be desired, or more happie then is the married mans life. How many doe you see, that hauing once felt the sweetnesse of Wedlocke, doth not desire eftsones to enter into the same? My friend Mauricius, whom you knowe to be a very wiseman, did not he the next Moneth after his wife died (whom he loued dearely) get him straight a newe wife? Not that he was impacient of his lust, and could not forbeare any longer, but hee saied plainly, it was no life for him to be without a wife, which should bee with him as his yokefellowe, and companion in all things. And is not this the fourth wife that our friend Iouius hath maried? And yet he so loued the other when they were on liue, that none was able to comfort him in his heauinesse: And now he hastened so much (when one was dead) to fill vp and supplie the voyde roume of his Chamber, as though he had loued the other very little. But what doe
Necessitie enforceth
we talke so much of the honestie and pleasure herein, seeing that not onely profite doth aduise vs, but also neede doth earnestly force vs to seeke marriage. Let it bee forbidden that man and woman shall not come together, and within fewe yeares all mankinde must needes decay for euer. When Xerxes King of the Persians, beheld from an high place that
great Armie of his, such as almost was incredible: Some saied he could not forbeare weeping, considering of so many thousands, there was not one like to bee aliue within seuentie yeares after. Now, why should not wee consider the same of all mankinde, which he ment only of his armie. Take away mariage, and how many shall remaine after a hundred yeares, of so many Realmes, Countries, Kingdomes, Cities, & all other assemblies that be of men throughout the whole world? On now, praise we a Gods name, the single life aboue the Rocke, the which is like for euer to vndoe all mankinde. What Plague, what infection can either Heauen or Hell, sende more harmefull vnto mankinde? What greater euil is to be feared by any flood? What could bee looked for more sorowfull, although the flame of Phaeton should set the world on fire againe? And yet by such sore tempestes, many thinges haue beene saued harmelesse, but by the single life of man, there can be nothing left at al. We see what a sort of diseases, what diuersitie of mishappes doe night and day lye in wait, to lessen the small number of mankind. How many doth the Plague destroye, how many doe the Seas swallowe, how many doth Battaile snatch vp? For I will not speake of the daylie dying that is in all places. Death taketh her flight euery where rounde about, she runneth ouer them, she catcheth them vp, she hasteneth as much as she can possible to destroye all mankinde: and now doe we so highly commend single life, and eschue Mariage? Except happelie we like the profession of the Essens (of whom Iosephus speaketh, that they will neither haue wife nor seruauntes) or
Essens hated
Iosephus 18.
Cap. lib. 12.
the Dolopolitans, called otherwise the rascalles and slaues of Cities, the which companie of them is alwaie encreased, & continued by a sort of vagabond peasants that continue, and bee from time to time still together. Doe wee looke that some Iupiter should giue vs that same gift, the which he is reported to haue giuen vnto Bees, that he should haue issue without procreation, and gather with our mouthes out of the flowers, the seede of our posteritie? Or els doe wee desire, that like as the Poets feine Minerua, to be borne out of Iupiters head: in like sort there should children leape out of our heads? Or last of all doe wee looke, according as the old Fables haue bene, that men should be borne out of the earth, out of Rockes, out of stocks, stones, and old Trees. Many things breed out of the earth, without mans labour at all. Young shrubbes growe and shoute vp, vnder the shadowe of their graunsire Trees. But Nature would haue man to vse his owne waye of encreasing issue, that through labour of both the Husbande and wife, mankinde might still bee kept from destruction. But I promise you, if all men tooke after you, and still forbeare to marie: I cannot see but that these things which you wonder at, and esteeme so much, could not haue beene at all. Doe you yet esteeme this single life so greatly? Or doe wee praise so much virginitie aboue all other? Why man, there will bee neither single men, nor Virgines aliue, if men leaue to marrie, and minde not procreation. Why doe you then preferre virginitie so much, why set it you so hye, if it bee the vndoing of all the whole world? It hath beene much commended, but it was for that time, and in fewe. God would haue men to see, as though it were a patterne, or rather a picture of the heauenly habitation, where neither any man shall be married, nor yet any shall giue theirs to Marriage. But when thinges bee giuen for example a fewe may suffice, a number were to no purpose. For euen as all groundes, though they be very fruitfull, are not therefore turned into tillage for mans vse and commoditie, but part lieth fallowe, and is neuer mannered, part is kept & cherished to like the eye, and for mans pleasure: And yet in all the plentie of thinges, where so great store of Land is, Nature suffereth very little to waxe barren: but now if none should be tilled, & Plowmen went to play, who seeth not but that we should all starue, and bee faine shortly to eate Acornes: euen so it is praise worthie, if a fewe liue single, but if all should seeke to liue single, so many as be in this world, it were too great an inconuenience. Now againe, be it that other deserue worthy praise that seeke to liue a virgins life, yet it must nedes be a great fault in you. Other shalbe thought to seke a purenesse of life, you shalbe coumpted a Parricide, or a murtherer of your stocke, that whereas you may by honest Mariage, encrease your posteritie: you suffer it to decay for euer through your wilfull single life. A man may hauing an house full of children, commend one to God to liue a virgin all his life. The plowman offereth to God the tenthes of his owne, and not his whole Crop altogether: but you sir, must remember that there is none left aliue of all your stocke, but your self alone. And now it mattereth nothing whether you kill, or refuse to saue that creature, which you onely might saue and that with ease. But you will followe the example of your sister, and liue single as she doth. And yet me thinketh you should chiefly, euen for this selfe same cause bee afraied to liue single. For whereas there was hope of issue heretofore in you both, now you see there is no hope left but in you only. Bee it that your sister may bee borne withall, because she is a woman, and because of her yeares: for she being but a gerle, and ouercome with sorrowe for losse of her Mother, tooke the wrong way, she cast her selfe doune headlong & became a Nunne, at the earnest sute either of foolish women, or els of doltish Monkes: but you beeing much elder, must euermore remember that you are a man: She would needes dye together with her auncesters, you must labour that your auncesters shall not dye at all. Your Sister
of Loth.
would not doe her duetie, but shrinke away: thinke you now with your self, that you haue two offices to discharge. The daughters of Loth neuer stucke at the matter, to haue adoe with their dronken Father, thinking it better with wicked Whoredome and Incest, to prouide for their posteritie, then to suffer their stocke to dye for euer. And will not you with honest, godlie, and chast Marriage (which shall bee without trouble, and turne to your great pleasure) haue a regarde to your posteritie, most like els for euer to decay? Therefore, let them on Gods name, followe the purpose of chast Hippolitus, let them liue a single life that either can be maried men, and yet can get no children, or els such whose stocke may bee continued, by meanes of other their kinsfolke, or at the least whose kindered is such, that it were better for the Common weale they were all dead, then any of that name should be a liue, or els such men as the euerliuing God of his most especiall goodnesse hath chosen out of the whole world, to execute some heauenly office, whereof there is a marueilous small number. But where as you, according to
The conclusion.
the report of a Phisitian, that neither is vnlearned, nor yet is any lyar, are like to haue many children hereafter, seeing also you are a man of great Lands and Reuenues by your auncesters, the house where of you came being both right honorable, and right auncient, so that you could not suffer it to perish, without your great offence, & great harme to the Common weale. Againe, seeing you are of lustie yeares, and very comely for your personage, and may haue a Maide to your wife, such a one as none of your Countrey hath knowne any, to be more absolute for all thinges, comming of as noble a house as any of them, a chast one, a sober one, a godly one, an excellent faire one, hauing with her a wonderfull dowrie: seeing also your friendes desire you, your kinsfolke weepe to win you, your Cousins and Aliaunce are earnest in hande with you, your Countrey calles and cries vpon you: the ashes of your auncesters from their graues make heartie sute vnto you, do you yet holde backe: doe you still minde a single life? If a thing were asked you that were not halfe honest, or the which you could not well compasse, yet at the instaunce of your friends, or for the loue of your kinsfolke, you would be ouercome, and yeeld to their requests: then how much more reasonable were it, that the weeping teares of our friends, the heartie good wil of your Countrey, the deare loue of your elders might win that thing at your hands, vnto the which both the law of God and man doth exhort you. Nature pricketh you forwarde, reason leadeth you, honestie allureth you, so many commodities cal you, and last of al, necessitie it self doth constraine you. But here an ende of all reasoning. For I trust you haue now, and a good while agoe chaunged your mynd through mine aduise, and take your self to better counsaile.

Of Exhortation.
THe places of exhorting, and dehorting are the same which wee vse in perswading, and disswading, sauing that hee which vseth perswasion, seeketh by arguments to compasse his deuise: he that labours to exhort, doth stirre affection.

Erasmus sheweth these to bee most especiall places, that doe pertaine vnto exhortations.
{Praise or commendation.
{Expectation of all men.
{Hope of victorie.
{Hope of renowne.
{Feare of shame.
{Greatnesse of reward.
{Rehearsall of examples in all ages, and
   especially of things lately done.

Praysing a deede.
PRaysing is either of the man, or of some deede done. Wee shall exhort men to doe the thing, if wee shewe them that it is a worthie attempt, a godly enterprise, and such as fewe men hetherto haue aduentured. In praising a man, wee shall exhort him to goe forward, considering it agreeth with
Praysing a man,
the rather to
encourage him.
his wonted manhood, and that hetherto he hath not slacked to hazard boldly vpon the best and worthiest deedes, requiring him to make his ende aunswerable to his most worthie beginninges, that he may ende with honor, which hath so long continued in such renowme. For it were a foule shame to lose honour through follie, which haue bene got through vertue, and to appeare most slacke in keeping it, then he seemed carefull at the first to attaine it.

