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Renascence Editions

The Scholemaster (Book II)

Roger Ascham

Book I   |   Book II

Note on the etext: this Renascence Editions text was edited in 1998 by Judy Boss of Omaha, Nebraska. Content unique to this presentation is copyright © 1998 The University of Oregon. For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher.

Note (from the ASCII version): I have omitted signature designations, have transcribed Greek characters, and have expanded the usual Renaissance contractions for "m" and "n"; marginalia are separated from textual line by // and a curly bracket vertically extending over more than one line is represented by a curly bracket on each successive line; long vertical lines extending over more than one line are also indicated by a vertical line on each successive line of text. -- Judy Boss.


The second booke.

AFter that your scholer, as I sayd before, shall cum in deede, first, to a readie perfitnes in translating, than, to a ripe and skilfull choice in markyng out hys sixe pointes, as,
{1. Proprium.
{2. Translatum.
{3. Synonymum.
{4. Contrarium.
{5. Diuersum.
{6. Phrases.
Than take this order with him: Read dayly vnto him, some booke of Tullie, as the third booke of Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, de Amicitia, or that excellent Epistle conteinyng almost the whole first book ad Q. fra: some Comedie of Terence or Plautus: but in Plautus, skilfull choice must be vsed by the master, to traine his Scholler

de Senectute,



Iul. Cæsar.

T. Liuius.

to a iudgement, in cutting out perfitelie ouer old and vnproper wordes: Cæs. Commentaries are to be read with all curiositie, in specially without all exception to be made, either by frende or foe, is seene, the vnspotted proprietie of the Latin tong, euen whan it was, as the Grecians say, in akme, that is, at the hiest pitch of all perfitenesse: or some Orations of T. Liuius, such as be both longest and plainest.
      These bookes, I would haue him read now, a good deale at euery lecture: for he shall not now vse dalie translation, but onely construe againe, and parse, where ye suspect, is any nede: yet, let him not omitte in these bookes, his former exercise, in marking diligently, and writyng orderlie out his six pointes. And for translating, vse you your selfe, euery second or thyrd day, to chose out, some Epistle ad Atticum, some notable common place out of his Orations, or some other part of Tullie, by your discretion, which your scholer may not know where to finde: and translate it you your selfe, into plaine naturall English, and than giue it him to translate into Latin againe: allowyng him good space and tyme to do it, both with diligent heede, and good aduisement. Here his witte shalbe new set on worke: his iudgement, for right choice, trewlie tried: his memorie, for sure reteyning, better exercised, than by learning, any thing without the booke: & here, how much he hath proffited, shall plainly appeare. Whan he bringeth it translated vnto you, bring you forth the place of Tullie: lay them together: compare the one with the other: commend his good choice, & right placing of wordes: Shew his faultes iently, but blame them not ouer sharply: for, of such missings, ientlie admonished of, proceedeth glad & good heed taking: of good heed taking, springeth chiefly knowledge, which after, groweth to perfitnesse, if this order, be diligentlie vsed by the scholer & iently handled by the master: for here, shall all the hard pointes of Grammer, both easely and surelie be learned vp: which, scholers in common scholes, by making of Latines, be groping at, with care & feare, & yet in many yeares, they scarse can reach vnto them. I remember, whan I was yong, in the North, they went to the Grammer schole, litle children: they came from thence great lubbers: alwayes learning, and litle profiting: learning without booke, euery thing, vnderstandyng within the booke, litle or nothing: Their whole knowledge, by learning without the booke, was tied onely to their tong & lips, and neuer ascended vp to the braine & head, and therfore was sone spitte out of the mouth againe: They were, as men, alwayes goyng, but euer out of the way: and why? For their whole labor, or rather great toyle without order, was euen vaine idlenesse without proffit. In deed, they tooke great paynes about learning: but employed small labour in learning: Whan by this way prescribed in this booke, being streight, plaine, & easie, the scholer is alwayes laboring with pleasure, and euer going right on forward with proffit: always laboring I say, for, or he haue construed parced, twise translated ouer by good aduisement, marked out his six pointes by skilfull iudgement, he shall haue necessarie occasion, to read ouer euery lecture, a dosen tymes, at the least. Which, bicause he shall do alwayes in order, he shall do it alwayes with pleasure: And pleasure allureth loue: loue hath lust to labor: labor alwayes obteineth his purpose, as most trewly, both Aristotle in his Rhetoricke & Oedipus in Sophocles do teach, saying, pan gar ekponoumenon aliske. et. cet. & this oft reading, is the
Rhet. 2

In Oedip. Tyr.

Epist. lib. 7.

verie right folowing, of that good Counsell, which Plinie doth geue to his frende Fuscus, saying, Multum, non multa. But to my purpose againe:
      Whan, by this diligent and spedie reading ouer, those forenamed good bokes of Tullie, Terence, Cæsar, and Liuie, and by this second kinde of translating out of your English, tyme shall breed skill, and vse shall bring perfection, than ye may trie, if you will, your scholer, with the third kinde of translation: although the two first wayes, by myne opinion, be, not onelie sufficent of them selues, but also surer, both for the Masters teaching, and scholers learnyng, than this third way is: Which is thus. Write you in English, some letter, as it were from him to his father, or to some other frende, naturallie, according to the disposition of the child, or some tale, or fable, or plaine narration, according as Aphthonius beginneth his exercises of learning, and let him translate it into Latin againe, abiding in soch place, where no other scholer may prompe him. But yet, vse you your selfe soch discretion for choice therein, as the matter may be within the compas, both for wordes and sentences, of his former learning and reading. And now take heede, lest your scholer do not better in some point, than you your selfe, except ye haue bene diligentlie exercised in these kindes of translating before:
      I had once a profe hereof, tried by good experience, by a deare frende of myne, whan I came first from Cambrige, to serue the Queenes Maiestie, than Ladie Elizabeth, lying at worthie Syr Ant. Denys in Cheston. Iohn Whitneye, a yong ientleman, was my bedfeloe, who willyng by good nature and prouoked by mine aduise, began to learne the Latin tong, after the order declared in this booke. We began after Christmas: I read vnto him Tullie de Amicitia, which he did euerie day twise translate, out of Latin into English, and out of English into Latin agayne. About S. Laurence tyde after, to proue how he proffited, I did chose out Torquatus taulke de Amicitia, in the later end of the first booke de finib. bicause that place was, the same in matter, like in wordes and phrases, nigh to the forme and facion of sentences, as he had learned before in de Amicitia. I did translate it my selfe into plaine English, and gaue it him to turne into Latin: Which he did, so choislie, so orderlie, so without any great misse in the hardest pointes of Grammer, that some, in seuen yeare in Grammer Scholes, yea, & some in the Vniuersities to, can not do halfe so well. This worthie yong Ientleman, to my greatest grief, to the great lamentation of that whole house, and speciallie to that most noble Ladie, now Queene Elizabeth her selfe, departed within few dayes, out of this world.
      And if in any cause, a man may without offence of God speake somewhat vngodlie, surely, it was some grief vnto me, to see him hie so hastlie to God, as he did. A Court, full of soch yong Ientlemen, were rather a Paradise than a Court vpon earth. And though I had neuer Poeticall head, to make any verse, in any tong, yet either loue, or sorrow, or both, did wring out of me than, certaine carefull thoughtes of my good will towardes him, which in my murning for him, fell forth, more by chance, than either by skill or vse, into this kinde of misorderlie meter.

Myne owne Iohn Whitney, now farewell, now death doth parte vs twaine,
No death, but partyng for a while, whom life shall ioyne agayne.
Therfore my hart cease sighes and sobbes, cease sorowes seede to sow,
Wherof no gaine, but greater grief, and hurtfull care may grow.
Yet, whan I thinke vpon soch giftes of grace as God him lent,
My losse, his gaine, I must a while, with ioyfull teares lament.
Yong yeares to yelde soch frute in Court, where seede of vice is sowne,
Is sometime read, in some place seene, amongst vs seldom knowne.
His life he ledde, Christes lore to learne, with will to worke the same:
He read to know, and knew to liue, and liued to praise his name.
So fast to frende, so foe to few, so good to euery weight,
I may well wishe, but scarcelie hope, agayne to haue in sight.

The greater ioye his life to me, his death the greater payne:
His life in Christ so surelie set, doth glad my hearte agayne:
His life so good, his death better, do mingle mirth with care,
My spirit with ioye, my flesh with grief, so deare a frend to spare.
Thus God the good, while they be good, doth take, and leaues vs ill,
That we should mend our sinfull life, in life to tary still.
Thus, we well left, be better rest, in heauen to take his place,
That by like life, and death, at last, we may obteine like grace.
Myne owne Iohn Whiteney agayne fairewell, a while thus parte in twaine,
Whom payne doth part in earth, in heauen great ioye shall ioyne agayne.

In this place, or I procede farder, I will now declare, by whose authoritie I am led, and by what reason I am moued, to thinke, that this way of duble translation out of one tong into an other, in either onelie, or at least chiefly, to be exercised, speciallie of youth, for the ready and sure obteining of any tong.
      There be six wayes appointed by the best learned men, for the learning of tonges, and encreace of eloquence, as

{1. Translatio linguarum.
{2. Paraphrasis.
{3. Metaphrasis.
{4. Epitome.
{5. Imitatio.
{6. Declamatio.
All theis be vsed, and commended, but in order, and for respectes: as person, habilitie, place, and tyme shall require. The fiue last, be fitter, for the Master, than the scholer: for men, than for children: for the vniuersities, rather than for Grammer scholes: yet neuerthelesse, which is, fittest in mine opinion, for our schole, and which is, either wholie to be refused, or partlie to be vsed for our purpose, I will, by good authoritie, and some reason, I trust perticularlie of euerie one, and largelie enough of them all, declare orderlie vnto you.

Translatio Linguarum.

Translation, is easie in the beginning for the scholer, and bringeth also moch learning and great iudgement to the Master. It is most common, and most commendable of all other exercises for youth: most common, for all your constructions in Grammer scholes, be nothing els but translations: but because they be not double translations, as I do require, they bring forth but simple and single commoditie, and bicause also they lacke the daily vse of writing, which is the onely thing that breedeth deepe roote, buth in ye witte, for good vnderstanding, and in ye memorie, for sure keeping of all that is learned. Most commendable also, & that by ye iudgement of all authors, which intreate of theis exercises.
Tullie in the person of L. Crassus, whom he maketh his example of eloquence and trewe iudgement in learning, doth, not onely praise specially, and chose this way of translation for a yong man, but doth also discommend and
1. de Or.

Quint. x.

refuse his owne former wont, in exercising Paraphrasin & Metaphrasin. Paraphrasis is, to take some eloquent Oration, or some notable common place in Latin, and expresse it with other wordes: Metaphrasis is, to take some notable place out of a good Poete, and turn the same sens into meter, or into other wordes in Prose. Crassus, or rather Tullie, doth mislike both these wayes, bicause the Author, either Orator or Poete, had chosen out before, the fittest wordes and aptest composition for that matter, and so he, in seeking other, was driuen to vse the worse.
      Quintilian also preferreth translation before all other exercises: yet hauing a lust, to dissent, from Tullie (as he doth in very many places, if a man read his Rhetoricke ouer aduisedlie, and that rather of an enuious minde, than of any iust cause) doth greatlie commend Paraphrasis, crossing spitefullie Tullies iudgement in refusing the same: and so do Ramus and Talæus euen at this day in France to. But such singularitie, in dissenting from the best mens iudgementes, in liking onelie their owne opinions, is moch misliked of all them, that ioyne with learning, discretion, and wisedome. For he, that can neither like Aristotle in Logicke and Philosophie, nor Tullie in Rhetoricke and Eloquence, will, from these steppes, likelie enough presume, by like pride, to mount hier, to the misliking of greater matters: that is either in Religion, to haue a dissentious head, or in the common wealth, to haue a factious hart: as I knew one a student in Cambrige, who, for a singularitie, began first to dissent, in the scholes, from Aristotle, and sone after became a peruerse Arrian, against Christ and all true Religion: and studied diligentlie Origene, Basileus, and S. Hierome, onelie to gleane out of their workes, the pernicious heresies of Celsus, Eunomius, and Heluidius, whereby the Church of Christ, was so poysoned withall.
      But to leaue these hye pointes of diuinitie, surelie, in this quiet and harmeles controuersie, for the liking, or misliking of Paraphrasis for a yong scholer, euen as far, as Tullie goeth beyond Quintilian, Ramus, and Talæus, in perfite Eloquence, euen so moch, by myne opinion, cum they behinde Tullie, for trew iudgement in teaching the same. * Plinius Secundus, a wise Senator, of great
* Plinius Secundus. Plinius dedit Quintiliano præceptori suo, in matrimonium filiæ, 50000 numum.

Epist. lib. 7,
Epist. 9.

experience, excellentlie learned him selfe, a liberall Patrone of learned men, and the purest writer, in myne opinion, of all his age, I except not Suetonius, his two scholemasters Quintilian and Tacitus, nor yet his most excellent learned Vncle, the Elder Plinius, doth expresse in an Epistle to his frende Fuscus, many good wayes for order in studie: but he beginneth with translation, and preferreth it to all the rest: and bicause his wordes be notable, I will recite them.

Vtile in primis, vt multi præcipiunt, ex Græco in Latinum, & ex
    Latino vertere in Græcum: Quo genere exercitationis, proprietas
    splendorque verborum, apta structura sententiarum, figurarum
    copia & explicandi vis colligitur. Præterea, imitatione optimorum,
    facultas similia inueniendi paratur: & quæ legentem, fefellissent,
    transferentem fugere non possunt. Intelligentia ex hoc, & iudicium

    Ye perceiue, how Plinie teacheth, that by this exercise of double translating, is learned, easely, sensiblie, by litle and litle, not onelie all the hard congruities of Grammer, the choice of aptest wordes, the right framing of wordes and sentences, cumlines of figures and formes, fitte for euerie matter, and proper for euerie tong, but that which is greater also, in marking dayly, and folowing diligentlie thus, the steppes of the best Autors, like inuention of Argumentes, like order in disposition, like vtterance in Elocution, is easelie gathered vp: whereby your scholer shall be brought not onelie to like eloquence, but also, to all trewe vnderstanding and right iudgement, both for writing and speaking. And where Dionys. Halicarnassæus hath written two excellent bookes, the one, de delectu optimorum verborum, the which, I feare, is lost, the other, of the right framing of wordes and sentences, which doth remaine yet in Greeke, to the great proffet of all them, that trewlie studie for eloquence, yet this waie of double translating, shall bring the whole proffet of both these bookes to a diligent scholer, and that easelie and pleasantlie, both for fitte choice of wordes, and apt composition of sentences. And by theis authorities and reasons am I moued to thinke, this waie of double translating, either onelie or chieflie, to be fittest, for the spedy and perfit atteyning of any tong. And for spedy atteyning, I durst venture a good wager, if a scholer, in whom is aptnes, loue, diligence, & constancie, would but translate, after this sorte, one litle booke in Tullie, as de senectute, with two Epistles, the first ad Q. fra: the other ad lentulum, the last saue one, in the first booke, that scholer, I say, should cum to a better knowledge in the Latin tong, than the most part do, that spend foure or fiue yeares, in tossing all the rules of Grammer in common scholes. In deede this one booke with these two Epistles, is not sufficient to affourde all Latin wordes (which is not necessarie for a yong scholer to know) but it is able to furnishe him fully, for all pointes of Grammer, with the right placing ordering, & vse of wordes in all kinde of matter. And why not? for it is read, that Dion. Prussæus, that wise Philosopher, & excellent orator of all his tyme, did cum to the great learning & vtterance that was in him, by reading and folowing onelie two bookes, Phædon Platonis, and Demosthenes most notable oration peri parapresbeias. And a better, and nerer example herein, may be, our most noble Queene Elizabeth, who neuer toke yet, Greeke nor Latin Grammer in her hand, after the first declining of a nowne and a verbe, but onely by this double translating of Demosthenes and Isocrates dailie without missing euerie forenone, and likewise som part of Tullie euery afternone, for the space of a yeare or two, hath atteyned to soch a perfite vnderstanding in both the tonges, and to soch a readie vtterance of the latin, and that wyth soch a iudgement, as they be fewe in nomber in both the vniuersities, or els where in England, that be, in both tonges, comparable with her Maiestie. And to conclude in a short rowme, the commodities of double translation, surelie the mynde by dailie marking, first, the cause and matter: than, the wordes and phrases: next, the order and composition: after the reason and argumentes: than the formes and figures of both the tonges: lastelie, the measure and compas of euerie sentence, must nedes, by litle and litle drawe vnto it the like shape of eloquence, as the author doth vse, which is red.
      And thus much for double translation.