Againe, whose name is renowmed, his doinges from time to time, will be thought more wonderfull, and greater promises will men make vnto themselues of such mens aduentures, in any common affaires, then of others whose vertues are not yet knowen. A notable Master of Fence, is marueilous to behold, & men looke earnestly to see him do some wonder: how much more will they looke, when they heare tel, that a noble Captaine and an aduenturous prince, shall take vpon him the defence and sauegard of his Countrey, against the raging attemptes of his enemies? Therfore
Expectation of all
men. Hope of victorie.
a noble man cannot but goe forward with most earnest will, seeing all men haue such hope in him, and coumpt him to be their onely comfort, their fortresse and defence. And the rather to encourage such right worthie, we may put them in good hope to compasse their attempt, if we shewe them that God is an assured guide vnto al those, that in an honest quarell aduenture themselues, and shew their manly stomack. Sathan himselfe the greatest aduersary that man hath, yeldeth like a captiue when God doth take our part, much soner shal al other be subiect vnto him, & crie Peccavi, for if God be with him, what mattereth who be against him?

Fame foloweth worthie
factes. Shame foloweth
fearefulnesse, when
manhood is thought
Now, when victorie is got, what honour doth ensue? Here openeth a large field to speak of renoume, fame and endlesse honour. In al ages the worthiest men, haue alwaies aduentured their carcases, for the sauegard of their countrey, thinking it better to die with honor, then to liue with shame. Again, ye ruine of our realme should put vs to more shame, then the losse of our bodies should turn vs to smart. For our honestie being stained, ye paine is endles, but our bodies being gored, either the wound may sone be healed, or els our paine being sone ended, the glory endureth for euer.

Heauen the reward of
hault Captaines.
Lastly, he that helpeth the needie, defendeth his poore neighbours, and in the fauour of his Countrey bestoweth his life: will not God besides all these, place hym where he shall liue for euer, especially, seeing he hath done all these enterprises in faithe and for Christes sake?

Now in al ages, to recken such as haue been right Soueraine and victorious, what name got the worthie Scipio, that withstood the rage of Haniball? What brute hath Cæsar, for his most worthie Conquestes? What triumph of glory doth sound in al mens eares, vpon the onely naming of mightie Alexander, and his father King Philip? And now to come home, what head can expresse the renowmed Henrie the fifth King of Englande of that name, after the Conquest? What witte can set out the wonderfull wisedome of Henrie the seuenth, and his great foresight to espie mischiefe like to ensue, and his politique deuises to escape daungers, to subdue Rebelles, and to maintaine peace?

Of mouing pittie, and stirring
men to shewe mercie.
LIkewise, we may exhorte men to take pitie of the fatherlesse, the widowe, & the oppressed innocent, if we set before their eyes, the lamentable afflictions, the tyrannous wrongs, and the miserable calamities, which these poore
Mouing of pittie.
wretches doe sustaine. For if flesh and bloud moue vs to loue our children, our wiues, and our kinsfolke: much more should the spirite of God, and Christes goodnesse towardes man, stirre vs to loue our neighbours most intierly. These exhortations the preachers of God may most aptly vse, when they open his Gospel to the people, & haue iust cause to speake of such matters.
Of Commending.
The maner of
IN commending a man, wee vse this report of his wit, honestie, faithfull seruice, painfull labour, and carefull nature to doe his Maisters will, or any such like, as in the Epistles of Tullie, there are examples infinite.
Of Comforting.
NOw after all these, the weake would be comforted, and the sorowfull would be cherished, that their grief might be asswaged, and the passions of man brought vnder the obedience of reason. The vse hereof is great aswell in priuate
The maner of
troubles, as in commen miseries. As in losse of goods, in lacke of freendes, in sicknesse, in darth, and in death. In all which losses, the wise vse so to comfort the weake, that they giue them not iust cause euen at the first, to refuse all comforte. And therefore, they vse two waies of cherishing the troubled mindes. The one is, when we shewe that in
Comforting two
waies vsed.
some cases, and for some causes, either they should not lament at all, or els be sorie very little: the other is when we graunt that they haue iust cause to be sad, and therefore we are sad also in their behalfe, and would remedie the mater if it could be, and thus entering into felowship of sorowe, we seeke by a little and litle to mitigate their greefe. For all extreme heauinesse, and vehement sorowes can not abide comfort, but rather seeke a mourner that would take parte with them. Therefore, much warinesse ought to be vsed, when we happen vpon such exceeding sorowfulnesse, least we rather purchase hatred, then asswage griefe.

Those harmes should be moderatly borne, which must needes happen to euery one, that haue chaunced to any one. As Death, which spareth none, neither King nor Keisar, neither poore nor riche. Therefore, to be impacient for the losse of our frends, is to fall out with God, because he made vs men and not Angels. But the Godly (I trust) will alwaies remit the order of things, to the will of God, and force their passions to obeie necessitie. When God lately visited this
Sweating disease.
Realme with the Sweating disease, and receiued the two worthie Gentlemen, Henry Duke of Suffolk, and his brother Lord Charles: I seeing my Ladies Grace, their mother, taking their death most greeuously, could not otherwise for the duetie which I then did, and euer shall owe vnto her, but comfort her in that her heauinesse, the which vndoubtedly at that tyme much weakened her bodie. And because it may serue for an example of comfort, I haue bene bolde to set it foorth, as it foloweth hereafter.

An example of comfort.
THough mine enterprise may bee thought foolish, and my doinges very slender, in busying my braine to teache the expert, to giue counsaile to other, when I lacke it my selfe, and whereas more neede were for me to be taught of other, to take vpon mee to teache my betters, yet duetie binding me to doe my best, and among a number, though I can doe least, yet good will setting me forth with the formost: I can not chuse but write what I am able, and speake what I can possible, for the better comforting of your Grace, in this your great heauinesse, and sore visitation sent from GOD, as a warning to vs all. The Phisition then deserueth most thankes, when he practiseth his knowledge in time of necessitie, and then trauaileth most painefully, when hee feeleth his Pacient to bee in most daunger. The souldiour at that time, and at no time so much, is thought most trustie when hee sheweth at a neede his faithfull heart, and in time of extreme daunger doth vse, & bestow his most earnest labour. In the wealth of this worlde, what valiaunt man can want assistence? What mightie Prince can misse any helpe to compasse his desire? Who lacketh men, that lacketh no money? But when God striketh the mightie with his strong hande, and displaceth those that were highly placed: what one man doeth once looke backe, for the better easement of his deare brother, and Godly comforting his euen Christen, in the chiefe of all his sorowe. All men commonly more reioyce in the Sunne rising, then they doe in the Sunne setting. The hope of lucre and expectation of priuate gaine, maketh many one to beare out a countenaunce of fauour, whose heart is inwardly fretted with dedly rancour. But such frendes euen as prosperitie doeth get them, so aduersitie doth trie them. God is the searcher of euery mans thought, vnto whose iudgement, I deferre the assuraunce of my good will.

And though I can doe little, and therefore deserue as little thanke, as I loke for praise (which is none at all) yet will I endeuour earnestly at all times, as well for mine owne discharge, to declare my duetie, as at this present to say somewhat, for the better easement of your Grace in this your
Passions work
heauines. The passions of the minde haue diuers effectes, and therefore worke straungely, according to their properties. For, like as ioye comforteth the heart, nourisheth bloud, and quickeneth the whole bodie: So heauinesse and care hinder digestion, ingender euill humours, waste the principall partes, and with time consume the whole bodie. For the better knowledge therof, & for a liuely sight of the same, we neede not to seeke farre for any example, but euen to come straight vnto your Grase, whose bodie as I vnderstand credibly, and partly see my selfe, is sore appaired within short time, your minde so troubled, and your hart so heauie, that you hate in a maner all light, you like not the sight of any thing, that might bee your comfort, but altogether striken in a dumpe, you seeke to be solitarie, detesting all ioy, and delyting in sorrowe, wish with harte (if it were Gods will) to make your last ende. In which your heauinesse, as I desire to be a comforter of your Grace, so I can not blame your naturall sorowe, if that now after declaration of the same, you would moderate all your griefe hereafter, and call backe your pensiuenesse, to the prescript order of reason.

And first, for the better remedie of euery disease, and troubled passions, it is best to knowe the principall cause and chiefe occasion of the same. Your Grace had two sonnes, how noble, howe wittie, how learned, and how Godly, many thousands better knowe it, then any one is able well to tell it. GOD at his pleasure hath taken them both to his mercie, and placed them with him, which were surely ouer good to tarie here with vs. They both died as your Grace knoweth very yong, which by course of Nature and by mans estimation, might haue liued much longer. They both were together in one house, lodged in two seuerall Chambers, and almost at one time both sickened, and both departed. They died both Dukes, both well learned, both wise, and both right Godly. They both gaue straunge tokens of death to come. The Elder sitting at Supper and very merie, sayd sodainly to that right honest Matrone, and Godly Gentlewoman, that most faithfull and long assured seruaunt of yours, whose life God graunt long to continue: O Lorde, where shall we suppe to morowe at night, whereupon she being troubled, and yet saying comfortably, I trust my Lorde, either here, or els where at some of your freends houses: Nay (quoth he) we shal neuer Suppe together againe in this worlde be you well assured, and with that, seeing the Gentlewoman discomfited, turned it vnto mirth, and passed the rest of his Supper with much ioye, and the same night after twelue of the Clocke, being the fowerteene of Iulie sickned, and so was taken the next morning, about seauen of the clocke, to the mercie of God, in the yere of our Lorde, a thousande fiue hundred fiftie and one. When the eldest was gone, the younger would not tarie, but tolde before (hauing no knowledge thereof by any bodie liuing) of his brothers death, to the greate wondering of all that were there, declaring what it was to lose so deare a freend, but comforting himselfe in that passion, said: well, my brother is gone, but it maketh no matter for I will goe straight after him, and so did within the space of halfe an hower, as your Grace can best tell which was there present. Nowe I renewe these wordes to your Graces knowledge, that you might the more stedfastly consider their time, to be then appointed of GOD, to forsake this euill worlde, and to liue with Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob in the kingdome of Heauen. But wherefore did GOD take two such awaie, and at that time? Surely, to tell the principall cause, wee may by all
The cause why God
taketh away the
most worthiest.
likenesse affirme, that they were taken away from vs for our wretched sinnes, and most vile naughtinesse of life, that thereby wee being warned, might be as ready for God, as they now presently were, and amend our liues in time, whom God will call, what time wee know not. Then as I can see, we haue small cause to lament the lacke of them, which are in such blessed state, but rather to amend our owne liuing, to forthinke vs of our offences, and to wish of God to purge our hearts from all filthines and vngodly dealing, that we may be (as they now be) blessed with God for euer. Notwithstanding, the workes of God are vnsearchable, without the compasse of mans braine, precisely to comprehend the very cause, sauing that this perswasion ought surely to bee grounded in vs, euermore to thinke that God is offended with sinne, and that hee punisheth offences, to the third and fowerth generation, of all them that breake his commaundements, beeing iust in all his workes, and doing all things for the best. And therefore, when God plagueth in such sorte, I would wish that our faith might alwaies be staied, vpon the admiration of Gods glorie through out all his doings, in whom is none euill, neither yet was there euer any guile found. And I doubt not, but your Grace is thus affected, and vnfainedly confessing your owne offences, taketh this scourge to come from God, as a iust punishment of sinne for the amendement, not onely of your owne selfe, but also for the amendement of al other in generall. The lamentable voyce of the poore (which is the mouth of God) throughout the whole realme declares full well, the wickednesse of this life, and shewes plainly that this euill is more generally felt, then any man is able by worde, or by writing at full to set forth.

When God therefore, that is Lorde, not onely of the riche but also of the poore, seeth his ground spoyled from the wholsome profite of many, to the vaine pleasure of a fewe, and the yearth made priuate, to suffice the lust of vnsaciable couetousnesse, and that those which be his true members, can not liue for the intollerable oppression, the sore enhaunsing, and the most wicked grasing of those throughout the whole Realme, which otherwise might well liue with the onely value and somme of their landes, and yerely reuenues: he striketh in his anger the innocentes and tender younglings to plague vs with the lacke of them, whose innocencie, and Godlinesse of life, might haue been a iust example for vs, to amende our most euill doings. In which wonderfull worke of GOD, when hee receiued these two most noble impes, and his children elected to the euerlasting Kingdome, I can not but magnifie his most glorious name, from time to time, that hath so graciously preserued these two worthy Gentlemen, from the daunger of further euill, and most vile wretchednesse most like right shortly to ensue, except we all repent, and forethinke vs of our former euill liuing. And yet I speake not this as though I knewe any crime to bee more in you, then in any other: But I tel it to the shame of al those vniuersally within this Realme, that are giltie of such offences, whose inward consciences condemne their owne doings, and their open deedes beare witnesse against their euill nature. For it is not one house that shall feele the fall of these two Princes, neither hath God taken them for one priuate persons offences: but for the wickednesse of the whole Realme, which is like to feele the smarte, except God be mercifull vnto vs.

But now that they be gone, though the flesh be fraile, weake, and tender, and must needes smart, being wounded or cut: yet I doubt not but your grace, lacking two such portions of your owne flesh, and hauing them (as a man would say) cut away from your owne body, will suffer the smart with a good stomacke, and remember that sorowe is but an euill remedy to heale a sore. For if your hand were
Where necessitie
ruleth, sorowe is
detrenched, or your bodie maymed with some sodaine stroke, what profite were it for you to weepe vpon your wound, and when the harme is done, to lament stil the sore? Seing that with weeping it will not be lesse, & may yet through weeping ful sone be made more. For the sore is increased, when sorowe is added, and the paine is made double, which before was but single. A constaunt Christian should beare all miserie, and with pacience abide the force of necessitie, shewing with sufferaunce the strength of his faith, and especially when the change is from euill to good, from woe to weale, what folly is it to sorrowe that, for the which they ioye that are departed? They haue taken now their rest, that liued here in trauaile: They haue forsaken their bodies, wherin they were bound to receiue the spirit, whereby they are free. They haue chosen for sicknesse, health: for earth, heauen: for life transitorie, life immortall: and for man, God: then the which, what can they haue more? Or how is it possible they can be better? Vndoubtedly if euer they were happie, they are now most happie: if euer they were well, they are now in best case, being deliuered from this present euill worlde, and exempted from Sathan, to liue for euer with Christe our Sauiour.

Then what meane wee, that not onely lament the want of other, but also desire to tarie here our selues, hoping for a short vaine, and therewith a painefull pleasure, and refusing to enioye that continuall perfect, and heauenly enheritaunce, the which so sone shall happen vnto us, as Nature dissolueth this earthly body. Trueth it is, we are more fleshly then spirituall, soner feeling the ache of our body, then the greefe of our soule: more studious with care to be healthfull in carkasse, then seeking with praier, to bee pure in spirite. And therefore, if our freendes bee stained with sinne, we doe not or we will not espie their sore, we coumpt them faultlesse, when they are most wicked, neither seking the redresse of their euill doing, nor yet once amending the faultes of our owne liuing.