Paraphrasis, the second point, is not onelie to expresse at
Lib. x.
large with moe wordes, but to striue and contend (as Quintilian saith) to translate the best latin authors, into other latin wordes, as many or thereaboutes.
      This waie of exercise was vsed first by C. Crabo, and taken vp for a while, by L. Crassus, but sone after, vpon dewe profe thereof, reiected iustlie by Crassus and Cicero: yet allowed and made sterling agayne by M. Quintilian: neuerthelesse, shortlie after, by better assaye, disalowed of his owne scholer Plinius Secundus, who termeth it rightlie thus Audax contentio. It is a bold comparison in deede, to thinke to say better, than that is best. Soch turning of the best into worse, is much like the turning of good wine, out of a faire sweete flagon of siluer, into a foule mustie bottell of ledder: or, to turne pure gold and siluer, into foule brasse and copper.
      Such kinde of Paraphrasis, in turning, chopping, and changing, the best to worse, either in the mynte or scholes, (though M. Brokke and Quintilian both say the contrary) is moch misliked of the best and wisest men. I can better allow an other kinde of Paraphrasis, to turne rude and barbarus, into proper and eloquent: which neuerthelesse is an exercise, not fitte for a scholer, but for a perfite master, who in plentie hath good choise, in copie hath right iudgement, and grounded skill, as did appeare to be in Sebastian Castalio, in translating Kemppes booke de Imitando Christo.
      But to folow Quintilianus aduise for Paraphrasis, were euen to take paine, to seeke the worse and fowler way, whan the plaine and fairer is occupied before your eyes.
      The olde and best authors that euer wrote, were content if occasion required to speake twise of one matter, not to change the wordes, but rhetos, that is, worde for worde to expresse it againe. For they thought, that a matter, well expressed with fitte wordes and apt composition, was not to be altered, but liking it well their selues, they thought it would also be well allowed of others.
      A scholemaster (soch one as I require) knoweth that I say trewe.
      He readeth in Homer, almost in euerie booke, and speciallie in Secundo et nono Iliados, not onelie som verses, but whole leaues, not to be altered with new, but to be vttered with the old selfe same wordes.
      He knoweth, that Xenophon, writing twise of Agesilaus, once in his life, againe in the historie
IL. {2.




of the Greekes, in one matter, kepeth alwayes the selfe same wordes. He doth the like, speaking of Socrates, both in the beginning of his Apologie and in the last ende of apomnemoneumaton.
      Demosthenes also in 4. Philippica doth borow his owne wordes vttered before in his oration de Chersoneso. He doth the like, and that more at large, in his orations, against Androtion and Timocrates.
      In latin also, Cicero in som places, and Virgil in mo, do repeate one matter, with the selfe same wordes. Thies excellent authors, did thus, not for lacke of wordes, but by iudgement and skill: whatsoeuer, other, more curious, and lesse skilfull, do thinke, write, and do.
      Paraphrasis neuerthelesse hath good place in learning, but not, by myne opinion, for any scholer, but is onelie to be left to a perfite Master, eyther to expound openlie a good author withall, or to compare priuatelie, for his owne exercise, how some notable place of an excellent author, may be vttered with other fitte wordes: But if ye alter also, the composition, forme, and order than that is not Paraphrasis, but Imitatio, as I will fullie declare in fitter place.
      The scholer shall winne nothing by Paraphrasis, but onelie, if we may beleue Tullie, to choose worse wordes, to place them out of order, to feare ouermoch the iudgement of the master, to mislike ouermuch the hardnes of learning, and by vse, to gather vp faultes, which hardlie will be left of againe.
      The master in teaching it, shall rather encrease hys owne labor, than his scholers proffet: for when the scholer shall bring vnto his master a peece of Tullie or Cæsar turned into other latin, then must the master cum to Quintilians goodlie lesson de Emendatione, which, (as he saith) is the most profitable part of teaching, but not in myne opinion, and namelie for youthe in Grammer scholes. For the master nowe taketh double paynes: first, to marke what is amisse: againe, to inuent what may be sayd better. And here perchance, a verie good master may easelie both deceiue himselfe, and lead his scholer into error.
      It requireth greater learning, and deeper iudgement, than is to be hoped for at any scholemasters hand: that is, to be able alwaies learnedlie and perfitelie

{Mutare quod ineptum est:
{Transmutare quod peruersum est:
{Replere quod deest;
{Detrahere quod obest:
{Expungere quod inane est.

    And that, which requireth more skill, and deaper consideracion
{Premere tumentia:
{Extollere humilia:
{Astringere luxuriantia:
{Componere dissoluta.
The master may here onelie stumble, and perchance faull in teaching, to the marring and mayning of the Scholer in learning, whan it is a matter, of moch readyng, of great learning, and tried iudgement, to make trewe difference betwixt

{Sublime, et Tumidum:
{Grande, et immodicum:
{Decorum, et ineptum:
{Perfectum, et nimium.
Some men of our time, counted perfite Maisters of eloquence, in their owne opinion the best, in other mens iudgements very good, as Omphalius euerie where, Sadoletus in many places, yea also my frende Osorius, namelie in his Epistle to the Queene & in his whole booke de Iusticia, haue so ouer reached them selues, in making trew difference in the poyntes afore rehearsed, as though they had bene brought vp in some schole in Asia, to learne to decline rather then in Athens with Plato, Aristotle, and Demosthenes, (from whence Tullie fetched his eloquence) to vnderstand, what in euerie matter, to be spoken or written on, is, in verie deede, Nimium, Satis, Parum, that is for to say, to all considerations, Decorum, which, as it is the hardest point, in all learning, so is it the fairest and onelie marke, that scholers, in all their studie, must alwayes shote at, if they purpose an other day to be, either sounde in Religion, or wise and discrete in any vocation of the common wealth.
      Agayne, in the lowest degree, it is no low point of learnyng and iudgement for a Scholemaster, to make trewe difference betwixt

{Humile & depressum:
{Lene & remissum:
{Siccum & aridum:
{Exile & macrum:
{Inaffectatum & neglectum.
In these poyntes, some, louing Melancthon well, as he was well worthie, but yet not considering well nor wiselie, how he of nature, and all his life and studie by iudgement was wholly spent in genere Disciplinabili, that is, in teaching, reading, and expounding plainlie and aptlie schole matters, and therfore imployed thereunto a fitte, sensible, and caulme kinde of speaking and writing, some I say, with very well louyng, but not with verie well weying Melancthones doinges, do frame them selues a style, cold, leane, and weake, though the matter be neuer so warme & earnest, not moch vnlike vnto one, that had a pleasure, in a roughe, raynie, winter day, to clothe him selfe with nothing els, but a demie, bukram cassok, plaine without plites, and single with out lyning: which will neither beare of winde nor wether, nor yet kepe out the sunne, in any hote day.
      Some suppose, and that by good reason, that Melancthon him selfe came to this low kinde of writing, by vsing ouer moch Paraphrasis in reading: For studying therebie to make euerie thing streight and easie, in smothing and playning all things to much, neuer leaueth, whiles the sence it selfe be left, both lowse and lasie. And some of those Paraphrasis of Melancthon be set out in Printe, as, Pro Archia Poeta, & Marco Marcello: But a scholer, by myne opinion, is better occupied in playing or sleping, than in spendyng time, not onelie vainlie but also harmefullie, in soch a kinde of exercise.
Paraphrasis in vse of teaching, hath hurt Melanchtons stile in writing.



Ioan. Stur.

If a Master woulde haue a perfite example to folow, how, in Genere sublimi, to auoide Nimium, or in Mediocri, to atteyne Satis, or in Humili, to exchew Parum, let him read diligently for the first, Secundam Philippicam, for the meane, De Natura Deorum, and for the lowest, Partitiones. Or, if in an other tong, ye looke for like example, in like perfection, for all those three degrees, read Pro Ctesiphonte, Ad Leptinem, & Contra Olympiodorum, and, what witte, Arte, and diligence is hable to affourde, ye shall plainely see.
      For our tyme, the odde man to performe all three perfitlie, whatsoeuer he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfullie, what so euer he list, is, in my poore opinion, Ioannes Sturmius.
      He also councelleth all scholers to beware of Paraphrasis, except it be, from worse to better, from rude and barbarous, to proper and pure latin, and yet no man to exercise that neyther, except soch one, as is alreadie furnished with plentie of learning, and grounded with stedfast iudgement before.
      All theis faultes, that thus manie wise men do finde with the exercise of Paraphrasis, in turning the best latin, into other, as good as they can, that is, ye may be sure, into a great deale worse, than it was, both in right choice for proprietie, and trewe placing, for good order is committed also commonlie in all common scholes, by the scholemasters, in tossing and trobling yong wittes (as I sayd in the beginning) with that boocherlie feare in making of Latins.
      Therefore, in place, of Latines for yong scholers, and of Paraphrasis for the masters, I wold haue double translation specially vsed. For, in double translating a perfite peece of Tullie or Cæsar, neyther the scholer in learning, nor ye Master in teaching can erre. A true tochstone, a sure metwand lieth before both their eyes. For, all right congruitie: proprietie of wordes: order in sentences: the right imitation, to inuent good matter, to dispose it in good order, to confirme it with good reason, to expresse any purpose fitlie and orderlie, is learned thus, both easelie & perfitlie: Yea, to misse somtyme in this kinde of translation, bringeth more proffet, than to hit right, either in Paraphrasi or making of Latins. For though ye say well, in a latin making, or in a Paraphrasis, yet you being but in doute, and vncertayne whether ye saie well or no, ye gather and lay vp in memorie, no sure frute of learning thereby: But if ye fault in translation, ye ar easelie taught, how perfitlie to amende it, and so well warned, how after to exchew, all soch faultes againe.
      Paraphrasis therefore, by myne opinion, is not meete for Grammer scholes: nor yet verie fitte for yong men in the vniuersitie, vntill studie and tyme, haue bred in them, perfite learning, and stedfast iudgement.
      There is a kinde of Paraphrasis, which may be vsed, without all hurt, to moch proffet: but it serueth onely the Greke and not the latin, nor no other tong, as to alter linguam Ionicam aut Doricam into meram Atticam: A notable example there is left vnto vs by a notable learned man Diony: Halicarn: who, in his booke, peri syntaxeos, doth translate the goodlie storie of Candaules and Gyges in 1. Herodoti, out of Ionica lingua, into Atticam. Read the place, and ye shall take, both pleasure and proffet, in conference of it. A man, that is exercised in reading, Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, and Demosthenes, in vsing to turne, like places of Herodotus, after like sorte, shold shortlie cum to soch a knowledge, in vnderstanding, speaking, and writing the Greeke tong, as fewe or none hath yet atteyned in England. The like exercise out of Dorica lingua may be also vsed, if a man take that litle booke of Plato, Timæus Locrus, de Animo et natura, which is written Dorice, and turne it into soch Greeke, as Plato vseth in other workes. The booke, is but two leaues: and the labor wold be, but two weekes: but surelie the proffet, for easie vnderstanding, and trewe writing the Greeke tonge, wold conteruaile wyth the toile, that som men taketh, in otherwise coldlie reading that tonge, two yeares.
      And yet, for the latin tonge, and for the exercise of Paraphrasis, in those places of latin, that can not be bettered, if some yong man, excellent of witte, corragious in will, lustie of nature, and desirous to contend euen with the best latin, to better it, if he can, surelie I commend his forwardnesse, and for his better instruction therein, I will set before him, as notable an example of Paraphrasis, as is in Record of learning. Cicero him selfe, doth contend, in two sondrie places, to expresse one matter, with diuerse wordes: and that is Paraphrasis, saith Quintillian. The matter I suppose is taken out of Panætius: and therefore being translated out of Greeke at diuers times, is vttered for his purpose, with diuers wordes and formes: which kinde of exercise, for perfite learned men, is verie profitable.

2. De Finib.

      a. Homo enim Rationem habet à natura menti datam quæ, & causas rerum et consecutiones videt, & similitudines, transfert, & disiuncta coniungit, & cum præsentibus futura copulat, omnemque complectitur vitæ consequentis statum. b. Eademque ratio facit hominem hominum appetentem, cumque his, natura, & sermone in vsu congruentem: vt profectus à caritate domesticorum ac suorum, currat longius, & se implicet, primò Ciuium, deinde omnium mortalium societati: vtque non sibi soli se natum meminerit, sed patriæ, sed suis, vt exigua pars ipsi relinquatur. c. Et quoniam eadem natura cupiditatem ingenuit homini veri inueniendi, quod facillimè apparet, cum vacui curis, etiam quid in cœlo fiat, scire auemus, & c.

1. Officiorum.

      a. Homo autem, qui rationis est particeps, per quam consequentia cernit, & causas rerum videt, earumque progressus, et quasi antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines, comparat, rebusque præsentibus adiungit, atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitæ cursum videt, ad eamque degendam præparat res necessarias. b. Eademque natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini, & ad Orationis, & ad vitæ societatem: ingeneratque imprimis præcipuum quendam amorem in eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque vt hominum cœtus & celebrari inter se, & sibi obediri velit, ob easque causas studeat parare ea, quæ suppeditent ad cultum & ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi, liberis, cæterisque quos charos habeat, tuerique debeat. c. Quæ cura exsuscitat etiam animos, & maiores ad rem gerendam facit: imprimisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque inuestigatio: ita cum sumus necessarijs negocijs curisque vacui, tum auemus aliquid videre, audire, addiscere, cognitionemque rerum mirabilium. & c.

      The conference of these two places, conteinyng so excellent a peece of learning, as this is, expressed by so worthy a witte, as Tullies was, must needes bring great pleasure and proffit to him, that maketh trew counte, of learning and honestie. But if we had the Greke Author, the first Patterne of all, and therby to see, how Tullies witte did worke at diuerse tymes, how, out of one excellent Image, might be framed two other, one in face and fauor, but somwhat differing in forme, figure, and color, surelie, such a peece of workemanship compared with the Paterne it selfe, would better please the ease of honest, wise, and learned myndes, than two of the fairest Venusses, that euer Apelles made.
      And thus moch, for all kinde of Paraphrasis, fitte or vnfit, for Scholers or other, as I am led to thinke, not onelie, by mine owne experience, but chiefly by the authoritie & iudgement of those, whom I my selfe would gladliest folow, and do counsell all myne to do the same: not contendyng with any other, that will otherwise either thinke or do.