But when our freend departeth this world, and then forsaketh vs, when sinne forsaketh him: we begin to shewe our fleshly natures, wee weepe and we waile, and with long sorrowe without discretion, declare our want of Gods grace, and all goodnesse. Whereas we see that as some be borne,
The folly of such
as sorrow the want
of their freendes.
some doe die also, men, women and children, and not one hower certaine to vs of all our life, yet we neuer mourne, we neuer weepe, neither marking the death of such as we knowe, nor regarding the euill life of those whom we loue. But when such depart as were either nighest of our kinred, or els most our freendes, we then lament without all comfort, not the sinnes of their soules, but the chaunge of their bodies, leauing to doe that which we should, and doing that only which we should not doe at all. Wherein not onely wee declare much want of faith, but also wee shewe greate lacke of witte. For as the other are gone before, either to heauen or els to Hell: so shall our freends and kinsfolke folowe after. We are all made of one mettall, and ordeined to dye so many as liue. Therefore what folly is it in vs, or rather what fleshly madnesse immoderately to wayle their death, whom GOD hath ordeined to make their ende, except we lament the lacke of our owne liuing? For euen as well wee might at their first birthe bewaile their natiuitie, considering they must
Death common
to all.
needes die, because they are borne to liue. And whatsoeuer hath a beginning, the same hath also an ending, and the ende is not at our will, which desire continuaunce of life, but at his will which gaue the beginning of life. Now then seeing GOD hath ordeined all to dye, according to his appointed will, what meane they that would haue theirs to liue? Shall God alter his first purpose, for the onely satisfying of our foolish pleasure? And where GOD hath minded that the whole worlde shall decaie, shall any man desire that any one house may stande? In my minde, there can be no greater comfort to any one liuing for the lacke of his freend, then to thinke that this happened to him, which all other either haue felt, or els shall feele hereafter: And that God the rather made Death common to all, that the vniuersall Plague and egalnesse to all, might abate the fiercenesse of death, and comfort vs in the crueltie of the same, considering no one man hath an ende, but that all shall haue the like, and die we must euery mothers sonne of vs at one time or other. But you will say: my children might haue liued longer, they died young. Sure it
Euill to liue
among the euill.
is by mans estimation they might haue liued longer, but had it bene best for them thinke you, to haue continued still in this wretched worlde, where Vice beareth rule, and Vertue is subdued, where GOD is neglected, his lawes not obserued, his word abused, and his Prophetes that preach the iudgement of God, almost euery where contemned? If your children were a liue, and by the aduise of some wicked person, were brought to a Brothell house, where entising Harlots liued, and so were in daunger to commit that foule sinne of whoredome, and so led from one wickednesse to another: I am assured, your grace would call them backe with labour, and would with exhortations induce them to the feare of God, and vtter detestation of all sinne, as you haue ful often heretofore done, rather fearing euil to come, then knowing any open fault to be in either of them. Now then seeing God hath done the same for you himselfe, that you would haue done for them if they had liued, that is, in deliuering them both from this present euill worlde, which I coumpt none other then a Brothell house, and a life of all naughtinesse: you ought to thanke God highly, that he hath taken awaie your two sonnes, euen in their youth, being innocentes both for their liuing, and of such expectation for their towardnesse, that almost it were not possible for them hereafter, to satisfie the hope in their age, which al men presently had conceiued of their youth. It is thought and in deede it is no lesse then a great point of happinesse, to dye happely. Now, when could your
To die happely,
is great happinesse.
two noble Gentlemen haue died better, then when they were at the best, most Godly in many things, offending in fewe, beloued of the honest, and hated of none (if euer they were hated) but of such as hate the best. As in deede, noble vertue neuer wanted cankard enuie to followe her. And considering that this life is so wretched, that the best are euer most hated, and the vilest alwaies most esteemed, and your two Sonnes of the other side, being in that state of honestie, and trained in that path of godlinesse (as I am able to be a liuely witnesse, none hath bene like these many yeres, or at the least, none better brought vp) what thinke you of God, did he enuie them, or els did he prouidently forsee vnto them both, when he tooke them both from vs. Assuredly, whom God loueth best, those he taketh sonest, according to the saying of Salomon: The righteous man (meaning Enoch, and other
Wised. iiii.
the chosen of God) is sodainly taken away, to the intent, that wickednesse should not alter his vnderstanding, and that hypocrisie should not begile his soule. For the craftie bewitching of lyes, make good things darke: the vnstedfastnesse also, and wickednesse of volupteous desire, turne aside the vnderstanding of the simple. And though the righteous was sone gone, yet fulfilled he much time, for his soule pleased God, and therefore hasted he to take him awaie from among the
Psal. lxxxiiij.
Psalm .xlij.
wicked. Yea, the good men of God in all ages, haue euer had an earnest desire to be dissolued. My soule (quoth Dauid) hath an earnest desire to enter into the courtes of the Lord. Yea, like as the Hart desireth the water brookes, so longeth my soule after thee O God. My soule is a thirst for God: yea, euen for the liuing God, when shall I come to appeare before the presence of God? Paule & the Apostles wished and longed for the day of the Lord, & thought euery day a thousand yere, till their soules were parted from their bodies. Then what should we waile them, which are in that place where we al should wish to be, and seeke so to liue, that we might be ready, when it shall please God of his goodnesse to cal vs to his mercy. Let us be sicke for our own sinnes that liue here on earth, and reioyce in their most happie passage, that are gone to heauen. Thei haue not left vs, but
Life, the right
way to death.
Death purchaseth
gone before vs to inherite with Christ, their kingdom prepared. And what should this greue your grace that thei are gone before, considering our whole life is nothing els but the right waie to death. Should it trouble any one, yt his frend is come to his iourneis end? Our life is nothing els, but a continuall trauaile, & death obtaineth rest after all our labor. Among men that trauaile by the hye waie, he is best at ease (in my minde) that sonest cometh to his iourneis end. Therefore, if your grace loued your children (as I am well assured you did) you must reioyce in their rest, and giue God hartie thanks, that they are come so sone to their iourneis ende. Mary, if it were so that man might escape the daunger of death, & liue euer, it were an other matter: but because
Death more frendly,
the soner it commeth.
we must al die, either first or last, & nothing so sure in this life, as we are al sure to die at length, & nothing more vncertaine vnto man, then the certaine time of euery mans latter time, what forceth when we die, either this daie or to morowe, either this yere or the next, sauing that I thinke them most happie that dye sonest, and Death frendly to none so much, as to them whom she taketh sonest. At the time of
an Execution done, for greuous offences, what mattereth who die first, when a dosen are condemned together by a Lawe, considering they must all die one and other. I saie still, happie are they that are sonest ridde out of this world, and the soner gone, the soner blessed. The Thracians lament
Children by weeping,
declare our wo.
greatly at the birth of their children, and reioyce much at the buriall of their bodies, being well assured that this world is nothing els but miserie, and the world to come ioye for euer. Nowe againe the childe now borne, partly declareth the state of this life, who beginneth his time with wayling, and first sheweth teares, before he can iudge the cause of his woe. If we beleeue the promises of God, if wee hope for the generall resurrection, and constantly affirme that God is iust in all his workes: we can not but ioyfully say with the iust man Iob. The Lorde gaue them, the Lorde hath taken them againe, as it pleased God so may it be, and blessed be the name of the Lord for now & euer. God dealeth wrongfully with no man,
but extendeth his mercie most plentifully ouer all mankind. God gaue you two children, as the like I haue not knowden, happie are you most gracious Ladie that euer you bare them. God lent you them two for a time, and tooke them two againe at his time, you haue no wrong done you, that he hath taken them: but you haue receiued a wonderfull benefite that euer you had them. He is very vniust that boroweth and will not paie againe but at his pleasure. He forgetteth much his
Lent goods must
restored at the
owners will.
duetie, that boroweth a Iewell of the Kings Maiestie, and will not restore it with good will, when it shall please his Grace to cal for it. He is vnworthie hereafter to borowe, that will rather grudge because he hath it no longer, then once giue thanks because he hath had the vse of it so long. He is ouer couetous, that coumpteth not gainefull the time of his borowing: but iudgeth it losse to restore things againe. He is vnthankfull that thinkes hee hath wrong done, when his pleasure is shortned, and takes the ende of his delight to be extreme euill. He loseth the greatest part of his ioye in this worlde, that thinketh there is no pleasure but of thinges present: that can not comfort himselfe with pleasure past, and iudge them to be most assured, considering the memorie of them once had, can neuer decaie. His ioyes bee ouer straight, that bee comprehended within the compasse of his sight, and thinketh nothing comfortable, but that which is euer before his eyes. All pleasure, which man hath in this worlde, is very shorte, and sone goeth it waie, the remembrance lasteth euer and is much more assured, then is the presence or liuely sight of any thing. And thus your Grace may euer reioyce, that you had two such, which liued so verteously, and dyed so Godly, and though their bodies bee absent from your sight, yet the remembraunce of their vertues, shall neuer decaie from your mind. God lendeth life to all, and lendeth at his pleasure for a time. To this man he graunteth a long life, to this a short space, to some one, a daie, to some a yere, to some a moneth. Now, when GOD taketh, what man should be offended, considering he that gaue freely, may boldly take his owne when he will, and doe no man wrong. The Kings Maiestie giueth one .x. li. an other .xl. li. an other .lx. li. shal he be greeued that receiued but, x. li. and not rather giue thankes, that he receiued so much? Is that man happier that dieth in the latter ende of the moneth, then hee is that dyed in the beginning of the same moneth? Doeth distaunce of time, and long tarying from God, make men more happie when they come to God? By space of passage we differ much, and one liueth longer than an other, but by death at the last we all are matched, and none the happier that liueth the longer: but rather most happie is he that died the sonest, and departed best in the faith of Christ. Thinke therefore your selfe most happie, that you had two such, and giue God hartie thankes that it pleased him so soone to take two such. Necessitie is lawlesse, and that which is by God appointed, no man can alter. Reioyce we, or weepe we, dye we shall, how soone no man can tell. Yea, we are all our life time warned before, that death is at hande, and that when we goe to bed, we are not assured to rise the next day in the morning, no, not to liue one hower longer. And yet to see our folly, we would assigne God his tyme, according to our sacietie, and not content our selues with his doings, according to his appointment. And euer wee saie when any die yong, he might haue liued longer, it was pitie he died so sone. As though forsoth, he were not better with God, then he can be with man. Therefore, whereas for a time your Grace much bewailed their lacke, not onely absenting your selfe from all companie, but also refusing all kind of comforte, almost dead with heauinesse, your bodie being so worne with sorrowe, that the long continuaunce of the same, is much like to shorten your daies: I will desire your Grace for Gods loue, to referre your wil to God's will, and whereas hetherto nature hath taught you, to weepe the lacke of your naturall children, let reason teach you hereafter to wype awaie the teares, and let not phantasie encrease that, which nature hath commaunded moderatly to vse. To be sory for the lack of our dearest, we are taught by nature, to be ouercome with sorow, it commeth of our owne fonde opinion, and great folly it is, with natural sorowe to encrease al sorowe, and with a little sicknesse, to purchase readie death. The sorowes of brute beastes are sharpe, and yet they are but short. The Cowe lacking her Caulf, leaueth lowing within three or fower daies at the farthest. Birds of the Aire, perceyuing their young
The nature of
brute beastes.
ones taken from their neast, chitter for a while in Trees there about, and straight after they flye abroade and make no more adoe. The Dow lacking her Faune: the Hind her Calfe, braie no longer time after their losse, but seing their lacke to be without remedy, they cease their sorow within short space. Man onely among all other, ceaseth not to fauour his sorowe, and lamenteth not onely so much as nature willeth him, but also so much as his owne affection moueth him. And yet all folke doe not so, but such as are subiect to passions, and furthest from fortitude of mind, as women commonly rather then men, rude people rather then
Immoderat sorowe,
not naturall.
Godly folke: the vnlearned soner then the learned, foolish folke soner then wise men, children, rather then yong men. Whereupon we may well gather, that immoderate sorowe, is not naturall (for that which is naturall, is euer like in all) but through follie mainteined, encreased by weakenesse, and for lack of reason made altogether intollerable. Then I doubt not, but your Grace wil rather ende your sorowe by reason: then that sorowe should ende you through follie, and whereas by nature, you are a weake woman in bodie, you will shewe your selfe by reason, a strong man in heart: rather endyng your greefe by Godly aduertisements, and by the iust consideration of Gods wonderfull doings: then that time and space,
Time, a remedie for
fooles to take awaie
their sorowe. Math. vi.
Iohn. v.
should weare awaie your sorrowes, which in deede suffer none, continually to abide in any one, but rather rid them of life, or els ease them of griefe. The foole, the vngodly, the weake harted haue this remedie, your medicen must be more heauenly, if you doe (as you professe) referre al to Gods pleasure, and say in your praier. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heauen. Those whom God loueth, those he chasteneth, and happie is that bodie, whom God scourgeth for his amendment. The man that dyeth in the faieth of Christ is blessed, and the chastened seruaunt if he doe repent and amend his life, shalbe blessed. Wee knowe not what we doe when we bewaile the death of our dearest, for in death is altogether al happinesse, and before death not one is happie. The miseries in this world declare small felicitie to be in the same. Therefore, many men being ouerwhelmed with much woe and wretched wickednesse, haue wished and praied to God for an ende of
The greate miserie of
this worlde, makes
wearinesse of life.
this life, and thought this worlde to be a let, to the heauenly perfection, the which blisse all they shall attaine hereafter that hope well here, and with a liuely faith declare their assuraunce. Your Graces two sonnes in their life were so Godly, that their death was their aduauntage: for, by death they liued, because in life thei were dead. They died in faith, not wearie of this world, nor wishing for death, as ouer loden with sinne: but paciently taking the crosse departed with ioy. At whose dying, your grace may learne an example of pacience and all thankes giuing, that God of his goodnesse, hath so graciously taken these your two children to his fauourable mercie. God punished partly to trie your constancie, wherein I wish that your grace may now bee as well willing to forsake them,
Impacience without
as euer you were willing to haue them. But such is the infirmitie of our flesh, that we hate good comfort in wordes, when that cause of our comfort in deede (as we take it) is gone. And me thinkes I heare you crie notwithstanding al my words: alacke my children are gone. But what though they are gone? God hath called, and nature hath obeyed. Yea, you crie still my children are dead: Marie therefore they liued, and blessed is their ende whose life is so Godly. Woe worth they are dead they are ded. It is no new thing, thei are neither the first that died, not yet the last that shall die. Many went before, and all shal folow after. They liued together, they loued together, & now they are made their ende both together. Alas they died that were the fruite of myne owne body, leauing me comfortles, vnhappie woman that