      This kinde of exercise is all one with Paraphrasis, saue it is out of verse, either into prose, or into some other kinde of meter: or els, out of prose into verse, which was Socrates exercise and pastime ( as Plato reporteth) when he was in prison, to translate Æsopes Fabules into verse. Quintilian doth greatlie praise also this exercise: but bicause Tullie doth disalow it in yong men, by myne opinion, it were not well to vse it in Grammer Scholes, euen for the selfe same causes, that be recited against Paraphrasis. And therfore, for the vse, or misuse of it, the same is to be thought, that is spoken of Paraphrasis before. This was Sulpitius exercise: and he gathering vp therby, a Poeticall kinde of talke, is iustlie named of Cicero, grandis et Tragicus Orator: which I think is spoken, not for his praise, but for other mens warning, to exchew the like faulte. Yet neuertheles, if our Scholemaster for his owne instruction, is desirous, to see a perfite example hereof, I will recite one, which I thinke, no
Platoin Phædone.

Hom. 1. Il.
Pla. 3. Rep.

man is so bold, will say, that he can amend it: & that is Chrises the Priestes Oration to the Grekes, in the beginnyng of Homers Ilias, turned excellentlie into prose by Socrates him selfe, and that aduisedlie and purposelie for other to folow: and therfore he calleth this exercise, in the same place, mimesis, that is, Imitatio, which is most trew: but, in this booke, for teachyng sake, I will name it Metaphrasis, reteinyng the word, that all teachers, in this case, do vse.

Homerus. I. Iliad.

                o gar elthe thoas epi neas Achaion,
    lysomenos te thygatra, pheron t apereisi apoina,
    stemmat echon en chersin ekebolou Apollonos,
    chryseo ana skeptro kai elisseto pantas Achaious,
    Atreida de malista duo, kosmetore laon.
          Atreidai te, kai alloi euknemides Achaioi,
    ymin men theoi doien, Olympia domat echontes,
    ekpersai Priamoio polin eu d oikad ikesthai
    paida d emoi lysai te philen, ta t apoina dechesthai,
    azomenoi Dios uion ekebolon Apollona.
          enth alloi men pantes epeuphemesan Achaioi
    aideisthai th ierea, kai aglaa dechthai apoina
    all ouk Atreide Agamemnoni endane thymo,
    alla kakos aphiei, krateron d epi mython etellen.
          me se, geron, koilesin ego para neusi kicheio,
    e nyn dethynont, e ysteron autis ionta,
    me ny toi ou chraisme skeptron, kai stemma theoio
    ten d ego ou lyso, prin min kai geras epeisin,
    emetero eni oiko, en Argei telothi patres
    iston epoichomenen, kai emon lechos antioosan.
    all ithi, me m erethize saoteros os ke neeai.
          os ephat eddeisen d o geron, kai epeitheto mytho
    be d akeon para thina polyphloisboio thalasses,
    polla d epeit apaneuthe kion erath o geraios
    Apolloni anakti, ton eukomos teke Leto.
          klythi meu, argyrotox, os Chrysen amphibebekas,
    killan te zatheen, Tenedoio te iphi anasseis,
    smintheu, ei pote toi Charient epi neon erepsa,
    e ei de pote toi kata piona meri ekea
    tauron, ed aigon, tode moi kreenon eeldor
    tiseian Danaoi ema dakrua soisi belessin.

Socrates in 3. de Rep. saith thus,

Phraso gar aneu metrou,
      ou gar eimi poietikos.

elthen o Chryses tes te thygatros lytra pheron, kai iketes ton Achaion, malista de ton basileon: kai eucheto, ekeinois men tous theous dounai elontas ten Troian, autous de sothenai, ten de thygatera oi auto lysai, dexamenous apoina, kai ton theon aidesthentas. Toiauta de eipontos autou, oi men alloi esebonto kai synenoun, o de Agamemnon egriainen, entellomenos nyn te apienai, kai authis me elthein, me auto to te skeptron, kai ta tou theou stemmata ouk eparkesoi. prin de lythenai autou thygatera, en Argei ephe gerasein meta ou. apienai de ekeleue, kai me erethizein, ina sos oikade elthoi. o de presbytes akousas edeise te kai apeei sige, apochoresas d ek tou stratopedou polla to Apolloni eucheto, tas te eponymias tou theou anakalon kai ypomimneskon kai apaiton, ei ti popote e en naon oikodomesesin, e en ieron thysiais kecharismenon doresaito. on de charin kateucheto tisai tous Achaious ta a dakrua tois ekeinon belesin.

      To compare Homer and Plato together, two wonders of nature and arte for witte and eloquence, is most pleasant and profitable, for a man of ripe iudgement. Platos turning of Homer in this place, doth not ride a loft in Poeticall termes, but goeth low and soft on foote, as prose and Pedestris oratio should do. If Sulpitius had had Platos consideration, in right vsing this exercise, he had not deserued the name of Tragicus Orator, who should rather haue studied to expresse vim Demosthenis, than furorem Poætæ, how good so euer he was, whom he did folow.
      And therfore would I haue our Scholemaster wey well together Homer and Plato, and marke diligentlie these foure pointes, what is kept: what is added: what is left out: what is changed, either, in choise of wordes, or forme of sentences: which foure pointes, be the right tooles, to handle like a workeman, this kinde of worke: as our Scholer shall better vnderstand, when he hath bene a good while in the Vniuersitie: to which tyme and place, I chiefly remitte this kinde of exercise.
      And bicause I euer thought examples to be the best kinde of teaching, I will recite a golden sentence out of that Poete, which is next vnto Homer, not onelie in tyme, but also in worthines: which hath bene a paterne for many worthie wittes to follow, by this kind of Metaphrasis, but I will content my selfe, with foure workemen, two in Greke, and two in Latin, soch, as in both the tonges, wiser & worthier, can not be looked for. Surelie, no stone set in gold by most cunning workemen, is in deed, if right counte be made, more worthie the looking on, than this golden sentence, diuerslie wrought vpon, by soch foure excellent Masters.

Hesiodus. 2.



    outos men panariotos, os auto panta noese,
    phrassamenos ta k epeita kai es telos esin ameino:
    esthlos d au kakeinos, os eu eiponti pithetai,
    os de ke met autos noee, met allou akouon
    en thymo balletai, o d aut achreios aner.

      ¶ Thus rudelie turned into             base English.




      That man in wisedome passeth all,
      to know the best who hath a head:

      And meetlie wise eeke counted shall,
      who yeildes him selfe to wise mens read:

      Who hath no witte, nor none will heare,
      amongest all fooles the bell may beare.

    Sophocles in Antigone.



                Phem egoge presbeuein poly,
    Phynai ton andra pant epiotemes pleon:
    Ei d oun (philei gar touto me taute repein),
    Kai ton legonton eu kalon to manthanein.

      Marke the wisedome of Sophocles, in leauyng out the last sentence, because it was not cumlie for the sonne to vse it to his father.

D. Basileus in his Exhortation to youth.

      Memnesthe tou Esiodou, os phesi, ariston men einai ton par eautou ta deonta xynoronta. 2. Esthlon de kakeinon, ton tois, par eteron ypodeicheisin epomenon. 3. ton de pros oudeteron epitedeion achreion einai pros apanta.

M. Cic. Pro A. Cluentio.

1.       Sapientissimum esse dicunt eum, cui, quod opus sit, ipsi veniat in
2. Proxime accedere illum, qui alterius bene inuentis
In stulticia contra est: minus enim stultus est
      is, cui nihil in mentem venit, quam ille, qui, quod stultè alteri venit
      in mentem comprobat.

      Cicero doth not plainlie expresse the last sentence, but doth inuent it fitlie for his purpose, to taunt the folie and simplicitie in his aduersarie Actius, not weying wiselie, the sutle doynges of Chrysogonus and Staienus.

¶ Tit. Liuius in Orat. Minutij. Lib. 22.

1.       Sæpe ego audiui milites; eum primum esse virum, qui ipse
      consulat, quid in rem sit:
2. Secundum eum, qui bene monenti
3. Qui, nec ipse consulere, nec alteri parere scit, eum
      extremi esse ingenij.

      Now, which of all these foure, Sophocles, S. Basil, Cicero, or Liuie, hath expressed Hesiodus best, the iudgement is as hard, as the workemanship of euerie one is most excellent in deede. An other example out of the Latin tong also I will recite, for the worthines of the workeman therof, and that is Horace, who hath so turned the begynning of Terence Eunuchus, as doth worke in me, a pleasant admiration, as oft so euer, as I compare those two places togither. And though euerie Master, and euerie good Scholer to, do know the places, both in Terence and Horace, yet I will set them heare, in one place togither, that with more pleasure, they may be compared together.

¶ Terentius in Eunucho.

      Quid igitur faciam? non eam? ne nunc quidem cum accersor ultrò? an potius ita me comparem, non perpeti meretricum contumelias? exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non, si me obsecret. PARMENO a little after. Here, quæ res in se neque consilium neque modum habet vllum, eam consilio regere non potes. In Amore hæc omnia insunt vitia, iniuriæ, suspiciones, inimicitiæ, induciæ, bellum, pax rursum. Incerta hæc si tu postules ratione certa facere, nihilo plus agas, quem si des operam, vt cum ratione insanias.

¶ Horatius, lib. Ser. 2. Saty. 3.

                Nec nunc cum me vocet vltro,
    Accedam? an potius mediter finire dolores?
    Exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non si obsecret. Ecce
    Seruus non Paulo sapientior: ô Here, quæ res
    Nec modum habet, neque consilium, ratione modóque
    Tractari non vult. In amore, hæc sunt mala, bellum,
    Pax rursum: hæc si quis tempestatis propè ritu
    Mobilia, et cæca fluitantia sorte, laboret
    Reddere certa, sibi nihilò plus explicet, ac si
    Insanire paret certa ratione, modòque.

      This exercise may bring moch profite to ripe heads, and stayd iudgementes: bicause, in traueling in it, the mynde must nedes be verie attentiue, and busilie occupide, in turning and tossing it selfe many wayes: and conferryng with great pleasure, the varietie of worthie wittes and iudgementes togither: But this harme may sone cum therby, and namelie to yong Scholers, lesse, in seeking other wordes, and new forme of sentences, they chance vpon the worse: for the which onelie cause, Cicero thinketh this exercise not to be fit for yong men.


      This is a way of studie, belonging, rather to matter, than to wordes: to memorie, than to vtterance: to those that be learned alreadie, and hath small place at all amonges yong scholers in Grammer scholes. It may proffet priuately some learned men, but it hath hurt generallie learning it selfe, very moch. For by it haue we lost whole Trogus, the best part of T. Liuius, the goodlie Dictionarie of Pompeius festus, a great deale of the Ciuill lawe, and other many notable bookes, for the which cause, I do the more mislike this exercise, both in old and yong.
      Epitome, is good priuatelie for himselfe that doth worke it, but ill commonlie for all other that vse other mens labor therein: a silie poore kinde of studie, not vnlike to the doing of those poore folke, which neyther till, nor sowe, nor reape themselues, but gleane by stelth, vpon other mens growndes. Soch, haue emptie barnes, for deare yeares.
      Grammer scholes haue fewe Epitomes to hurt them, except Epitheta Textoris, and such beggarlie gatheringes, as Horman, whittington, and other like vulgares for making of latines: yea I do wishe, that all rules for yong scholers, were shorter than they be. For without doute, Grammatica it selfe, is sooner and surer learned by examples of good authors, than by the naked rewles of Grammarians. Epitome hurteth more, in the vniuersities and studie of Philosophie: but most of all, in diuinitie it selfe.
      In deede bookes of common places be verie necessarie, to induce a man, into an orderlie generall knowledge, how to referre orderlie all that he readeth, ad certa rerum Capita, and not wander in studie. And to that end did P. Lombardus the master of sentences and Ph. Melancthon in our daies, write two notable bookes of common places.
      But to dwell in Epitomes and bookes of common places, and not to binde himselfe dailie by orderlie studie, to reade with all diligence, principallie the holyest scripture and withall, the best Doctors, and so to learne to make trewe difference betwixt, the authoritie of the one, and the Counsell of the other, maketh so many seeming, and sonburnt ministers as we haue, whose learning is gotten in a sommer heat, and washed away, with a Christmas snow againe: who neuerthelesse, are lesse to be blamed, than those blind bussardes, who in late yeares, of wilfull maliciousnes, would neyther learne themselues, nor could teach others, any thing at all.
      Paraphrasis hath done lesse hurt to learning, than Epitome: for no Paraphrasis, though there be many, shall neuer take away Dauids Psalter. Erasmus Paraphrasis being neuer so good, shall neuer banishe the new Testament. And in an other schole, the Paraphrasis of Brocardus, or Sambucus, shal neuer take Aristotles Rhetoricke, nor Horace de Arte Poetica, out of learned mens handes.
      But, as concerning a schole Epitome, he that wold haue an example of it, let him read Lucian peri kallous which is the verie Epitome of Isocrates oration de laudibus Helenæ, whereby he may learne, at the least, this wise lesson, that a man ought to beware, to be ouer bold, in altering an excellent mans worke.
      Neuertheles, some kinde of Epitome may be vsed, by men of skilful iudgement, to the great proffet also of others. As if a wise man would take Halles Cronicle, where moch good matter is quite marde with Indenture Englishe, and first change, strange and inkhorne tearmes into proper, and commonlie vsed wordes: next, specially to wede out that, that is superfluous and idle, not onelie where wordes be vainlie heaped one vpon an other, but also where many sentences, of one meaning, be clowted vp together as though M. Hall had bene, not writing the storie of England, but varying a sentence in Hitching schole: surelie a wise learned man, by this way of Epitome, in cutting away wordes and sentences, and diminishing nothing at all of the matter, shold leaue to mens vse, a storie, halfe as moch as it was in quantitie, but twise as good as it was, both for pleasure and also commoditie.
      An other kinde of Epitome may be vsed likewise very well, to moch proffet. Som man either by lustines of nature, or brought by ill teaching, to a wrong iudgement, is ouer full of words, sentences, & matter, & yet all his words be proper, apt & well chosen: all his sentences be rownd and trimlie framed: his whole matter grownded vpon good reason, & stuffed with full arguments, for his intent & purpose. Yet when his talke shalbe heard, or his writing be red, of soch one, as is, either of my two dearest frendes, M. Haddon at home, or Iohn Sturmius in Germanie, that Nimium in him, which fooles and vnlearned will most commend, shall eyther of thies two, bite his lippe, or shake his heade at it.
      This fulnes as it is not to be misliked in a yong man, so in farder aige, in greater skill, and weightier affaires, it is to be temperated, or else discretion and iudgement shall seeme to be wanting in him. But if his stile be still ouer rancke and lustie, as some men being neuer so old and spent by yeares, will still be full of youthfull conditions as was Syr F. Bryan, and euermore wold haue bene: soch a rancke and full writer, must vse, if he will do wiselie the exercise of a verie good kinde of Epitome, and do, as certaine wise men do, that be ouer fat and fleshie: who leauing their owne full and plentifull table, go to soiorne abrode from home for a while, at the temperate diet of some sober man: and so by litle and litle, cut away the grosnesse that is in them. As for an example: If Osorius would leaue of his lustines in striuing against S. Austen, and his ouer rancke rayling against poore Luther, and the troth of Gods doctrine, and giue his whole studie, not to write any thing of his owne for a while, but to translate Demosthenes, with so straite, fast, & temperate a style in latine, as he is in Greeke, he would becume so perfit & pure a writer, I beleue, as hath bene fewe or none sence Ciceroes dayes: And so, by doing himself and all learned moch good, do others lesse harme, & Christes doctrine lesse iniury, than he doth: & with all, wyn vnto himselfe many worthy frends, who agreing with him gladly, in ye loue & liking of excellent learning, are sorie to see so worthie a witte, so rare eloquence, wholie spent and consumed, in striuing with God and good men.
      Emonges the rest, no man doth lament him more than I, not onelie for the excellent learning that I see in him, but also bicause there hath passed priuatelie betwixt him and me, sure tokens of moch good will, and frendlie opinion, the one toward the other. And surelie the distance betwixt London and Lysbon, should not stoppe, any kinde of frendlie dewtie, that I could, eyther shew to him, or do to his, if the greatest matter of all did not in certeyne pointes, separate our myndes.
      And yet for my parte, both toward him, and diuerse others here at home, for like cause of excellent learning, great wisdome, and gentle humanitie, which I haue seene in them, and felt at their handes my selfe, where the matter of indifference is mere conscience in a quiet minde inwardlie, and not contentious malice with spitefull rayling openlie, I can be content to followe this rewle, in misliking some one thing, not to hate for anie thing els.
Psal. 80.
But as for all the bloodie beastes, as that fat Boore of the wood: or those brauling Bulles of Basan: or any lurking Dormus, blinde, not by nature, but by malice, & as may be gathered of their owne testimonie, giuen ouer to blindnes, for giuing ouer God & his word; or soch as be so lustie runnegates, as first, runne from God & his trew doctrine, than, from their Lordes, Masters, & all dewtie, next, from them selues & out of their wittes, lastly from their Prince, contrey, & all dew allegeance, whether they ought rather to be pitied of good men, for their miserie, or contemned of wise men, for their malicious folie, let good and wise men determine.
      And to returne to Epitome agayne, some will iudge moch boldnes in me, thus to iudge of Osorius style: but wise men do know, that meane lookers on, may trewelie say, for a well made Picture: This face had bene more cumlie, if that hie redde in the cheeke, were somwhat more pure sanguin than it is: and yet the stander by, can not amend it himselfe by any way. And this is not written to the dispraise but to the great commendation of Osorius, because Tullie himselfe had the same fulnes in him: and therefore went to Rodes to cut it away: and saith himselfe, recepi me domum prope mutatus, nam quasi referuerat iam oratio. Which was brought to passe I beleue, not onelie by the teaching of Molo Appollonius but also by a good way of Epitome, in binding him selfe to translate meros Atticos Oratores, and so to bring his style, from all lowse grosnesse, to soch firme fastnes in latin, as is in Demosthenes in Greeke. And this to be most trew, may easelie be gathered, not onelie of L. Crassus talke in 1. de Or. but speciallie of Ciceroes owne deede in translating Demosthenes and Æschines orations peri steph. to that verie ende and purpose.
      And although a man growndlie learned all readie, may take moch proffet him selfe in vsing, by Epitome, to draw other mens workes for his owne memorie sake, into shorter rowme, as Conterus hath done verie well the whole Metamorphosis of Ouid, & Dauid Cythræus a great deale better, the ix. Muses of Herodotus, and Melanchthon in myne opinion, far best of all, the whole storie of Time, not onelie to his own vse, but to other mens proffet and hys great prayse, yet, Epitome is most necessarie of all in a mans owne writing, as we learne of that noble Poet Virgill, who, if Donatus say trewe, in writing that perfite worke of the Georgickes, vsed dailie, when he had written 40. or 50. verses, not to cease cutting, paring, and pollishing of them, till he had brought them to the nomber of x. or xij.
      And this exercise, is not more nedefullie done in a great worke, than wiselie done, in your common dailie writing, either of letter, or other thing else, that is to say, to peruse diligentlie, and see and spie wiselie, what is alwaies more than nedeth: For, twenty to one, offend more, in writing to moch, than to litle: euen as twentie to one, fall into sicknesse, rather by ouer moch fulnes, than by anie lacke or emptinesse. And therefore is he alwaies the best English Physition, that best can geue a purgation, that is, by way of Epitome, to cut all ouer much away. And surelie mens bodies, be not more full of ill humors, than commonlie mens myndes (if they be yong, lustie, proude, like and loue them selues well, as most men do) be full of fansies, opinions, errors, and faultes, not onelie in inward inuention, but also in all their vtterance, either by pen or taulke.
      And of all other men, euen those that haue ye inuentiuest heades, for all purposes, and roundest tonges in all matters and places (except they learne and vse this good lesson of Epitome) commit commonlie greater faultes, than dull, staying silent men do. For, quicke inuentors, and faire readie speakers, being boldned with their present habilitie to say more, and perchance better to, at the soden for that present, than any other can do, vse lesse helpe of diligence and studie than they ought to do: and so haue in them commonlie, lesse learning, and weaker iudgement, for all deepe considerations, than some duller heades, and slower tonges haue.
      And therefore, readie speakers, generallie be not the best, playnest, and wisest writers, nor yet the deepest iudgers in weightie affaires, bicause they do not tarry to weye and iudge all thinges, as they should: but hauing their heades ouer full of matter, be like pennes ouer full of incke, which will soner blotte, than make any faire letter at all. Tyme was, whan I had experience of two Ambassadors in one place, the one of a hote head to inuent, and of a hastie hand to write, the other, colde and stayd in both: but what difference of their doinges was made by wise men, is not vnknowne to some persons. The Bishop of Winchester Steph: Gardiner had a quicke head, and a readie tong, and yet was not the best writer in England. Cicero in Brutus doth wiselie note the same in Serg: Galbo, and Q. Hortentius, who were both, hote, lustie, and plaine speakers, but colde, lowse, and rough writers: And Tullie telleth the cause why, saying, whan they spake, their tong was naturally caried with full tyde & wynde of their witte: whan they wrote their head was solitarie, dull, and caulme, and so their style was blonte, and their writing colde: Quod vitium, sayth Cicero, peringeniosis hominibus neque satis doctis plerumque accidit. And therfore all quick inuentors, & readie faire speakers, must be carefull, that, to their goodnes of nature, they adde also in any wise, studie, labor, leasure, learning, and iudgement, and than they shall in deede, passe all other, as I know some do, in whome all those qualities are fullie planted, or else if they giue ouer moch to their witte, and ouer litle to their labor and learning, they will sonest ouer reach in taulke, and fardest cum behinde in writing whatsoeuer they take in hand. The methode of Epitome is most necessarie for soch kinde of men. And thus much concerning the vse or misuse of all kinde of Epitomes in matters of learning.


      Imitation, is a facultie to expresse liuelie and perfitelie that example: which ye go about to folow. And of it selfe, it is large and wide: for all the workes of nature, in a maner be examples for arte to folow.
      But to our purpose, all languages, both learned and mother tonges, be gotten, and gotten onelie by Imitation. For as ye vse to heare, so ye learne to speake: if ye heare no other, ye speake not your selfe: and whome ye onelie heare, of them ye onelie learne.
      And therefore, if ye would speake as the best and wisest do, ye must be conuersant, where the best and wisest are: but if yow be borne or brought vp in a rude contrie, ye shall not chose but speake rudelie: the rudest man of all knoweth this to be trewe.
      Yet neuerthelesse, the rudenes of common and mother tonges, is no bar for wise speaking. For in the rudest contrie, and most barbarous mother language, many be found can speake verie wiselie: but in the Greeke and latin tong, the two onelie learned tonges, which be kept, not in common taulke, but in priuate bookes, we finde alwayes, wisdome and eloquence, good matter and good vtterance, neuer or seldom a sonder. For all soch Authors, as be fullest of good matter and right iudgement in doctrine, be likewise alwayes, most proper in wordes, most apte in sentence, most plaine and pure in vttering the same.
      And contrariwise, in those two tonges, all writers, either in Religion, or any sect of Philosophie, who so euer be founde fonde in iudgement of matter, be commonlie found as rude in vttering their mynde. For Stoickes, Anabaptistes, and Friers: with Epicures, Libertines and Monkes, being most like in learning and life, are no fonder and pernicious in their opinions, than they be rude and barbarous in their writinges. They be not wise, therefore that say, what care I for a mans wordes and vtterance, if his matter and reasons be good. Soch men, say so, not so moch of ignorance, as eyther of some singular pride in themselues, or some speciall malice or other, or for some priuate & perciall matter, either in Religion or other kinde of learning. For good and choice meates, be no more requisite for helthie bodies, than proper and apte wordes be for good matters, and also plaine and sensible vtterance for the best and depest reasons: in which two pointes standeth perfite eloquence, one of the fairest and rarest giftes that God doth geue to man.
      Ye know not, what hurt ye do to learning, that care not for wordes, but for matter, and so make a deuorse betwixt the tong and the hart. For marke all aiges: looke vpon the whole course of both the Greeke and Latin tonge, and ye shall surelie finde, that, whan apte and good wordes began to be neglected, and properties of those two tonges to be confounded, than also began, ill deedes to spring: strange maners to oppresse good orders, newe and fond opinions to striue with olde and trewe doctrine, first in Philosophie: and after in Religion: right iudgement of all thinges to be peruerted, and so vertue with learning is contemned, and studie left of: of ill thoughtes cummeth peruerse iudgement: of ill deedes springeth lewde taulke. Which fower misorders, as they mar mans life, so destroy they good learning withall.
      But behold the goodnesse of Gods prouidence for learning: all olde authors and sectes of Philosophy, which were fondest in opinion, and rudest in vtterance, as Stoickes and Epicures, first contemned of wise men, and after forgotten of all men, be so consumed by tymes, as they be now, not onelie out of vse, but also out of memorie of man: which thing, I surelie thinke, will shortlie chance, to the whole doctrine and all the bookes of phantasticall Anabaptistes and Friers, and of the beastlie Libertines and Monkes.
      Againe behold on the other side, how Gods wisdome hath wrought, that of Academici and Peripatetici, those that were wisest in iudgement of matters, and purest in vttering their myndes, the first and chiefest, that wrote most and best, in either tong, as Plato and Aristotle in Greeke, Tullie in Latin, be so either wholie, or sufficiently left vnto vs, as I neuer knew yet scholer, that gaue himselfe to like, and loue, and folow chieflie those three Authors but he proued, both learned, wise, and also an honest man, if he ioyned with all the trewe doctrine of Gods holie Bible, without the which, the other three, be but fine edge tooles in a fole or mad mans hand.
      But to returne to Imitation agayne: There be three kindes of it in matters of learning.
      The whole doctrine of Comedies and Tragedies, is a perfite imitation, or faire liuelie painted picture of the life of euerie degree of man. Of this Imitation writeth Plato at large in 3. de Rep. but it doth not moch belong at this time to our purpose.
      The second kind of Imitation, is to folow for learning of tonges and sciences, the best authors. Here riseth, emonges proude and enuious wittes, a great controuersie, whether, one or many are to be folowed: and if one, who is that one: Seneca, or Cicero: Salust or Cæsar, and so forth in Greeke and Latin.
      The third kinde of Imitation, belongeth to the second: as when you be determined, whether ye will folow one or mo, to know perfitlie, and which way to folow that one: in what place: by what meane and order: by what tooles and instrumentes ye shall do it, by what skill and iudgement, ye shall trewelie discerne, whether ye folow rightlie or no.
      This Imitatio, is dissimilis materiei similis tractatio: and also, similis materiei dissimilis tractatio, as Virgill folowed Homer: but the Argument to the one was Vlysses, to the other Æneas. Tullie persecuted Antonie with the same wepons of eloquence, that Demosthenes vsed before against Philippe. Horace foloweth Pindar, but either of them his owne Argument and Person: as the one, Hiero king of Sicilie, the other Augustus the Emperor: and yet both for like respectes, that is, for their coragious stoutnes in warre, and iust gouernment in peace.
      One of the best examples, for right Imitation we lacke, and that is Menander, whom our Terence, (as the matter required) in like argument, in the same Persons, with equall eloquence, foote by foote did folow.
      Som peeces remaine, like broken Iewelles, whereby men may rightlie esteme, and iustlie lament, the losse of the whole.
      Erasmus, the ornament of learning, in our tyme, doth wish that som man of learning and diligence, would take the like paines in Demosthenes and Tullie, that Macrobius hath done in Homer and Virgill, that is, to write out and ioyne together, where the one doth imitate the other. Erasmus wishe is good, but surelie, it is not good enough: for Macrobius gatherings for the Æneidos out of Homer, and Eobanus Hessus more diligent gatherings for the Bucolikes out of Theocritus, as they be not fullie taken out of the whole heape, as they should be, but euen as though they had not sought for them of purpose, but fownd them scatered here and there by chance in their way, euen so, onelie to point out, and nakedlie to ioyne togither their sentences, with no farder declaring the maner and way, how the one doth folow the other, were but a colde helpe, to the encrease of learning.
      But if a man would take this paine also, whan he hath layd two places, of Homer and Virgill, or of Demosthenes and Tullie togither, to teach plainlie withall, after this sort. 1. Tullie reteyneth thus moch of the matter, thies sentences, thies wordes:

2. This and that he leaueth out, which he doth wittelie to this end and purpose. 3. This he addeth here. 4. This he diminisheth there. 5. This he ordereth thus, with placing that here, not there. 6. This he altereth and changeth, either, in propertie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in substance of the matter, or in one, or other conuenient circumstance of the authors present purpose. In thies fewe rude English wordes, are wrapt vp all the necessarie tooles and instrumentes, wherewith trewe Imitation is rightlie wrought withall in any tonge. Which tooles, I openlie confesse, be not of myne owne forging, but partlie left vnto me by the cunningest Master, and one of the worthiest Ientlemen that euer England bred, Syr Iohn Cheke: partelie borowed by me out of the shoppe of the dearest frende I haue out of England, Io. St. And therefore I am the bolder to borow of him, and here to leaue them to other, and namelie to my Children: which tooles, if it please God, that an other day, they may be able to vse rightlie, as I do wish and daylie pray, they may do, I shal be more glad, than if I were able to leaue them a great quantitie of land.
      This foresaide order and doctrine of Imitation, would bring forth more learning, and breed vp trewer iudgement, than any other exercise that can be vsed, but not for yong beginners, bicause they shall not be able to consider dulie therof. And trewelie, it may be a shame to good studentes who hauing so faire examples to follow, as Plato and Tullie, do not vse so wise wayes in folowing them for the obteyning of wisdome and learning, as rude ignorant Artificers do, for gayning a small commoditie. For surelie the meanest painter vseth more witte, better arte, greater diligence, in hys shoppe, in folowing the Picture of any meane mans face, than commonlie the best studentes do, euen in the vniuersitie, for the atteining of learning it selfe.
      Some ignorant, vnlearned, and idle student: or some busie looker vpon this litle poore booke, that hath neither will to do good him selfe, nor skill to iudge right of others, but can lustelie contemne, by pride and ignorance, all painfull diligence and right order in study, will perchance say, that I am to precise, to curious, in marking and piteling thus about the imitation of others: and that the olde worthie Authors did neuer busie their heades and wittes, in folowyng so preciselie, either the matter what other men wrote, or els the maner how other men wrote. They will say, it were a plaine slauerie, & inurie to, to shakkle and tye a good witte, and hinder the course of a mans good nature with such bondes of seruitude, in folowyng other.
      Except soch men thinke them selues wiser then Cicero for teaching of eloquence, they must be content to turne a new leafe.
      The best booke that euer Tullie wrote, by all mens iudgement, and by his owne testimonie to, in writyng wherof, he employed most care, studie, learnyng and iudgement, is his book de Orat. ad Q. F. Now let vs see, what he did for the matter, and also for the maner of writing therof. For the whole booke consisteth in these two pointes onelie: In good matter, and good handling of the matter. And first, for the matter, it is whole Aristotles, what so euer Antonie in the second, and Crassus in the third doth teach. Trust not me, but beleue Tullie him selfe, who writeth so, first, in that goodlie long Epistle ad P. Lentulum, and after in diuerse places ad Atticum. And in the verie booke it selfe, Tullie will not haue it hidden, but both Catulus and Crassus do oft and pleasantly lay that stelth to Antonius charge. Now, for the handling of the matter, was Tullie so precise and curious rather to follow an other mans Paterne, than to inuent some newe shape him selfe, namelie in that booke, wherin he purposed, to leaue to posteritie, the glorie of his witte? yea forsoth, that he did. And this is not my gessing and gathering, nor onelie performed by Tullie in verie deed, but vttered also by Tullie in plaine wordes: to teach other men thereby, what they should do, in taking like matter in hand.
      And that which is specially to be marked, Tullie doth vtter plainlie his conceit and purpose therein, by the mouth of the wisest man in all that companie: for sayth Scæuola him selfe, Cur non imitamur, Crasse, Socratem illum, qui est in Phædro Platonis &c.
      And furder to vnderstand, that Tullie did not obiter and bichance, but purposelie and mindfullie bend him selfe to a precise and curious Imitation of Plato, concernyng the shape and forme of those bookes, marke I pray you, how curious Tullie is to vtter his purpose and doyng therein, writing thus to Atticus.
      Quod in his Oratorijs libris, quos tantopere laudas, personam desideras Scæuolæ, non eam temerè dimoui: Sed feci idem, quod in politeia Deus ille noster Plato, cum in Piræeum Socrates venisset ad Cephalum locupletem & festiuum Senem, quoad primus ille sermo haberetur, adest in disputando senex: Deinde, cum ipse quoque commodissimè locutus esset, ad rem diuinam dicit se velle discedere, neque postea reuertitur. Credo Platonem vix putasse satis consonum fore, si hominem id ætatis in tam longo sermone diutius retinuisset: Multo ego satius hoc mihi cauendum putaui in Scæuola, qui & ætate et valetudine erat ea qua meministi, & his honoribus, vt vix satis decorum videretur eum plures dies esse in Crassi Tusculano. Et erat primi libri sermo non alienus à Scæuolæ studijs: reliqui libri technologian habent, vt scis. Huic ioculatoriæ disputationi senem illum vt noras, interesse sanè nolui.
      If Cicero had not opened him selfe, and declared hys owne thought and doynges herein, men that be idle, and ignorant, and enuious of other mens diligence and well doinges, would haue sworne that Tullie had neuer mynded any soch thing, but that of a precise curiositie, we fayne and forge and father soch thinges of Tullie, as he neuer ment in deed. I write this, not for nought: for I haue heard some both well learned, and otherwayes verie wise, that by their lustie misliking of soch diligence, haue drawen back the forwardnes of verie good wittes. But euen as such men them selues, do sometymes stumble vpon doyng well by chance and benefite of good witte, so would I haue our scholer alwayes able to do well by order of learnyng and right skill of iudgement.
      Concernyng Imitation, many learned men haue written, with moch diuersitie for the matter, and therfore with great contrarietie and some stomacke amongest them selues. I haue read as many as I could get diligentlie, and what I thinke of euerie one of them, I will freelie say my mynde. With which freedome I trust good men will beare, bicause it shall tend to neither spitefull nor harmefull controuersie. In Tullie, it is well touched, shortlie taught, not fullie declared by Ant. in 2. de Orat: and afterward in Orat. ad Brutum, for the liking and misliking of Isocrates: and the contrarie iudgement of Tullie against Caluus, Brutus, and Calidius, de genere dicendi Attico & Asiatico. Dionis. Halic. peri mimeseos. I feare is lost: which Author, next Aristotle, Plato, and Tullie, of all other, that write of eloquence, by the iudgement of them that be best learned, deserueth the next prayse and place.
      Quintilian writeth of it, shortly and coldlie for the matter, yet hotelie and spitefullie enough, agaynst the Imitation of Tullie.
      Erasmus, beyng more occupied in spying other mens faultes, than declaryng his own aduise, is mistaken of many, to the great hurt of studie, for his authoritie sake. For he writeth rightlie, rightlie vnderstanded: he and

Dio. Halicar.




Ph. Melanch.<

Ioa. Cammer.



P. Bembus.

Ioan. Sturmius.

Longolius onelie differing in this, that the one seemeth to giue ouermoch, the other ouer litle, to him, whom they both, best loued, and chiefly allowed of all other.
      Budæus in his Commentaries roughlie and obscurelie, after his kinde of writyng: and for the matter, caryed somwhat out of the way in ouermuch misliking the Imitation of Tullie. Phil. Melancthon, learnedlie and trewlie. Camerarius largely with a learned iudgement, but somewhat confusedly, and with ouer rough a stile.
      Sambucus, largely, with a right iudgement but somewhat a crooked stile. Other haue written also, as Cortesius to Politian, and that verie well: Bembus ad Picum a great deale better, but Ioan. Sturmius de Nobilitate literata, & de Amissa dicendi ratione, farre best of all, in myne opinion, that euer tooke this matter in hand. For all the rest, declare chiefly this point, whether one, or many, or all, are to be followed: but Sturmius onelie hath most learnedlie declared, who is to be followed, what is to be followed, and the best point of all, by what way & order, trew Imitation is rightlie to be exercised. And although Sturmius herein doth farre passe all other, yet hath he not so fullie and perfitelie done it, as I do wishe he had, and as I know he could. For though he hath done it perfitelie for precept, yet hath he not done it perfitelie enough for example: which he did, neither for lacke of skill, nor by negligence, but of purpose, contented with one or two examples bicause he was mynded in those two bookes, to write of it both shortlie, and also had to touch other matters.
      Barthol. Riccius Ferrariensis also hath written learnedlie, diligentlie and verie largelie of this matter euen as hee did before verie well de Apparatu linguæ Lat. He writeth the better in myne opinion, bicause his whole doctrine, iudgement, and order, semeth to be borowed out of Io. Stur. bookes. He addeth also examples, the best kinde of teaching: wherein he doth well, but not well enough: in deede, he committeth no faulte, but yet, deserueth small praise. He is content with the meane, and followeth not the best: as a man, that would feede vpon Acornes, whan he may eate, as good cheape, the finest wheat bread. He teacheth for example, where and how, two or three late Italian Poetes do follow Virgil: and how Virgil him selfe in the storie of Dido, doth wholie Imitate Catullus in the like matter of Ariadna: Wherein I like better his diligence and order of teaching, than his iudgement in choice of examples for Imitation. But, if he had done thus: if he had declared where and how, how oft and how many wayes Virgil doth folow Homer, as for example the comming of Vlysses to Alcynous and Calypso, with the comming of Æneas to Cartage and Dido: Likewise the games running, wrestling, and shoting, that Achilles maketh in Homer, with the selfe same games, that Æneas maketh in Virgil: The harnesse of Achilles, with the harnesse of Æneas, and the maner of making of them both by Vulcane: The notable combate betwixt Achilles and Hector, with as notable a combate betwixt Æneas and Turnus. The going downe to hell of Vlysses in Homer, with the going downe to hell of &AEneas in Virgil: and other places infinite mo, as similitudes, narrations, messages, discriptions of persones, places, battels, tempestes, shipwrackes, and common places for diuerse purposes, which be as precisely taken out of Homer, as euer did Painter in London follow the picture of any faire personage. And when thies places had bene gathered together by this way of diligence than to haue conferred them together by this order of teaching as, diligently to marke what is kept and vsed in either author, in wordes, in sentences, in matter: what is added: what is left out: what ordered otherwise, either præponendo, interponendo, or postponendo: And what is altered for any respect, in word, phrase, sentence, figure, reason, argument, or by any way of circumstance: If Riccius had done this, he had not onely bene well liked, for his diligence in teaching, but also iustlie commended for his right iudgement in right choice of examples for the best Imitation.
      Riccius also for Imitation of prose declareth where and how Longolius doth folow Tullie, but as for Longolius, I would not haue him the patern of our Imitation. In deede: in Longolius shoppe, be proper and faire shewing colers, but as for shape, figure, and naturall cumlines, by the iudgement of best iudging artificers, he is rather allowed as one to be borne withall, than especially commended, as one chieflie to be folowed.
      If Riccius had taken for his examples, where Tullie him selfe foloweth either Plato or Demosthenes, he had shot than at the right marke. But to excuse Riccius, somwhat, though I can not fullie defend him, it may be sayd, his purpose was, to teach onelie the Latin tong, when thys way that I do wish, to ioyne Virgil with Homer, to read Tullie with Demosthenes and Plato, requireth a cunning and perfite Master in both the tonges. It is my wish in deede, and that by good reason: For who so euer will write well of any matter, must labor to expresse that, that is perfite, and not to stay and content himselfe with the meane: yea, I say farder, though it be not vnposible, yet it is verie rare, and meruelous hard, to proue excellent in the Latin tong, for him that is not also well seene in the Greeke tong. Tullie him selfe, most excellent of nature, most diligent in labor, brought vp from his cradle, in that place, and in that tyme, where and whan the Latin tong most florished naturallie in euery mans mouth, yet was not his owne tong able it selfe to make him so cunning in his owne tong, as he was in deede: but the knowledge and Imitation of the Greeke tong withall.
      This he confesseth himselfe: this he vttereth in many places, as those can tell best, that vse to read him most.
      Therefore thou, that shotest at perfection in the Latin tong, thinke not thy selfe wiser than Tullie was, in choice of the way, that leadeth rightlie to the same: thinke not thy witte better than Tullies was, as though that may serue thee that was not sufficient for him. For euen as a hauke flieth not hie with one wing: euen so a man reacheth not to excellency with one tong.
      I haue bene a looker on in the Cokpit of learning thies many yeares: And one Cock onelie haue I knowne, which with one wing, euen at this day, doth passe all other, in myne opinion, that euer I saw in any pitte in England, though they had two winges. Yet neuerthelesse, to flie well with one wing, to runne fast with one leg, be rather, rare Maistreis moch to be merueled at, than sure examples safelie to be folowed. A Bushop that now liueth, a good man, whose iudgement in Religion I better like, than his opinion in perfitnes in other learning, said once vnto me: we haue no nede now of the Greeke tong, when all thinges be translated into Latin. But the good man vnderstood not, that euen the best translation, is, for mere necessitie, but an euill imped wing to flie withall, or a heuie stompe leg of wood to go withall: soch, the hier they flie, the sooner they falter and faill: the faster they runne, the ofter they stumble, and sorer they fall. Soch as will nedes so flie, may flie at a Pye, and catch a Dawe: And soch runners, as commonlie, they shoue and sholder to stand formost, yet in the end they cum behind others & deserue but the hopshakles, if the Masters of the game be right iudgers.
      Therefore in perusing thus, so many diuerse bookes for Imitation, it came into my head that a verie fitable booke might be made de Imitatione, after an other sort, than euer yet was attempted of that matter, conteyning a certaine fewe fitte preceptes, vnto the which should be gathered and applied plentie of examples, out of the choisest authors of both the tonges. This worke would stand, rather in good diligence, for the gathering, and right iudgement for the apte applying of those
Optima ratio Imitationis.

Erasmus order in his studie.


examples: than any great learning or vtterance at all.
      The doing thereof, would be more pleasant, than painfull, & would bring also moch proffet to all that should read it, and great praise to him would take it in hand, with iust desert of thankes.
      Erasmus, giuyng him selfe to read ouer all Authors Greke and Latin, seemeth to haue prescribed to him selfe this order of readyng: that is, to note out by the way, three speciall pointes: All Adagies, all similitudes, and all wittie sayinges of most notable personages: And so, by one labour, he left to posteritie, three notable bookes, & namelie two his Chiliades, Apophthegmata and Similia. Likewise, if a good student would bend him selfe to read diligently ouer Tullie, and with him also at the same tyme, as diligently Plato, & Xenophon, with his bookes of Philosophie, Isocrates, & Demosthenes with his orations, & Aristotle with his Rhetorickes: which fiue of all other, be those, whom Tullie best loued, & specially followed: & would marke diligently in Tullie where he doth exprimere or effingere (which be the verie propre wordes of Imitation) either, Copiam Platonis or venustatem Xenophontis, suauitatem Isocratis, or vim Demosthenis, propriam & puram subtilitatem Aristotelis, and not onelie write out the places diligentlie, and lay them together orderlie, but also to conferre them with skilfull iudgement by those few rules, which I haue expressed now twise before: if that diligence were taken, if that order were vsed, what perfite knowledge of both the tonges, what readie and pithie vtterance in all matters, what right and deepe iudgement in all kinde of learnyng would follow, is scarse credible to be beleued.
      These bookes, be not many, nor long, nor rude in speach, nor meane in matter, but next the Maiestie of Gods holie word, most worthie for a man, the louer of learning and honestie, to spend his life in. Yea, I haue heard worthie M. Cheke many tymes say: I would haue a good student passe and iorney through all Authors both Greke and Latin: but he that will dwell in these few bookes onelie: first, in Gods holie Bible, and than ioyne with it, Tullie in Latin, Plato, Aristotle: Xenophon: Isocrates: and Demosthenes in Greke: must nedes proue an excellent man.
      Some men alreadie in our dayes, haue put to their helping handes, to this worke of Imitation. As Perionius, Henr. Stephanus in dictionario Ciceroniano, and P. Victorius most praiseworthelie of all, in that his learned worke conteyning xxv. bookes de varia lectione: in which bookes be ioyned diligentlie together the best Authors of both the tonges where one doth seeme to imitate an other.
      But all these, with Macrobius, Hessus, and other, be no
H. Steph.
P. Victorius.



Tit. Liuius.

Dion. Halicarn.


Thucidides. 1


Lib. 7.