Trees, not cursed,
because Apples fall
from them.
I am. You doe well, to call them the fruite of your bodie, and yet you nothing the more vnhappie neither. For is the tree vnhappie, from which the Apples fall? Or is the earth accursed, that bringeth forth greene grasse, which hereafter notwithstanding doth wither. Death taketh no order of yeres, but when the time is appointed, be it earely or late, daie or night, away we must. But I praie you, what loue hath your Grace. They dyed, that shoulde haue died, yea, they that could liue no longer. But you wished them longer life. Yea, [b]ut God made you no such promise, and meete it were not, that he should be led by you, but you rather should bee led by him. Your children died and that right Godly, what would you haue more? All good mothers desire that their children may dye Gods seruauntes, the which your Grace hath most assuredly obtained. Now againe, mans nature altereth, and hardly tarieth vertue long in one place, without much circumspection, and youth may sone be corrupted. But you will say. These were good and Godly brought vp, and therefore, most like to proue Godly hereafter if they had liued still. Well, though such things perhaps had not chaunced, yet such things might haue chaunced, and although they happen not to al, yet do they hap to many: and though they had not chaunced to your children, yet we knew not that before: and more wisedome it had bene, to feare the worst with good aduisement, then euer to hope, and looke still for the best, without all mistrusting. For such is the nature of man and his corrupt race, that euermore the one followeth soner then the other. Commodus was a vertuous childe, and had good bringing vp,
and yet he died a most wicked man. Nero wanted no good counsaile, and such a Master he had, as neuer any had the better, and yet what one aliue was worse then he? But now death hath assured your Grace, that you may warrant your selfe of their godly ende, whereas if God had spared them life, things might haue chaunced otherwise. In wishing longer life, we wish often times longer woe, longer trouble, longer folly in this world, and weigh all things well, you shall perceiue we haue small ioye, to wish longer life. This imagination of longer life, when the life standeth not by the number of yeres, but by the appointed will of God, maketh our folly so much to appeare, and our teares so continually to fall from our cheekes. For if we thought (as wee should doe in deed) that euery day rising, may be the end of euery man liuing, and that there is no difference with GOD, betwixt one day and an hundreth yeares, wee might beare all sorrowes a great deale the better. Therefore it were most wisedome for vs all, and a great part of perfection, to make euery day an euen reckening of our life, and talke so with God euery howre, that we may be of euen boord with him, through fulnesse of faith, and readie to goe the next howre following at his commaundement, and to take alwaies his sending in good part. The Lorde is at hand. We knowe not when he will come (at midnight, at Cock crowe, or at noone daies) to take either vs, or any of ours. Therfore, the rather that we may be armed, let vs follow the examples of other godly men, and lay their doings before your eyes. And among al other, I know none so meete for your Graces
ii. Reg. xii.
comfort, as the wise & godly behauour of good King Dauid. Who when he was enformed that his sonne was sicke, praied to God hartely for his amendement, wept, fasted, and with much lamentation declared great heauinesse. But when word came of his sonnes departure, hee left his mourning, he called for water, and willed meate to be set before him, that he might eate. Whereupon, when his men marueiled why he did so, considering he tooke it so greeuously before, when his child was but sicke, and now being dead tooke no thought at all, he made this answere vnto them: so long as my childe liued I fasted, and watered my plants for my yong boye, and I saied to my self, who can tel but that God perhappes will giue me him, and that my childe shall liue: but now seing he is dead, to what ende should I fast? Can I call him againe any more? Nay, I shall rather goe vnto him, he shall neuer come againe vnto me. And with that Dauid comforted his wife Bethsabe, the which example, as I trust your Grace hath read for your comfort, so I hope you will also followe it for your health, and be as strong in pacience as euer Dauid was. The historie it selfe shal much delight your grace, being read as it lieth in the booke, better then my bare touching of it
can doe a great deale. The which I doubt not, but your Grace will often reade and comfort your self, as Dauid did his sorrowfull wife. Iob losing his children and all that he had, forgat not to praise God in his extreame pouretie.
Tobias lacking his eye sight, in spirit praised God, and with open mouth confessed his holy name, to be magnified throughout the whole earth. Paule the Apostle of God, reproueth them as worthie blame, which mourne & lament the losse of their dearest. I would not brethren (quoth he) that you should
i. Thessa. iiii.
bee ignoraunt concerning them which be fallen on sleepe, that you sorrowe not as other doe, which haue no hope. If we beleeue that Iesus dyed and rose again, euen so they also which sleep by Iesus, wil God bring againe with him. Then your grace either with leauing sorowe, must shewe your self faithfull, or els with yeelding to your woe, declare your self to be without hope. But I trust your grace being planted in Christ, will shewe with sufferance the fruite of your faith, and comfort your self with the wordes of Christ, I am the
Iohn. xi.
resurrection & the life, he that beleueth on me, yea, though he were dead, yet should hee liue, and whosoeuer liueth and beleeueth in me shall neuer dye. We reade of those that had no knowledge of God, and yet they bare in good worth the disease of their children. Anaxagoras hearing tell, that
his sonne was dead: no maruel (quoth he) I knowe well I begot a mortall bodie. Pericles chief ruler of Athens, hearing tel that his two sonnes being of wonderfull towardnesse, within fower daies were both dead, neuer greatly changed countenance for the matter, that any one could perceiue, nor yet forbare to goe abroade, but according to his wonted custome, did his duetie in the Counsaile house in debating matters of weight, concerning the state of the
common peoples weale. But because your grace is a woman, I will shewe you an example of a noble woman, in whom appered wonderfull pacience. Cornelia a worthy Lady in Rome, being comforted for the losse of her two children Tiberius, and Caius Gracchus, both valiaunt Gentlemen, although both not the most honest men, which died not in their beds, but violently were slaine in ciuill battaile, their bodies lying naked and vnburied, when one among other said: oh vnhappie woman, that euer thou shouldest see this day. Nay (quoth she) I will neuer thinke my selfe otherwise then most happie, that euer I brought forth these two Gracchions. If this noble Ladie could thinke her self happie, being mother to these two valiaunt Gentlemen, and yet both Rebelles, & therefore iustly slaine: how much more may your Grace thinke your self most happie, that euer you brought forth two such Brandons, not onely by naturall birth, but also by most godly education in such sort, that the like two haue not beene for their towardnesse vniuersally. Whose death, the generall voyce of all men, declares how much it was lamented. So
that, whereas you might euer haue feared some daungerous end, now are you assured, that thei both made a most godly ende, the which thing is the full perfection of a Christian life. I read of one Bibulus, that hearing of his two children to die in one day, lamented the lack of them both for that one day, and mourned no more. And what could a man doe lesse, then for two children to lament but one day, and yet in my minde he lamented enough, and euen so much as was reason for him to doe: whose doinges if al Christians would followe, in my iudgement they should not onely fulfill Natures rule, but also please God highly. Horatius Puluillus being high
Priest at Roome, when he was occupied about the dedication of the Temple, to the great God Iupiter, in the Capitolie, holding a post in his hand, & heard as he was vttering the solemne wordes, that his sonne was dead euen at the same present: he did neuer plucke his hand from the post, least he should trouble such a solemnitie, neither yet turned his countenaunce from that publique Religion, to his priuate
Paulus Emilius.
sorowe, least he should seeme rather to doe the office of a Father, then the duetie of an high Minister. Paulus Emilius, after his most noble victorie had of King Perse, desired of God that after such a triumph, there were any harme like to happen to the Romaines, the same might fall vpon his owne house. Whereupon, when God had taken his two children from him, immediatly after he thanked God, for graunting him his bound. For in so doing he was a meane, that the people rather lamented Paulus Emilius lacke, then that Paulus or any bewailed any misfortune that the Romaines had. Examples be
Quintus Martius.
Iulius Cæsar.
Tiberius Cæsar.
innumerable of those which vsed like moderation, in subduing their affections, as Zenophon, Quintus Martius, Iulius Cæsar, Tiberius Cæsar, Emperors both of Roome. But what seeke I for misfortunate men (if any such be misfortunate) seeing it is an harder matter and a greater peece of worke to finde out happie men. Let vs looke round about, euen at home, and we shall finde enough subiect to this misfortune: for who liueth that hath not lost? Therfore I would wish your grace euen now, to come in againe with God, and although he bee angrie, yet shewe you your selfe most obedient to his will, considering he is Lord ouer Kinges, Emperours, and ouer all that bee, both in heauen and in earth, and spareth none whom he listeth to take, and no doubt he will take all at the last. His Darte goeth dayly, neither is any Dart cast in vaine, which is sent amongst a whole Armie, standing thicke together. Neither can you iustly lament that they liued no longer, for they liued long enough, that haue liued well enough. You must measure your children by their vertues, not by their yeares. For (as the Wiseman saith) a mans wisedome is the greye heares, and an vndefiled life is the
Sapi. iv.
old age. Happie is that mother that hath had godlie children, and not she that hath had long liuing children. For, if felicitie should stand by length of time, some Tree were more happie then any man, for it liueth longer, and so like wise brute beastes, as the Stagge, who liueth (as Plinie doth say)
Trees liue longer
then men.
The Stag how long
he liueth.
Man what he is
concerning his
two hundred yeres and more. If wee would but consider what man is, wee should haue small hope to liue, and little cause to put any great assuraunce in this life. Let vs see him what he is: Is his bodie any thing els, but a lumpe of earth, made together in such forme as we doe see? A fraile vessel, a weake carion subiect to miserie, cast doune with euery light disease, a man to day, to morowe none. A flowre that this day is fresh, to morrowe withereth. Good Lord doe wee not see, that euen those thinges which nourish vs, doe rotte and dye, as hearbes, birds, beastes, water, and al other, without the which we cannot liue. And how can we liue euer, that are sustained with dead thinges? Therefore, when any one doth dye, why doe wee not thinke, that this may chaunce to euery one, which now hath chaunced to any one. We bee now as those that stand in battaile ray. Not one man is sure of himself before an other, but al are in daunger in like maner to death. That your children dyed before other that were of riper yeres, we may iudge that their ripenesse for vertue, and al other gifts of nature were brought euen to perfection, whereby Death the soner approached, for nothing long lasteth that is sone excellent. God gaue your grace two most excellent children: God neuer giueth for any long time, those that bee right excellent. Their natures were heauenly, and therefore more meet for God then man.
Ripe things last
not long.
Among fruite we see some apples are sone ripe, and fal from the Tree in the middest of Sommer, other be still greene and tary til Winter, and hereupon are commonly called Winter fruite: euen so it is with man, some die yong some die old, and some die in their midle age. Your sonnes were euen two such alreadie, as some hereafter may be with long continuaunce of time. They had that in their youth for the gifts of nature, which all men would require of them both scarcely in their age. Therefore being both now ripe, they were most readie for God. There was a childe in Roome of a mans quantitie, for face, legges, and other parts of the body, whereupon wise men iudged he would not be long liuing. How could your grace thinke, that when you saw auncient wisedome in the one, and most pragnant wit in the other, marueilous sobrietie in the elder, & most laudable gentlenesse in the yonger, them both most studious in learning, most forward in al feates, aswel of the body as of the mind, being two such and so excellent, that they were like long to continue with you. God neuer suffereth such excellent and rare Iewels long to inherite the earth. Whatsoeuer is nie perfection, the same is most nye falling. Vertue being once absolute, cannot long be seene with these our fleshly eyes, neither can that tary the latter ende with other, that was ripe it selfe first of al, and before other. Fire goeth out the soner, the clearer that it burneth: & that light lasteth longest, that is made of most course matter. In greene wood we may see, that where as the fuell is not most apt for burning, yet the fire lasteth longer, then if it were nourished with like quantitie of drye wood. Euen so in the nature of man, the minde being ripe, the body decaieth straight, and life goeth away being once brought to perfection. Neither can there be any greater token of short life, then full ripenesse of natural wit: the which is to the body, as the heate of the Sunne is to things earthly. Therefore iudge right honorable Ladie, that euen now they both died, when they both were most readie for God, neither thinke that they died ouer sone because they liued no longer. They died both Gods seruaunts, and therefore they dyed well and in good time. God hath set their time, and taken them at his time, blessed children as they bee, to reigne with him in the kingdome of his Father, prepared for them from the beginning. Vnto whose will I wish, and I trust your Grace doth wholie referre your will, thanking him as hartely for that he hath taken them, as you euer thanked him for that he euer lent you them. I knowe the wicked wordes of some vngodly folke haue much disquieted your grace, notwithstanding, GOD being Iudge of your naturall loue towards your children, and al your faithful friends and seruaunts, bearing earnest witnesse with your Grace of the same: their vngodly talke the more lightly it is to be esteemed, the more vngodly that it is. Nay, your grace may reioyce rather, that whereas you haue done well, you here euill, according to the words of Christ. Blessed are you
Math. v.
when men speake all euill thinges against you. And againe, consider GOD is not led by the reporte of men, to iudge his creatures, but perswaded by the true knowledge of euery mans conscience to take them for his seruaunts, and furthermore, the harme is theirs which speake so lewdly, and the blisse theirs which beare it so paciently. For looke what measure they vse to other, with the same they shall bee measured againe. And as they iudge, so shall they be iudged. Be your Grace therefore strong in aduersitie, and pray for them that speake amisse of you, rendring good for euill, and with charitable dealing, shewe your selfe long suffering, so shal you heape coales on their heads. The boystrous Sea, trieth the good Mariner, and sharpe vexation declareth the
Pacience praise
worthy in
true Christian. Where battaile hath not bene before, there was neuer any victorie obtained. You then beeing thus assailed, shewe your selfe rather stoute to withstand, then weake to giue ouer: rather cleauing to good, then yeelding to euill. For if God be with you, what forceth who be against you. For when all friends faile, God neuer faileth them that put their trust in him, and with an vnfained heart call to him for grace. Thus doing, I assure your Grace God will be pleased, and the godly will much praise your wisedome, though the world full wickedly say their pleasure. I pray God your grace may please the godlie, and with your vertuous behauiour in this your widowhood, winne their commendation to the glorie of God, the reioysing of your friends, and the comfort of your soule. Amen.