Thucid. 1.

more but common porters, caryers, and bringers of matter and stuffe togither. They order nothing: They lay before you, what is done: they do not teach you, how it is done: They busie not them selues with forme of buildyng: They do not declare, this stuffe is thus framed by Demosthenes, and thus and thus by Tullie, and so likewise in Xenophon, Plato and Isocrates and Aristotle. For ioyning Virgil with Homer I haue sufficientlie declared before.
      The like diligence I would wish to be taken in Pindar and Horace an equall match for all respectes. In Tragedies, (the goodliest Argument of all, and for the vse, either of a learned preacher, or a Ciuill Ientleman, more profitable than Homer, Pindar, Virgill, and Horace: yea comparable in myne opinion, with the doctrine of Aristotle, Plato, and Xenophon,) the Grecians, Sophocles and Euripides far ouer match our Seneca, in Latin, namely in oikonomia et Decoro, although Senacaes elocution and verse be verie commendable for his tyme. And for the matters of Hercules, Thebes, Hippolytus, and Troie, his Imitation is to be gathered into the same booke, and to be tryed by the same touchstone, as is spoken before.
      In histories, and namelie in Liuie, the like diligence of Imitation, could bring excellent learning, and breede stayde iudgement, in taking any like matter in hand.
      Onely Liuie were a sufficient taske for one mans studie, to compare him, first with his fellow for all respectes, Dion. Halicarnassæus: who both, liued in one tyme: tooke both one historie in hande to write: deserued both like prayse of learnyng and eloquence. Than with Polybius that wise writer, whom Liuie professeth to follow: & if he would denie it, yet it is plaine, that the best part of the thyrd Decade in Liuie, is in a maner translated out of the thyrd and rest of Polibius: Lastlie with Thucydides, to whose Imitation Liuie is curiouslie bent, as may well appeare by that one Oration of those of Campania, asking aide of the Romanes agaynst the Samnites, which is wholie taken, Sentence, Reason, Argument, and order, out of the Oration of Corcyra, asking like aide of the Athenienses against them of Corinth. If some diligent student would take paynes to compare them togither, he should easelie perceiue, that I do say trew. A booke, thus wholie filled with examples of Imitation, first out of Tullie, compared with Plato, Xenophon, Isocrates, Demosthenes and Aristotle: than out of Virgil and Horace, with Homer and Pindar: next out of Seneca with Sophocles and Euripides: Lastlie out of Liuie, with Thucydides, Polibius and Halicarnassæus, gathered with good diligence, and compared with right order, as I haue expressed before, were an other maner of worke for all kinde of learning, & namely for eloquence, than be those cold gatheringes of Macrobius, Hessus, Perionius, Stephanus, and Victorius, which may be vsed, as I sayd before, in this case, as porters and caryers, deseruing like prayse, as soch men do wages; but onely Sturmius is he, out of whom, the trew suruey and whole workemanship is speciallie to be learned.
      I trust, this my writyng shall giue some good student occasion, to take some peece in hand of this worke of Imitation. And as I had rather haue any do it, than my selfe, yet surelie my selfe rather than none at all. And by Gods grace, if God do lend me life, with health, free laysure and libertie, with good likyng and a merie heart, I will turne the best part of my studie and tyme, to toyle in one or other peece of this worke of Imitation.
Opus de recta imitandi ratione.


Commentarij Græci et Latini in Dialect. Aristotelis.

This diligence to gather examples, to giue light and vnderstandyng to good preceptes, is no new inuention, but speciallie vsed of the best Authors and oldest writers. For Aristotle him selfe, (as Diog. Laertius declareth) when he had written that goodlie booke of the Topickes, did gather out of stories and Orators, so many examples as filled xv. bookes, onelie to expresse the rules of his Topickes. These were the Commentaries, that Aristotle thought fit for hys Topickes: And therfore to speake as I thinke, I neuer saw yet any Commentarie vpon Aristotles Logicke, either in Greke or Latin, that euer I lyked, bicause they be rather spent in declaryng scholepoynt rules, than in gathering fit examples for vse and vtterance, either by pen or talke. For preceptes in all Authors, and namelie in Aristotle, without applying vnto them, the Imitation of examples, be hard, drie, and cold, and therfore barrayn, vnfruitfull and vnpleasant. But Aristotle, namelie in his Topicks and Elenches, should be, not onelie fruitfull, but also pleasant to, if examples out of Plato, and other good Authors, were diligentlie gathered, and aptlie applied vnto his most perfit preceptes there. And it is notable, that my frende Sturmius writeth herein, that there is no precept in Aristotles Topickes wherof plentie of examples be not
Precepta in Aristot.

Exempla in Platone.

manifest in Platos workes. And I heare say, that an excellent learned man, Tomitanus in Italie, hath expressed euerie fallacion in Aristotle, with diuerse examples out of Plato. Would to God, I might once see, some worthie student of Aristotle and Plato in Cambrige, that would ioyne in one booke the preceptes of the one, with the examples of the other. For such a labor, were one speciall peece of that worke of Imitation, which I do wishe were gathered together in one Volume.
      Cambrige, at my first comming thither, but not at my going away, committed this fault in reading the preceptes of Aristotle without the examples of other Authors: But herein, in my time thies men of worthie memorie, M. Redman, M. Cheke, M. Smith, M. Haddon, M. Watson, put so to their helping handes, as that vniuersitie, and all studentes there, as long as learning shall last, shall be bounde vnto them, if that trade in studie be trewlie folowed, which those men left behinde them there.
      By this small mention of Cambridge, I am caryed into three imaginations: first, into a sweete remembrance of my tyme spent there: than, into som carefull thoughts, for the greuous alteration that folowed sone after: lastlie, into much ioy to heare tell, of the good recouerie and earnest forwardnes in all good learning there agayne.
      To vtter theis my thoughts somwhat more largelie, were somwhat beside my matter, yet not very farre out of the way, bycause it shall wholy tend to the good encoragement and right consideration of learning, which is my full purpose in writing this litle booke: whereby also shall well appeare this sentence to be most trewe, that onely good men, by their gouernment & example, make happie times, in euery degree and state.
      Doctor Nico. Medcalfe, that honorable father, was Master of S. Iohnes Colledge, when I came thether: A man meanelie learned himselfe, but not meanely affectioned to set forward learning in others. He found that Colledge spending scarse two hundred markes by yeare: he left it spending a thousand markes and more. Which he procured, not with his mony, but by his wisdome; not chargeablie bought by him, but liberallie geuen by others by his meane, for the zeale & honor they bare to learning. And that
D. Nic. Medcalf.

The parcialitie of Northren men in S. Iohnes College.

which is worthy of memorie, all thies giuers were almost Northenmen: who being liberallie rewarded in the seruice of their Prince, bestowed it as liberallie for the good of their Contrie. Som men thought therefore, that D. Medcalfe was parciall to Northrenmen, but sure I am of this, that Northrenmen were parciall, in doing more good, and geuing more landes to ye forderance of learning, than any other contrie men, in those dayes, did: which deede should haue bene, rather an example of goodnes, for other to folowe, than matter of malice, for any to enuie, as some there were that did. Trewly, D. Medcalfe was parciall to none: but indifferent to all: a master for the whole, a father to euery one, in that Colledge. There was none so poore, if he had, either wil to goodnes, or wit to learning, that could lacke being there, or should depart from thence for any need. I am witnes my selfe, that mony many times was brought into yong mens studies by strangers whom they knew not. In which doing, this worthy Nicolaus folowed the steppes of good olde S. Nicolaus, that learned Bishop. He was a Papist in deede, but would to God, amonges all vs Protestants I might once see but one, that would winne like praise, in doing like good, for the aduauncement of learning and vertue. And yet, though he were a Papist, if any yong man, geuen to new learning (as they termed it) went beyond his fellowes, in witte, labor, and towardnes, euen the same, neyther lacked, open praise to encorage him, nor priuate exhibition to mainteyne hym, as worthy Syr I. Cheke, if he were aliue would beare good witnes and so can many mo. I my selfe one of the meanest of a great number, in that Colledge, because there appeared in me som small shew of towardnes and diligence, lacked not his fauor to forder me in learning.
      And being a boy, new Bacheler of arte, I chanced amonges my companions to speake against the Pope: which matter was than in euery mans mouth, bycause D. Haines and D. Skippe were cum from the Court, to debate the same matter, by preaching and disputation in the vniuersitie. This hapned the same tyme, when I stoode to be felow there: my taulke came to D. Medcalfes eare: I was called before him and the Seniores: and after greuous rebuke, and some punishment, open warning was geuen to all the felowes, none to be so hardie to geue me his voice at that election. And yet for all those open threates, the good father himselfe priuilie procured, that I should euen than be chosen felow. But, the election being done, he made countinance of great discontentation thereat. This good mans goodnes, and fatherlie discretion, vsed towardes me that one day, shall neuer out of my remembrance all the dayes of my life. And for the same cause, haue I put it here, in this small record of learning. For next Gods prouidence, surely that day, was by that good fathers meanes, Dies natalis, to me, for the whole foundation of the poore learning I haue, and of all the furderance, that hetherto else where I haue obteyned.
      This his goodnes stood not still in one or two, but flowed aboundantlie ouer all that Colledge, and brake out also to norishe good wittes in euery part of that vniuersitie: whereby, at this departing thence, he left soch a companie of fellowes and scholers in S. Iohnes Colledge, as can scarse be found now in some whole vniuersitie: which, either for diuinitie, on the one side or other, or for Ciuill seruice to their Prince and contrie, haue bene, and are yet to this day, notable ornaments to this whole Realme: Yea S. Iohnes did then so florish, as Trinitie college, that Princely house now, at the first erection, was but Colonia deducta out of S. Iohnes, not onelie for their Master, fellowes, and scholers, but also, which is more, for their whole, both order of learning, and discipline of maners: & yet to this day, it neuer tooke Master but such as was bred vp before in S. Iohnes: doing the dewtie of a good Colonia to her Metropolis, as the auncient Cities in Greice and some yet in Italie, at this day, are accustomed to do.
      S. Iohnes stoode in this state, vntill those heuie tymes, and that greuous change that chanced. An. 1553. whan mo perfite scholers were dispersed from thence in one moneth, than many
Psal. 80.
yeares can reare vp againe. For, whan Aper de Sylua had passed the seas, and fastned his foote againe in England, not onely the two faire groues of learning in England were eyther cut vp, by the roote, or troden downe to the ground and wholie went to wracke, but the yong spring there, and euerie where else, was pitifullie nipt and ouertroden by very beastes, and also the fairest standers of all, were rooted vp, and cast into the fire, to the great weakning euen at this day of Christes Chirch in England, both for Religion and learning.
      And what good could chance than to the vniuersities, whan som of the greatest, though not of the wisest nor best learned, nor best men neither of that side, did labor to perswade, that ignorance was better than knowledge, which they ment, not for the laitie onelie, but also for the greatest rable of their spiritualtie, what other pretense openlie so euer they made: and therefore did som of them at Cambrige (whom I will not name openlie,) cause hedge priestes fette oute of the contrie, to be made fellowes in the vniuersitie: saying, in their talke priuilie, and declaring by their deedes openlie, that he was, felow good enough for their tyme, if he could were a gowne and a tipet cumlie, and haue hys crowne shorne faire and roundlie, and could turne his Portesse and pie readilie: whiche I speake not to reproue any order either of apparell, or other dewtie, that may be well and indifferentlie vsed, but to note the miserie of that time, whan the benefites prouided for learning were so fowlie misused. And what was the frute of this seade? Verely, iudgement in doctrine was wholy altered: order in discipline very sore changed: the loue of good learning, began sodenly to wax cold: the knowledge of the tonges (in spite of some that therein had florished) was manifestly contemned: and so, ye way of right studie purposely peruerted: the choice of good authors of mallice confownded. Olde sophistrie (I say not well) not olde, but that new rotten sophistrie began to beard and sholder logicke in her owne tong: yea, I know, that heades were cast together, and counsell deuised, that Duns, with all the rable of barbarous questionistes, should haue dispossessed of their place and rowmes, Aristotle, Plato, Tullie, and Demosthenes, when good M. Redman, and those two worthy starres of that vniuersitie, M. Cheke, and M. Smith, with their scholers, had brought to florishe as notable in Cambrige, as euer they did in Grece and in Italie: and for the doctrine of those fowre, the fowre pillers of learning, Cambrige than geuing


place to no vniuersitie, neither in France, Spaine, Germanie, nor Italie. Also in outward behauiour, than began simplicitie in apparell, to be layd aside: Courtlie galantnes to be taken vp: frugalitie in diet was priuately misliked: Towne going to good cheare openly vsed: honest pastimes, ioyned with labor, left of in the fieldes: vnthrifty and idle games, haunted corners, and occupied the nightes: contention in youth, no where for learning: factions in the elders euery where for trifles. All which miseries at length, by Gods prouidence, had their end 16. Nouemb. 1558. Since which tyme, the yong spring hath shot vp so faire, as now there be in Cambrige againe, many goodly plantes (as did well appeare at the Queenes Maiesties late being there) which are like to grow to mightie great timber, to the honor of learning, and great good of their contrie, if they may stand their tyme, as the best plantes there were wont to do: and if som old dotterell trees, with standing ouer nie them, and dropping vpon them, do not either hinder, or crooke their growing, wherein my feare is ye lesse, seing so worthie a Iustice of an Oyre hath the present ouersight of that whole chace, who was himselfe somtym, in the fairest spring that euer was there of learning, one of the forwardest yong plantes, in all that worthy College of S. Iohnes: who now by grace is growne to soch greatnesse, as, in the temperate and quiet shade of his wisdome, next the prouidence of God, and goodnes of one, in theis our daies, Religio for sinceritie, literæ for order and aduauncement, Respub. for happie and quiet gouernment, haue to great rejoysing of all good men, speciallie reposed them selues.
      Now to returne to that Question, whether one, a few, many or all, are to be folowed, my aunswere shalbe short: All, for him that is desirous to know all: yea, the worst of all, as Questionistes, and all the barbarous nation of scholemen, helpe for one or other consideration: But in euerie separate kinde of learning and studie, by it selfe, ye must follow, choiselie a few, and chieflie some one, and that namelie in our schole of eloquence, either for penne or talke. And as in portraicture and paintyng wise men chose not that workman, that can onelie make a faire hand, or a well facioned legge but soch one, as can furnish vp fullie, all the fetures of the whole body, of a man, woman and child: and with all is able to, by good skill, to giue to euerie one of these three, in their proper kinde, the right forme, the trew figure, the naturall color, that is fit and dew, to the dignitie of a man, to the bewtie of a woman, to the sweetnes of a yong babe: euen likewise, do we seeke soch one in our schole to folow, who is able alwayes, in all matters, to teach plainlie, to delite pleasantlie, and to cary away by force of wise talke, all that shall heare or read him: and is so excellent in deed, as witte is able, or wishe can hope, to attaine vnto: And this not onelie to serue in the Latin or Greke tong, but also in our own English language. But yet, bicause the prouidence of God hath left vnto vs in no other tong, saue onelie in the Greke and Latin tong, the trew preceptes, and perfite examples of eloquence, therefore must we seeke in the Authors onelie of those two tonges, the trewe Paterne of Eloquence, if in any other mother tongue we looke to attaine, either to perfit vtterance of it our selues, or skilfull iudgement of it in others.
      And now to know, what Author doth medle onelie with some one peece and member of eloquence, and who doth perfitelie make vp the whole bodie, I will declare, as I can call to remembrance the goodlie talke, that I haue had oftentymes, of the trew difference of Authors, with that Ientleman of worthie memorie, my dearest frend, and teacher of all the litle poore learning I haue, Syr Iohn Cheke.
      The trew difference of Authors is best knowne, per diuersa genera dicendi, that euerie one vsed. And therfore here I will deuide genus dicendi, not into these three, Tenuè, mediocrè, & grande, but as the matter of euerie Author requireth, as

{in Genus {Poeticum.

      These differre one from an other, in choice of wordes, in framyng of Sentences, in handling of Argumentes, and vse of right forme, figure, and number, proper and fitte for euerie matter, and euerie one of these is diuerse also in it selfe, as the first.

Poeticum, in {Comicum.

      And here, who soeuer hath bene diligent to read aduisedlie ouer, Terence, Seneca, Virgil, Horace, or els Aristophanes, Sophocles, Homer, and Pindar, and shall diligently marke the difference they vse, in proprietie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in handlyng of their matter, he shall easelie perceiue, what is fitte and decorum in euerie one, to the trew vse of perfite Imitation. Whan M. Watson in S. Iohns College at Cambrige wrote his excellent Tragedie of Absalon, M. Cheke, he and I, for that part of trew Imitation, had many pleasant talkes togither, in comparing the preceptes of Aristotle and Horace de Arte Poetica, with the examples of Euripides, Sophocles, and Seneca. Few men, in writyng of Tragedies in our dayes, haue shot at this marke. Some in England, moe in France, Germanie, and Italie, also haue written Tragedies in our tyme: of the which, not one I am sure is able to abyde the trew touch of Aristotles preceptes, and Euripides examples, saue only two, that euer I saw, M. Watsons Absalon, and Georgius Buckananus Iephthe. One man in Cambrige, well liked of many, but best liked of him selfe, was many tymes bold and busie, to bryng matters vpon stages, which he called Tragedies. In one, wherby he looked to wynne his spurres, and whereat many ignorant felowes fast clapped their handes, he began the Protasis with Trochæijs Octonarijs: which kinde of verse, as it is but seldome and rare in Tragedies, so is it neuer vsed, saue onelie in Epitasi: whan the Tragedie is hiest and hotest, and full of greatest troubles. I remember ful well what M. Watson merelie sayd vnto me of his blindnesse and boldnes in that behalfe although otherwise, there passed much frendship betwene them. M. Watson had an other maner care of perfection, with a feare and reuerence of the iudgement of the best learned: Who to this day would neuer suffer, yet his Absalon to go abroad, and that onelie, bicause, in locis paribus, Anapestus is twise or thrise vsed in stede of Iambus. A smal faulte, and such one, as perchance would neuer be marked, no neither in Italie nor France. This I write, not so much, to note the first, or praise the last, as to leaue in memorie of writing, for good example to posteritie, what perfection, in any tyme, was, most diligentlie sought for in like maner, in all kinde of learnyng, in that most worthie College of S. Iohns in Cambrige.

Historicum in {Diaria.
{Iustam Historiam.

      For what proprietie in wordes, simplicitie in sentences, plainnesse and light, is cumelie for these kindes, Cæsar and Liuie, for the two last, are perfite examples of Imitation: And for the two first, the old paternes be lost, and as for some that be present and of late tyme, they be fitter to be read once for some pleasure, than oft to be perused, for any good Imitation of them.

Philosophicum in {Sermonem, as officia Cic. et Eth. Arist.

      As, the Dialoges of Plato, Xenophon, and Cicero: of which kinde of learnyng, and right Imitation therof, Carolus Sigonius hath written of late, both learnedlie and eloquentlie: but best of all my frende Ioan. Sturmius in hys Commentaries vpon Gorgias Platonis, which booke I haue in writyng, and is not yet set out in Print.

Oratorium in {Humile.

      Examples of these three, in the Greke tong, be plentifull & perfite, as Lycias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes: and all three, in onelie Demosthenes, in diuerse orations


as contra Olimpiodorum, in leptinem, & pro Ctesiphonte. And trew it is, that Hermogines writeth of Demosthenes, that all formes of Eloquence be perfite in him. In Ciceroes Orations, Medium & sublime be most excellentlie handled, but Humile in his Orations, is seldome sene: yet neuerthelesse in other bookes, as in some part of his offices, & specially in Partitionibus, he is comparable in hoc humili & disciplinabili genere, euen with the best that euer wrote in Greke. But of Cicero more fullie in fitter place. And thus, the trew difference of stiles, in euerie Author, and euerie kinde of learnyng may easelie be knowne by this diuision.

in Genus {Poeticum.

      Which I thought in this place to touch onelie, not to prosecute at large, bicause, God willyng, in the Latin tong, I will fullie handle it, in my booke de Imitatione.
      Now, to touch more particularlie, which of those Authors, that be now most commonlie in mens handes, will sone affourd you some peece of Eloquence, and what maner a peece of eloquence, and what is to be liked and folowed, and what to be misliked and eschewed in them: and how some agayne will furnish you fully withall, rightly, and wisely considered, somwhat I will write as I haue heard Syr Ihon Cheke many tymes say.

The Latin tong, concerning any part of purenesse of it, from the spring, to the decay of the same, did not endure moch longer, than is the life of a well aged man, scarse one hundred yeares from the tyme of the last Scipio Africanus and Lælius, to the Empire of Augustus. And it is notable, that Velleius Paterculus writeth of Tullie, how that the perfection of eloquence did so remayne onelie in him and in his time, as before him, were few, which might moch delight a man, or after him any, worthy admiration, but soch as Tullie might haue seene, and such as might haue seene Tullie. And good cause why: for no perfection is durable. Encrease hath a time, & decay likewise, but all perfit ripenesse remaineth but a moment: as is plainly seen in fruits, plummes and cherries: but more sensibly in flowers, as Roses & such like, and yet as trewlie in all greater matters. For what naturallie, can go no hier, must naturallie yeld & stoup againe.
      Of this short tyme of any purenesse of the Latin tong, for the first fortie yeare of it, and all the tyme before, we haue no peece of learning left, saue Plautus and Terence, with a litle rude vnperfit pamflet of the elder Cato. And as for Plautus, except the scholemaster be able to make wise and ware choice, first in proprietie of wordes, than in framing of Phrases and sentences, and chieflie in choice of honestie of matter, your scholer were better to play, then learne all that is in him. But surelie, if iudgement for the tong, and direction for the maners, be wisely ioyned with the diligent reading of Plautus, than trewlie Plautus, for that purenesse of the Latin tong in Rome, whan Rome did most florish in wel doing, and so thereby, in well speaking also, is soch a plentifull storehouse, for common eloquence, in meane matters, and all priuate mens affaires, as the Latin tong, for that respect, hath not the like agayne. Whan I remember the worthy tyme of Rome, wherein Plautus did liue, I must nedes honor the talke of that tyme, which we see Plautus doth vse.
      Terence is also a storehouse of the same tong, for an other tyme, following soone after, & although he be not so full & plentiful as Plautus is, for multitude of matters, & diuersitie of wordes, yet his wordes, be chosen so purelie, placed so orderly, and all his stuffe so neetlie packed vp, and wittely compassed in euerie place, as, by all wise mens iudgement, he is counted the cunninger workeman, and to haue his shop, for the rowme that is in it, more finely appointed, and trimlier ordered, than Plautus is.
      Three thinges chiefly, both in Plautus and Terence, are to be specially considered. The matter, the vtterance, the words, the meter. The matter in both, is altogether within the compasse of the meanest mens maners, and doth not stretch to any thing of any great weight at all, but standeth chiefly in vtteryng the thoughtes and conditions of hard fathers, foolish mothers, vnthrifty yong men, craftie seruantes, sotle bawdes, and wilie harlots, and so, is moch spent, in finding out fine fetches, and packing vp pelting matters, soch as in London commonlie cum to the hearing of the Masters of Bridewell. Here is base stuffe for that scholer, that should becum hereafter, either a good minister in Religion, or a Ciuill Ientleman in seruice of his Prince and contrie: except the preacher do know soch matters to confute them, whan ignorance surelie in all soch thinges were better for a Ciuill Ientleman, than knowledge. And thus, for matter, both Plautus and Terence, be like meane painters, that worke by halfes, and be cunning onelie, in making the worst part of the picture, as if one were skilfull in painting the bodie of a naked person, from the nauell downward, but nothing else.
      For word and speach, Plautus is more plentifull, and Terence more pure and proper: And for one respect, Terence is to be embraced aboue all that euer wrote in hys kinde of argument: Bicause it is well known, by good recorde of learning, and that by Ciceroes owne witnes that some Comedies bearyng Terence name, were written by worthy Scipio, and wise Lælius, and namely Heauton: and Adelphi. And therefore as oft as I reade those Comedies, so oft doth sound in myne eare, the pure fine talke of Rome, which was vsed by the floure of the worthiest nobilitie that euer Rome bred. Let the wisest man, and best learned that liueth, read aduisedlie ouer, the first scene of Heauton, and the first scene of Adelphi, and let him consideratlie iudge, whether it is the talke of a seruile stranger borne, or rather euen that milde eloquent wise speach, which Cicero in Brutus doth so liuely expresse in Lælius. And yet neuerthelesse, in all this good proprietie of wordes, and purenesse of phrases which be in Terence, ye must not follow him alwayes in placing of them, bicause for the meter sake, some wordes in him, somtyme, be driuen awrie, which require a straighter placing in plaine prose, if ye will forme, as I would ye should do, your speach and writing, to that excellent perfitnesse, which was onely in Tullie, or onelie in Tullies tyme.
      The meter and verse of Plautus and Terence be verie meane, and not to be followed: which is not their reproch,
Meter in Plautus & Terence.
but the fault of the tyme, wherein they wrote, whan no kinde of Poetrie, in the Latin tong, was brought to perfection, as doth well appeare in the fragmentes of Ennius, Cæcilius, and others, and euidentlie in Plautus & Terence, if thies in Latin be compared with right skil, with Homer, Euripides, Aristophanes, and other in Greeke of like sort. Cicero him selfe doth complaine of this vnperfitnes, but more plainly Quintilian, saying, in Comœdia maximè claudicamus, et vix leuem consequimur vmbram: and most earnestly of all Horace in Arte Poetica, which he doth namely propter carmen Iambicum, and referreth all good studentes herein to the Imitation of the Greeke tong, saying.

                  Exemplaria Græca
      nocturna versate manu, versate diurna.

     This matter maketh me gladly remember, my sweete tyme spent at Cambrige, and the pleasant talke which I had oft with M. Cheke, and M. Watson, of this fault, not onely in the olde Latin Poets, but also in our new English Rymers at this day. They wished as Virgil and Horace were not wedded to follow the faultes of former fathers (a shrewd mariage in greater matters) but by right Imitation of the perfit Grecians, had brought Poetrie to perfitnesse also in the Latin tong, that we Englishmen likewise would acknowledge and vnderstand rightfully our rude beggerly ryming, brought first into Italie by Gothes and Hunnes, whan all good verses and all good learning to, were destroyd by them: and after caryed into France and Germanie: and at last, receyued into England by men of excellent wit in deede, but of small learning, and lesse iudgement in that behalfe.
      But now, when men know the difference, and haue the examples, both of the best, and of the worst, surelie, to follow rather the Gothes in Ryming, than the Greekes in trew versifiyng, were euen to eate ackornes with swyne, when we may freely eate wheate bread emonges men. In deede, Chauser, Th. Norton, of Bristow, my L. of Surrey, M. Wiat, Th. Phaer, and other Ientlemen, in translating Ouide, Palingenius, and Seneca, haue gonne as farre to their great praise, as the copie they followed could cary them, but, if soch good wittes, and forward diligence, had bene directed to follow the best examples, and not haue bene caryed by tyme and custome, to content themselues with that barbarous and rude Ryming, emonges their other worthy praises, which they haue iustly deserued, this had not bene the least, to be counted emonges men of learning and skill, more like vnto the Grecians, than vnto the Gothians, in handling of their verse.
      In deed, our English tong, hauing in vse chiefly, wordes of one syllable which commonly be long, doth not well receiue the nature of Carmen Heroicum, bicause dactylus, the aptest foote for that verse, conteining one long & two short, is seldom therefore found in English: and doth also rather stumble than stand vpon Monosyllabis. Quintilian in hys learned Chapiter image: dingbat of
hand pointing to the right de Compositione, geueth this lesson de Monosyllabis, before me: and in the same place doth iustlie inuey against all Ryming, that if there be any, who be angrie with me, for misliking of Ryming, may be angry for company to, with Quintilian also, for the same thing: And yet Quintilian had not so iust cause to mislike of it than, as men haue at this day.
      And although Carmen Exametrum doth rather trotte and hoble, than runne smothly in our English tong, yet I am sure, our English tong will receiue carmen Iambicum as naturallie, as either Greke or Latin. But for ignorance, men can not like, & for idlenes, men will not labor, to cum to any perfitenes at all. For, as the worthie Poetes in Athens and Rome, were more carefull to satisfie the iudgement of one learned, than rashe in pleasing the humor of a rude multitude, euen so if men in England now, had the like reuerend regard to learning skill and iudgement, and durst not presume to write, except they came with the like learnyng, and also did vse like diligence, in searchyng out, not onelie iust measure in euerie meter, as euerie ignorant person may easely do, but also trew quantitie in euery foote and sillable, as onelie the learned shalbe able to do, and as the Grekes and Romanes were wont to do, surelie than rash ignorant heads, which now can easely recken vp fourten sillables, and easelie stumble on euery Ryme, either durst not, for lacke of such learnyng: or els would not, in auoyding such labor, be image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right so busie, as euerie where they be: and shoppes in London should not be so full of lewd and rude rymes, as commonlie they are. But now, the ripest of tong, be readiest to write: And many dayly in setting out bookes and balettes make great shew of blossomes and buddes, in whom is neither, roote of learning, nor frute of wisedome at all. Some that make Chaucer in English and Petrarch in Italian, their Gods in verses, and yet be not able to make trew difference, what is a fault, and what is a iust prayse, in those two worthie wittes, will moch mislike this my writyng. But such men be euen like followers of Chaucer and Petrarke, as one here in England did folow Syr Tho. More: who, being most vnlike vnto him, in wit and learnyng, neuertheles in wearing his gowne awrye vpon the one shoulder, as Syr Tho. More was wont to do, would nedes be counted lyke vnto him.
      This mislikyng of Ryming, beginneth not now of any newfangle singularitie, but hath bene long misliked of many, and that of men, of greatest learnyng, and deepest iudgement. And soch, that defend it, do so, either for lacke of knowledge what is best, or els of verie enuie, that any should performe that in learnyng, whereunto they, as I sayd before, either for ignorance, can not, or for idlenes will not, labor to attaine vnto.
      And you that prayse this Ryming, bicause ye neither haue reason, why to like it, nor can shew learning to defend it, yet I will helpe you, with the authoritie of the oldest and learnedst tyme. In Grece, whan Poetrie was euen at the hiest pitch of perfitnes, one Simmias Rhodius of a certaine singularitie wrote a booke in ryming Greke verses, naming it oon, conteyning the fable, how Iupiter in likenes of a swan, gat that egge vpon Leda, whereof came Castor, Pollux and faire Elena. This booke was so liked, that it had few to read it, but none to folow it: But was presentlie contemned: and sone after, both Author and booke, so forgotten by men, and consumed by tyme, as scarse the name of either is kept in memorie of learnyng: And the like folie was neuer folowed of any, many hondred yeares after vntill ye Hunnes and Gothians, and other barbarous nations, of ignorance and rude singularitie, did reuiue the same folie agayne.
      The noble Lord Th. Earle of Surrey, first of all English men, in translating the fourth booke of Virgill: and Gonsaluo Periz that excellent learned man, and Secretarie to kyng Philip of Spaine, in translating the Vlisses of Homer out of Greke into Spanish, haue both, by good iudgement, auoyded the fault of Ryming, yet neither of them hath fullie hite perfite and trew versifiyng. In deede, they obserue iust number, and euen feete: but here is the fault, that their feete: be feete without ioyntes, that is to say, not distinct by trew quantitie of sillables: And so, soch feete, be but numme feete: and be, euen as vnfitte for a verse to turne and runne roundly withall, as feete of brasse or
The Earle of Surrey.