Thus, the rather to make precepts plaine, I haue added examples at large, both for counsaile giuing and for comforting. And most needfull it were in such kinde of Orations, to bee most occupied, considering the vse hereof appeareth full oft in all parts of our life, and confusedly is vsed among all other matters. For in praising a worthie man, we shall haue iust cause to speake of al his vertues, of thinges profitable in this life, and of pleasures in generall. Likewise in trauersing a cause before a Iudge, we can not want the aide of perswasion and good counsaile, concerning wealth, health, life, and estimation, the helpe whereof is partly borowed of this place. But whereas I haue set forth at large, the places of confirmation, concerning counsaile in diuers causes: it is not thought, that either they should all bee vsed in number as they are, or in order as they stande: but that any one may vse them, and order them as he shall thinke best, according as the time, place, and person shall most of all require.

Of an Oration iudiciall.
THe whole burdein of weightie matters, and the earnest triall of all controuersies, rest onely vpon Iudgement. Therefore, when matters concerning land, goodes, or life, or any such thing of like weight are called in question, wee must euer haue recourse to this kinde of Oration, and after iust examining of our cause by the places thereof, looke for iudgement according to the lawe.
Oration iudiciall what it is.
ORation Iudiciall, is an earnest debating in open assemblie, of some weightie matter before a Iudge, where the complainaunt commenseth his action, and the defendant thereupon aunswereth at his perill, to all such thinges as are laied to his charge.
Of the foundation, or rather the principall point in euery
debated matter, called of the Rhetoricians the
state, or constitution of the cause.
NOt onely it is needefull in causes of iudgement, to consider the scope whereunto we must leauell our reasons, and direct our inuention: but also we ought in euery cause to haue a respect vnto some one espesiall point and chiefe article: that the rather the whole drift of our doinges, may seeme to agree with our first deuised purpose. For by this meanes our iudgement shalbe framed to speake with discretion, and the ignoraunt shall learne to perceiue with profite, whatsoeuer is said for his instruction. But they that take vppon them to talke in open audience, and make not their accompt before, what they will speake after: shall neither be well liked for their inuention, nor allowed for their wit, nor esteemed for their learning. For what other thing doe they, that boult out their wordes in such sort, and without all aduisement vtter out matter: but shew themselues to play as yong boyes or scarre Crowes doe, which shot in the open and plaine fieldes at all aduentures hittie missie. The
Definition of a
thing must first
be knowen ere we
speake our minde
at large.
learned therfore, and such as loue to be coumpted clerkes of vnderstanding, and men of good circumspection and iudgement, do warely scan what they chiefly minde to speake, and by definition seeke what that is, whereunto they purpose to direct their whole doinges. For by such aduised warenesse, and good eye casting: they shall alwaies bee able both to knowe what to say, and to speake what they ought. As for example, if I shal haue occasion to speake in open audience, of the obedience due to our soueraigne King, I ought first to learne what is obedience, and after knowledge attained, to direct my reasons to the onely proofe of this purpose, and wholie to seeke confirmation of the same, and not turne my tale to talke of Robin Hood, and to shew what a goodly Archer was he, or to speake wonders of the man in the Moone, such as are most needlesse, and farthest from the
Rouing without
purpose. For then the hearer looking to be taught his obedience, and hearing in the meane season mad tales of Archerie, and great meruailes of the man in the Moone: being halfe astonied at his so great straying, will perhappes say to himselfe: now whether the deuill wilt thou, come in man againe for very shame, and tell me no bytales, such as are to no purpose, but shew me that which thou didest promise, both to teach and perswade at thy first entrie. Assuredly such fond fellowes there haue bene, yea euen among Preachers, that talking of faith, they haue fetcht their full race from the xii. signes in the Zodiake. An other talking of the generall resurrection, hath made a large matter of our blessed Ladie, praysing her to bee so gentle, so curteous, and so kinde, that it were better a thousand fold, to make sute to her alone, then to Christ her sonne. And what needed (I pray you) any such rehearsall being both vngodly, and nothing at all to the purpose. For what maketh the praise of our Ladie, to the confirmation of the generall doome? Would not a man thinke him mad, that hauing an earnest errande from London to Douer, would take it the next way to ride first into Northfolke, next into Essex, and last into Kent? And yet assuredly, many an vnlearned and witlesse man, hath straied in his talke much farther a great deale, yea truely as farre as hence to Roome gates. Therefore wise are they that followe Plinies aduise, who would that all men both in writing, and speaking at large vpon any matter, should
Plinies counsaile for
handeling of causes.
euer haue an eye to the chiefe title, and principall ground of their whole entent, neuer swaruing from their purpose, but rather bringing all things together, to confirme their cause so much as they can possible. Yea, the wise and expert men will aske of themselues, how hangeth this to the purpose? To what end do ye speake it? What maketh this for confirmation of my cause? And so by oft questioning, either chide their owne follie if they speake amisse, or els be assured they speake to good purpose.

A state therefore generally, is the chiefe ground of a matter, and the principall point whereunto both he that speaketh should referre his whole wit, and they that heare should chiefly marke. A Preacher taketh in hande to shewe what
A state generally,
what it is.
prayer is, and how needfull for man to call vpon God: now he should euer remember this his matter, applying his reasons whollie and fullie to this end, that the hearers may both knowe the nature of prayer, and the needfulnesse of prayer. The which when he hath done, his promise is fulfilled, his time well bestowed, and the hearers well instructed.

A state of constitution, what it is in
matters of iudgement.
IN all other causes the state is gathered without contention, and seuerally handled vpon good aduisement, as he shal think best that professeth to speake. But in matters criminall, where iudgement is required: there are two persons at the least, which must through contrarietie stand and rest vpon some issue. As for example. A seruing man is apprehended by a Lawyer for Felonie, vpon suspition. The Lawyer saith to the seruing man: thou hast done this Robberie. Nay (saith he) I haue not done it. Vpon this conflict and matching together ariseth this State, whether this seruing man hath done this Robberie, or no? Vppon which point the Lawyer must stand, and seeke to proue it to the vttermost of his power.

A state thereof in matters of Iudgement, is that thing which doth arise vpon the first demaund, and denial made betwixt men, whereof the one part is the accuser, and the other part the person, or persons accused. It is called a State, because wee doe stande and rest vpon some one point, the which must wholie and only be proued of the one side, and denied of the
State in iudgement,
what it is.
State, why it
is so called.
other. I cannot better terme it in English, then by the name of an issue, the which not onely ariseth vpon much debating, and long trauers vsed, whereupon all matters are saied to come to an issue: but also els where an issue is said to be then, and so often, as both parties stand vpon one point, the which doth as well happen at the first beginning, before any probations are vsed, as it doth at the latter ending, after the matter hath at large bene discussed.

The deuision of States, or issues.
NOW that wee knowe what an Issue is, it is next most needefull, to shewe how many there are in number. The wisest and best learned haue agreed vpon three onely and no lesse, the which are these following.

{i. Coniecturall.
The state. {ii. Legall.

{iii. Iuridiciall.

AND for the more plaine vnderstanding of these darke wordes, these three questions following, expounde their meaning altogether.
{i. Whether the thing be, or no.
{ii. What it is.
{iii. What maner of thing it is.

IN the first wee consider vpon the rehearsall of a matter, whether any such thing bee, or no. As if one should bee accused of murther, good it were to knowe, whether any murther were committed at all, or no, if it bee not perfectly knowne before: and after to goe further, and examine whether such a man that is accused, haue done the deede, or no.

In the second place we doubt not vpon the thing done, but we stand in doubt what to call it. Sometimes a man is accused of Felony, and yet he proueth his offence to be but a trespasse, whereupon he escapeth the daunger of death. An other beeing accused for killing a man, confesseth his fault to bee manslaughter, and denieth it vtterly to bee any murther, whereupon hee maketh friends to purchase his pardon. Now the Lawyers by their learning, must iudge the doubt of this debate, and tell what name he deserueth to haue, that hath thus offended.

In the third place not onely the deed is confessed, but the maner of doing is defended. And if one were accused for killing a man, to confesse the deede, and also to stande in it that hee might iustly so doe, because he did it in his owne defence: whereupon ariseth this question, whether his doing be right or wrong. And to make these matters more plaine, I will adde an example for euery state seuerally.

Of the state coniecturall.
The Assertion.
     Thou hast killed this man.
The Answere.
     I haue not killed him.
The State or Issue.
     Whether he hath killed this man, or no. Thus we see vppon the auouching and deniall, the matter standeth vpon an Issue.
Of the state Legall.
The Assertion.
     Thou hast committed treason in this fact.
The Answere.
     I denye it to be Treason.
The State or Issue.
     Whether his offence done may be called treason, or no. Here is denyed that any such thing is in the deede done, as is by word reported, and said to be.
Of the state Iuridicial.
The Assertion.
     Thou hast killed this man.
     I graunt it, but I haue done it lawfully, because I killed him in mine owne defence.

     Whether a man may kill one in his owne defence, or no, and whether this man did so, or no.
The Oration coniecturall, what it is.
THe Oration coniecturall is when matters bee examined, and tried out by suspitions gathered, and some likelihood of thing appearing. A Souldier is accused for killing a Farmer. The Souldier denyeth it vtterly, and saith he did not kill him. Hereupon riseth the question, whether the Souldier killed the Farmer or no, who is wel known to be slaine. Now to proue this question, we must haue such places of confirmation, as hereafter do followe.
Places of confirmation, to proue things by coniecture.
{i. Will to doe euill.
{ii. Power to doe euill.

IN the will must be considered the qualitie of the man, whether hee were like to doe such a deede, or no, and what should moue him to attempt such an enterprise: whether he did the murther vppon any displeasure before conceiued, or of sodaine anger, or els for that he looked by his death to receiue some commoditie, either land, or office, money, or money worth, or any other gainefull thing.

Some are knowne to want no will to kil a man, because they haue bene flesht heretofore, passing as little vpon the death of a man, as a Butcher doth passe for killing of an Oxe, being heretofore either accused before a Iudge of manslaughter, or els quit by some generall Pardon. Now, when the names of such men are knowen, they make wise men euer hereafter to haue them in suspition.

The Countrey where the man was borne, declares sometime his natural inclinasion, as if he were borne or brought vp among the Tinsdale and Riddesdale men, he may the soner be suspected.

Of what trade he is, by what occupation he liueth.

Whether he be a Gamester, an Alehouse haunter, or a companion among Ruffians.

Of what wealth he is, and how he came by that which he hath, if he haue any.

What apparell he weareth, or whether he loueth to goe gaie, or no.

Of what nature he is, whether he be hastie, headie, or readie to picke quarrelles.

What shiftes he hath made from time to time.

What moueth him to doe such a hainous deede.

Places of confirmation, to proue whether he
had power to doe such a deede, or no.
THE ground where the man was slaine, whether it was in the Hye way, in a Wood, or betweene two Hilles, or els where nigh vnto a hedge or secrete place.

The tyme, whether it was earely in the morning, or late at night.

Whether he was there about that time, or no.

Whether he ranne away after the deede was done, or had any blood about him, or trembled, or staggerd, or was contrary in telling of his tale, and how he kept his countenaunce.

Hope to keepe his deede secrete, by reason of the place, time, and secrete maner of doing.

Witnesses examined of his being, either in this or that place.

By comparing of the strength of the Murtherer, with the other mans weakenesse, Armour with nakednesse, and stoutnesse with simplicitie.

His confession.

An example of an Oration iudiciall, to proue by coniectures,
the knowledge of a notable and most hainous offence,
committed by a Souldier.
AS Nature hath euer abhorred Murder, and God in all ages most terribly hath plagued bloodshedding, so I trust your wisedomes (most worthie Iudges) will speedely seeke the execution of this most hatefull sinne. And where as God reuealeth to the sight of men, the knowledge of such offences by diuers likelihoods, & probable coniectures: I doubt not, but you being called of God to heare such causes, will doe herein as reason shal require, and as this detestable offence shal moue you, vpon rehearsall of the matter. The man that is wel knowne to be slaine, was a worthie Farmer, a good housekeeper, a wealthie Husbandman, one that trauailed much in this worlde, meaning vprightly in all his doinges, and therefore beloued among al men, & lamented of many when his death was knowne. This Souldier beeing desperate in his doinges, and liuing by spoyle all his life time, came newly from the Warres, whose handes hath bene lately bathed in blood, and now he keepeth this Countrey (where this Farmer was slaine) and hath beene here for the space of one whole Moneth together, and by all likelihoodes, he hath slaine this honest Farmer. For such men flesht villaines, make small acoumpt for killing any one, and doe it they will without any mercie, when they maye see their time. Yea, this wretch is bruted for his beastly demeanour, and knowne of long time to be a strong theef. Neither had he escaped the daunger of the lawe, if the Kings free Pardon had not preuented the execution. His name declares his naughtie nature, and his wicked liuing hath made him famous. For who is he that hearing of N. (the notable offenders name, might here bee rehearsed) doth not thinke by and by, that hee were like to doe such a deede? Neither is he onely knowne vniuersally to bee naught, but his soyle also (where he was borne) giueth him to bee an euill man: considering he was bredde and brought vp among a denne of Theeues, among the men of Tinsdale & Riddesdale, where pillage is good purchase, and murthering is coumpted manhood. Occupation hath he none, nor yet any other honest meanes, whereby to maintaine himselfe: and yet he liueth most sumpteously. No greater gamester in a whole Countrey, no such ryotor, a notable whoremonger, a leaude Royster among Ruffians, a notable waister, to day full of money, within seuen night after not worth a groate. There is no man that seeth him, but will take him for his Apparell to be a gentleman. He hath his chaunge of suites, yea, he spareth not to goe in his Silkes and Veluet. A great quareller and fray maker, glad when he may be at defiance with one or other, he made such shiftes for money ere now, that I maruaile how he hath liued till this day. And now being at a lowe ebbe, and loth to seeme base in his estate, thought to aduenture vpon this Farmer, and either to winne the Saddle, or els to lose the Horse. And thus beeing so farre forward, wanting no will to attempt this wicked deede, he sought by all meanes possible, conuenient oportunitie to compasse his desire. And wayting vnder a Wood side, nigh vnto the high way, about sixe a clocke at night, hee set vppon this Farmer, at what time he was comming homeward. For it appeareth not onely by his owne confession, that hee was there aboute the selfe same time, where this man was slaine: but also there bee men that sawe him ride in great haste, about the selfe same time. And because God would haue this murder to be knowne, looke I pray you, what bloud he carieth about him, to beare witnesse against him of his most wicked deede. Againe, his owne confession doth plainly goe against him, for he is in so many tales, that he cannot tell what to say. And often his colour chaungeth, his bodie shaketh, and his tongue foultereth within his mouth. And such men as hee bringeth in to beare witnesse with him, that he was at such a place at the self same howre, when the Farmer was slaine: they will not bee sworne for the very hower, but they say he was at such a place within two howres after. Now Lord, doth not this matter seeme most plaine vnto al men, especially seeing this deede was done at such a time, and in such a place, that if the Deuill had not beene his good Lord, the matter had neuer come to light. And who will not say, that this caytife had little cause to feare, but rather power enough to doe his wicked fact, seeing he is so sturdie and so strong, and the other so weake and vnweldie: yea, seeing this vilaine was armed, and the other man naked. Doubt you not (worthie Iudges) seeing such notes of his former life, to declare his inward nature, and perceiuing such coniectures lawfully gathered vpon iust suspition: but that this wretched souldier hath slaine this worthy Farmer. And therefore, I appeale for Iustice vnto your wisedomes, for the death of this innocent man, whose blood before God asketh iust auengement. I doubt not but you remember the wordes of Salamon, who saith: It is as great sinne to forgiue the wicked, as it is euill to condemne the innocent: and as I call vnfeinedly for rightfull Iudgement, so I hope assuredly for iust execution.

The person accused beeing innocent of the crime that is laied to his charge, may vse the selfe same places for his owne defence, the which his accuser vsed to proue him giltie.

The interpretation of a lawe, otherwise called a state legall.
IN boulting out the true meaning of a Lawe, wee must vse to search out the nature of the same, by defyning some one word, or comparing one Lawe with an other, iudging vppon good triall, what is right, and what is wrong.
The parts.
{i. Definition.
{ii. Contrary Lawes.
{iii. Lawes made and the end of the lawmaker.
{iiii. Ambiguitie, or doubtfulnesse.
{v. Probation by things like.
{vi. Chalenging or refusing.
Definition what is it.
THen we vse to define a matter, when we cannot agree vpon the nature of some worde, the which wee learne to knowe by asking the question, what it is. As for example. Where one is apprehended for killing a man, we lay murder to his charge: whereupon the accused person, when he graunteth the killing, & yet denieth it to be murder: we must streight after haue recourse to the definition, and aske what is murder, by defining whereof, and comparing the nature of the word with his deede done, wee shall sone knowe whether he committed murder, or manslaughter.
Contrary Lawes.
IT often happeneth, that lawes seeme to haue a certain repugnancie, whereof among many riseth much contention, whereas if both the lawes were well weighed and considered, according to their circumstances, they would appeare nothing contrary in matter, though in words they seeme to dissent. Christ giueth warning, and chargeth his Disciples in the x. of Math. that they preach not the glad tidinges of his comming into the worlde, to the Gentiles, but to the Iewes onely, vnto whom he was sent by his father. And yet after his resurrection, we doe reade in the last of Matthewe, that he commaunded his disciples to go into all the whole world, and preach the glad tidings of his passion, and raunsome, paied for all creatures liuing. Now, though these two lawes seeme contrary, yet it is nothing so. For, if the Iewes would haue receiued Christ, and acknowledged him their Sauiour, vndoubtedly, they had beene the onely Children of God, vnto whom, the promise and couenaunt was made from the beginning. But because they refused their Sauiour, and crucified the Lord of glorie: Christ made the lawe generall, and called all men to life that would repent, promising saluation to all such, as beleeued and were Baptised. So that the particuler lawe being now abrogated, must needes giue place to the superiour.
Fower lessons to be obserued, where contrary
Lawes are called in question.
{i. The inferior law, must giue place to the superior.
{ii. The lawe generall, must yeeld to the speciall.
{iii. Mans law, to Gods law.
{iiii. An olde law, to a new law.

THere be lawes vttered by Christes owne mouth, the which if they bee taken according as they are spoken, seeme to containe great absurditie in them. And therefore, the minde of the lawe maker, must rather bee obserued, then the bare words taken only as they are spoken. Christ saieth
Math. 5.
Math. 19.
Math. 16.
in the fifth of Matthewe. If thy right eye be an offence to thee, plucke him out, and cast him away from thee. If one giue thee a blow of thy right cheeke, turne to him again thy left cheke. There be some Eunuches, that haue gelded themselues from the kingdome of Heauen. Goe and sell all that thou haste, and giue it to the poore. He that doth not take vp his crosse and followe me, is not worthy of mee. In all which sentences, there is no such meaning, as the bare words vttered seeme to yeeld. Plucking out of the eye, declares an auoyding of all euill occasions. Receiuing a blowe vpon the left cheeke, commendes vnto vs modestie, and pacience in aduersitie. Gelding, signifieth a subduing of our affections, and taming the foule lust of pleasure, vnto the wil of reason. Goe and sell all: declares we should be liberall, and glad to parte with our goodes to the poore and needie. Bearing the crosse betokeneth sufferaunce of all sorowes and miseries in this worlde. Now, to proue that the will of the law maker, is none other then I haue said: I may vse the testimonies of other places in the Scripture, and compare them with these sentences, and so iudge by iust examination, and diligent search the true meaning of the law maker.

SOmetymes a doubt is made vpon some worde or sentence, when it signifieth diuers things, or may diuersly bee taken, whereupon full oft ariseth much contention. The Lawiers lacke no cases, to fill this part full of examples. For rather
then faile, they will make doubtes oftentimes, where no doubt should be at all. Is his Lease long enough (quoth one:) yea sir, it is very long said a poore Housbandman. Then (quoth he) let me alone with it, I will finde a hole in it I warrant thee. In all this talke I except alwaies the good Lawiers, and I may wel spare them, for they are but a fewe.
Probation by things like.
WHen there is no certaine Law by expresse words, vttered for some heinous offender: we may iudge the offence worthy death, by rehersall of some other Law, that soundeth much that waye. As thus. The Ciuill Lawe appointeth, that he shall be put in a Sacke, and cast in the Sea, that killeth his father: well, then he that killeth his mother, should by all reason in like sort bee ordered. It is lawfull to haue a Magistrate, therefore it is lawfull to pleade matters before an officer. And thus, though, the last cannot be proued by expresse words, yet the same is found lawfull by rehearsall of the first.
Chalenging or refusing.
WE vse this order, when we remoue our sutes from one Court to an other, as if a man should appele from the Common place, to the Chauncerie. Or if one should bee called by a wrong name, not to aunswere vnto it. Or if one refuse to aunswere in the Spirituall Courte, and appele to the Lord Chauncellour.
The Oration of right or wrong, called
otherwise the state Iuridiciall.
AFter a deede is well knowen to be done, by some one person, we goe to the next and searche whether it be right or wrong. And that is, when the maner of doing is examined, and the matter tried through reasoning, and much debating, whether it be wrongfully doen, or otherwise.
The Diuision.
THis state of right or wrong, is two waies deuided, whereof the one is, when the matter by the owne nature, is defended to be right, without any further seeking, called of the Rhetoricians, the state absolute.

The other (vsing little force or strength, to maintaine the matter) is, when outwarde helpe is sought, and by-wayes vsed to purchase fauour, called otherwise the state assumptiue.

Places of Confirmation for the first kinde, are vij.
{i. Nature it selfe.
{ii. Gods Law, and mans Law.
{iii. Custome.
{iiii. Equitie.
{v. True dealing.
{vi. Auncient examples.
{vii. Couenauntes and deedes autentique.

TVllie in his most worthy Oration, made in behalfe of Milo, declares that Milo slue Clodius most lawfully, whom Clodius sought to haue slaine most wickedly. For (quoth Tullie) if nature haue graffed this in man, if Lawe haue confirmed it, if necessitie haue taught it, if custome haue kept it, if equitie haue maintained it, if true dealing hath allowed it, if all common weales haue vsed it, if deedes auncient haue sealed this vp, that euery creature liuing should fence it selfe against outward violence: no man can thinke that Milo hath done wrong, in killing of Clodius, except you think, that when men meete with theeues, either they must be slaine of them, or els condemned of you.

Places of confirmation for the second kinde, are iiij.
{Graunting of the fault committed.
{Blaming euill companie for it.
{Comparing the fault, and declaring that either they
{   must haue done that, or els haue done worse.
{Shifting it from vs, and shewing that we did it
{   vppon commaundement.

Confessing what it is.
COnfessing of the fault, is when the excuseth persone graunteth his crime, and craueth pardon thereupon, leauing to aske Iustice, and leaning wholy vnto mercie.

Confession of the fault vsed
two maner of waies.
The diuision.
THe first is, when one accuseth himselfe, that he did it not willingly, but vnwares, and by chaunce.

The seconde is, when he asketh pardon for the faulte done, considering his seruice to the Commonweale, and his worthy deedes heretofore done, promysing amendment of his former euill deed: the which words would not be vsed before a Iudge, but before a King, or Generall of an Armie. For the Iudges must giue sentence according to the Lawe: the King may forgiue, as authour of the Lawe, and hauing power in his hande, may doe as he shall thinke best.

Blaming other, how
it is saied.
Blaming other for the fault done, is when we saie, that the accused person, would neuer haue done such a deede, if other against whom also, this accusation is intended, had not beene euill men, and giuen iust cause of such a wicked deede.

Comparing the fault.
Comparing the fault is when we saie, that by slaying an euill man, we haue done a good deede, cutting away the corrupt and rotten member, for preseruation of the whole body. Or thus: some set a whole toune on fire, because their enemies should haue none aduauntage by it. The Saguntines, being tributarie to the Romaines, slue their owne
children, burnt their goods, and fired their bodies, because they would not subiect to that cruel Hanniball, and lose their allegiaunce, due to the Romaines.

Shifting the fault
from vs.
Shifting it from vs, is when wee say that if other had not set vs on, we would neuer haue attempted such an enterprise. As often times the Souldiour saieth, his Captaines bidding was his enforcement: the seruaunt thinketh his maisters commaundement, to be a sufficient defence for his discharge.

Continue on to Book II.

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