wood be vnweeldie to go well withall. And as a foote of wood, is a plaine shew of a manifest maime, euen so feete, in our English versifiing, without quantitie and ioyntes, be sure signes, that the verse is either, borne deformed, vnnaturall and lame, and so verie vnseemlie to looke vpon, except to men that be gogle eyed them selues.
      The spying of this fault now is not the curiositie of English eyes, but euen the good iudgement also of the best that write in these dayes in Italie: and namelie of that worthie Senese Felice Figliucci, who, writyng vpon Aristotles Ethickes so excellentlie in Italian, as neuer did yet any one in myne opinion either in Greke or Latin, amongest other thynges doth most earnestlie inuey agaynst the rude ryming of verses in that tong: And whan soeuer he expresseth Aristotles preceptes, with any example, out of Homer or Euripides, he translateth them, not after the Rymes of Petrarke, but into soch kinde of perfite verse, with like feete and quantitie of sillables, as he found them before in the Greke tonge: exhortyng earnestlie all the Italian nation, to leaue of their rude barbariousnesse in ryming, and folow diligently the excellent Greke and Latin examples, in trew versifiyng. And you, that be able to vnderstand no more, then ye finde in the Italian tong: and neuer went farder than the schole of Petrarke and Ariostus abroad, or els of Chaucer at home though you haue pleasure to wander blindlie still in your foule wrong way, enuie not others, that seeke, as wise men haue done before them, the fairest and rightest way: or els, beside the iust reproch of malice, wisemen shall trewlie iudge, that you do so, as I haue sayd and say yet agayne vnto you, bicause, either, for idlenes ye will not, or for ignorance ye can not, cum by no better your selfe.
      And therfore euen as Virgill and Horace deserue most worthie prayse, that they spying the vnperfitnes in Ennius and Plautus, by trew Imitation of Homer and Euripides, brought Poetrie to the same perfitnes in Latin, as it was in Greke, euen so those, that by the same way would benefite their tong and contrey, deserue rather thankes than disprayse in that behalfe.
      And I rejoyce, that euen poore England preuented Italie, first in spying out, than in seekyng to amend this fault in learnyng.
      And here, for my pleasure I purpose a litle, by the way, to play and sporte with my Master Tully: from whom commonlie I am neuer wont to dissent. He him selfe, for this point of learnyng, in his verses doth halt a litle by his leaue. He could not denie it, if he were aliue, nor those defend hym now that loue him best. This fault I lay to his charge: bicause once it pleased him, though somwhat merelie, yet oueruncurteslie, to rayle vpon poore England, obiecting both, extreme beggerie, and
Tullies saying against England.

Ad Att. Lib. iv. Ep. 16.


mere barbariousnes vnto it, writyng thus vnto his frend Atticus: There is not one scruple of siluer in that whole Isle, or any one that knoweth either learnyng or letter.
      But now master Cicero, blessed be God, and his sonne Iesu Christ, whom you neuer knew, except it were as it pleased him to lighten you by some shadow, as couertlie in one place ye confesse saying: Veritatis tantum vmbram consectamur, as your Master Plato did before you: blessed be God, I say, that sixten hundred yeare after you were dead and gone, it may trewly be sayd, that for siluer, there is more cumlie plate, in one Citie of England, than is in foure of the proudest Cities in all Italie, and take Rome for one of them. And for learnyng, beside the knowledge of all learned tongs and liberall sciences, euen your owne bookes Cicero, be as well read, and your excellent eloquence is as well liked and loued, and as trewlie folowed in England at this day, as it is now, or euer was, sence your owne tyme, in any place of Italie, either at Arpinum, where ye were borne, or els at Rome where ye were brought vp. And a litle to brag with you Cicero, where you your selfe, by your leaue, halted in some point of learnyng in your owne tong, many in England at this day go streight vp, both in trewe skill, and right doing therein.
      This I write, not to reprehend Tullie, whom, aboue all other, I like and loue best, but to excuse Terence, because in his tyme, and a good while after, Poetrie was neuer perfited in Latin vntill by trew Imitation of the Grecians, it was at length brought to perfection: And also thereby to exhorte the goodlie wittes of England, which apte by nature, & willing by desire, geue them selues to Poetrie, that they, rightly vnderstanding the barbarous bringing in of Rymes, would labor, as Virgil and Horace did in Latin, to make perfit also this point of learning, in our English tong.
      And thus much for Plautus and Terence, for matter, tong, and meter, what is to be followed, and what to be exchewed in them.
      After Plautus and Terence, no writing remayneth vntill Tullies tyme, except a fewe short fragmentes of L. Crassus excellent wit, here and there recited of Cicero for example sake, whereby the louers of learnyng may the more lament the losse of soch a worthie witte.
      And although the Latin tong did faire blome and blossome in L. Crassus, and M. Antonius, yet in Tullies tyme onely, and in Tullie himselfe chieflie, was the Latin tong fullie ripe, and growne to the hiest pitch of all perfection.
      And yet in the same tyme, it began to fade and stoupe, as Tullie him selfe, in Brutus de Claris Oratoribus, with weeping wordes doth witnesse.
      And bicause, emongs them of that tyme, there was some difference, good reason is, that of them of that tyme, should be made right choice also. And yet let the best Ciceronian in Italie read Tullies familiar epistles aduisedly ouer, and I beleue he shall finde small difference, for the Latin tong, either in propriety of wordes or framing of the stile, betwixt Tullie, and those that write vnto him. As ser. Sulpitius, A. Cecinna, M. Cælius, M. et D. Bruti, A. Pollio, L. Plancus, and diuerse other: read the epistles of L. Plancus in x. Lib.
Epi. Planci x. lib. Epist. 8.
and for an assay, that Epistle namely to the Coss. and whole Senate, the eight Epistle in number, and what could be, eyther more eloquentlie, or more wiselie written, yea by Tullie himselfe, a man may iustly doubt. Thies men and Tullie, liued all in one tyme, were like in authoritie, not vnlike in learning and studie, which might be iust causes of this their equalitie in writing: And yet surely, they neyther were in deed, nor yet were counted in mens opinions, equall with Tullie in that facultie. And how is the difference hid in his Epistles? verelie, as the cunning of an expert Sea man, in a faire calme fresh Ryuer, doth litle differ from the doing of a meaner workman therein, euen so, in the short cut of a priuate letter, where, matter is common, wordes easie, and order not moch diuerse, small shew of difference can appeare. But where Tullie doth set vp his saile of eloquence, in some broad deep Argument, caried with full tyde and winde, of his witte and learnyng, all other may rather stand and looke after him, than hope to ouertake him, what course so euer he hold, either in faire or foule. Foure men onely whan the Latin tong was full ripe, be left vnto vs, who in that tyme did florish, and did leaue to posteritie, the fruite of their witte and learning: Varro, Salust, Cæsar, and Cicero. Whan I say, these foure onely, I am not ignorant, that euen in the same tyme, most excellent Poetes, deseruing well of the Latin tong, as Lucretius, Cattullus, Virgill and Horace, did write: But, bicause, in this litle booke, I purpose to teach a yong scholer, to go, not to daunce: to speake, not to sing, whan Poetes in deed, namelie Epici and Lyrici, as these be, are fine dauncers, and trime singers, but Oratores and Historici be those cumlie goers, and faire and wise speakers, of whom I wishe my scholer to wayte vpon first, and after in good order, & dew tyme, to be brought forth, to the singing and dauncing schole: And for this consideration, do I name these foure, to be the onelie writers of that tyme.


      Varro, in his bookes de lingua Latina, et Analogia as these be left mangled and patched vnto vs, doth not enter there in to any great depth of eloquence, but as one caried in a small low vessell him selfe verie nie the common shore, not much vnlike the fisher men of Rye, and Hering men of Yarmouth. Who deserue by common mens opinion, small commendacion, for any cunning saling at all, yet neuertheles

De Rep. Rustica.

in those bookes of Varro good and necessarie stuffe, for that meane kinde of Argument, be verie well and learnedlie gathered togither.
      His bookes of Husbandrie, are moch to be regarded, and diligentlie to be read, not onelie for the proprietie, but also for the plentie of good wordes, in all contrey and husbandmens affaires: which can not be had, by so good authoritie, out of any other Author, either of so good a tyme, or of so great learnyng, as out of Varro. And yet bicause, he was fourescore yeare old, whan he wrote those bookes, the forme of his style there compared with Tullies writyng, is but euen the talke of a spent old man: whose wordes commonlie fall out of his mouth, though verie wiselie, yet hardly and coldie, and more heauelie also, than some eares can well beare, except onelie for age, and authorities sake. And perchance, in a rude contrey argument, of purpose and iudgement, he rather vsed, the speach of the contrey, than talke of the Citie.
      And so, for matter sake, his wordes sometyme, be somewhat rude: and by the imitation of the elder Cato, old and out of vse: And beyng depe stept in age, by negligence some wordes do so scape & fall from him in those bookes, as be not worth the taking vp, by him, that is carefull to speake or write trew Latin, as that sentence in him, Romani, in pace à rusticis alebantur, et in bello ab his tuebantur. A good student must be therfore carefull and diligent, to read with iudgement ouer euen those Authors, which did write in the most perfite tyme: and let him not be affrayd to trie them, both in proprietie of wordes, and forme of style, by the touch stone of Cæsar and Cicero, whose puritie was neuer soiled, no not by the sentence of those, that loued them worst.
      All louers of learnyng may sore lament the losse of those bookes of Varro, which he wrote in his yong and lustie yeares, with good leysure, and great learnyng of all partes of Philosophie: of the goodliest argumentes, perteyning both to the common wealth, and priuate life of man, as, de Ratione studij, et educandis liberis, which booke, is oft recited, and moch praysed, in the fragmentes
Lib. 3.
Cap. 1.

The loue of Varroes bookes.

In Acad. Quest.

Cic. ad Att.

of Nonius, euen for authoritie sake. He wrote most diligentlie and largelie, also the whole historie of the state of Rome: the mysteries of their whole Religion: their lawes, customes, and gouernement in peace: their maners, and whole discipline in warre: And this is not my gessing, as one in deed that neuer saw those bookes, but euen, the verie iudgement, & playne testimonie of Tullie him selfe, who knew & read those bookes, in these wordes: Tu ætatem Patriæ: Tu descriptiones temporum: Tu sacrorum, tu sacerdotum Iura: Tu domesticam, tu bellicam disciplinam: Tu sedem Regionum, locorum, tu omnium diuinarum humanarumque rerum nomina, genera, officia, causas aperuisti. & c.
      But this great losse of Varro, is a litle recompensed by the happy comming of Dionysius Halicarnassæus to Rome in Augustus dayes: who getting the possession of Varros librarie, out of that treasure house of learning, did leaue vnto vs some frute of Varros witte and diligence, I meane, his goodlie bookes de Antiquitatibus Romanorum. Varro was so estemed for his excellent learnyng, as Tullie him selfe had a reuerence to his iudgement in all doutes of learnyng. And Antonius Triumuir, his enemie, and of a contrarie faction, who had power to kill and bannish whom he listed, whan Varros name amongest others was brought in a schedule vnto him, to be noted to death, he tooke his penne and wrote his warrant of sauegard with these most goodlie wordes, Viuat Varro vir doctissimus. In later tyme, no man knew better, nor liked and loued more Varros learnyng, than did S. Augustine, as they do well vnderstand, that haue diligentlie read ouer his learned bookes de Ciuitate Dei: Where he hath this most notable sentence: Whan I see, how much Varro wrote, I meruell much, that euer he had any leasure to read: and whan I perceiue how many thinges he read, I meruell more, that euer he had any leasure to write. &c.
      And surelie, if Varros bookes had remained to posteritie, as by Gods prouidence, the most part of Tullies did, than trewlie the Latin tong might haue made good comparison with the Greke.


      Salust, is a wise and worthy writer: but he requireth a learned Reader, and a right considerer of him. My dearest frend, and best master that euer I had or heard in learning, Syr I. Cheke, soch a man, as if I should liue to see England breed the like

Syr Iohn Chekes iudgement and counsell for readyng of Saluste.

againe, I feare, I should liue ouer long, did once giue me a lesson for Salust, which, as I shall neuer forget my selfe, so is it worthy to be remembred of all those, that would cum to perfite iudgement of the Latin tong. He said, that Salust was not verie fitte for yong men, to learne out of him, the puritie of the Latin tong: because, he was not the purest in proprietie of wordes, nor choisest in aptnes of phrases, nor the best in framing of sentences: and therefore is his writing, sayd he neyther plaine for the matter, nor sensible for mens vnderstanding. And what is the cause thereof, Syr, quoth I. Verilie said he, bicause in Salust writing, is more Arte than nature, and more labor than Arte: and in his labor also, to moch toyle, as it were, with an vncontented care to write better than he could, a fault common to very many men. And therefore he doth not expresse the matter liuely and naturally with common speach as ye see Xenophon doth in Greeke, but it is caried and driuen forth artificiallie, after to learned a sorte, as Thucydides doth in his orations. And how cummeth it to passe, sayd I, that Cæsar and Ciceroes talke, is so naturall & plaine, and Salust writing so artificiall and darke, whan all they three liued in one tyme? I will freelie tell you my fansie herein, said he: surely, Cæsar and Cicero, beside a singular prerogatiue of naturall eloquence geuen vnto them by God, both two, by vse of life, were daylie orators emonges the common people, and greatest councellers in the Senate house: and therefore gaue themselues to vse soch speach as the meanest should well vnderstand, and the wisest best allow: folowing carefullie that good councell of Aristotle, loquendum vt multi, sapiendum vt pauci. Salust was no soch man, neyther for will to goodnes, nor skill by learning: but ill geuen by nature, and made worse by bringing vp, spent the most part of his yougth very misorderly in ryot and lechery. In the company of soch, who, neuer geuing theyr mynde to honest doyng, could neuer inure their tong to wise speaking. But at last cummyng to better yeares, and bying witte at the dearest hand, that is, by long experience of the hurt and shame that commeth of mischeif, moued, by the councell of them that were wise, and caried by the example of soch as were good, first fell to honestie of life, and after to the loue of studie and learning: and so became so new a man, that Cæsar being dictator, made him Pretor in Numidia where he absent from his contrie, and not inured with the common talke of Rome, but shut vp in his studie, and bent wholy to reading, did write the storie of the Romanes. And for the better accomplishing of the same, he red Cato and Piso in Latin for gathering of matter and troth: and Thucydides in Greeke for the order of his storie, and furnishing of his style. Cato (as his tyme required) had more troth for the matter, than eloquence for the style. And so Salust, by gathering troth out of Cato, smelleth moch of the roughnes of his style: euen as a man that eateth garlike for helth, shall cary away with him the sauor of it also, whether he will or not. And yet the vse of old wordes is not the greatest cause of Salustes roughnes and darknesse: There be in Salust some old wordes in deed as patrare bellum, ductare
Lib. 8. Cap. 3. De Ornatu.
exercitum, well noted by Quintilian, and verie much misliked of him: and supplicium for supplicatio, a word smellyng of an older store than the other two so misliked by Quint: And yet is that word also in Varro, speaking of Oxen thus, boues ad victimas faciunt, atque ad Deorum supplicia: and a few old wordes mo. Read Saluste and Tullie aduisedly together: and in wordes ye shall finde small difference: yea Salust is more geuen to new wordes, than to olde, though som olde writers say the contrarie: as Claritudo for Gloria: exactè for perfectè: Facundia for eloquentia. Thies two last wordes exactè and facundia now in euery mans mouth, be neuer (as I do remember) vsed of Tullie, and therefore I thinke they be not good: For surely Tullie speaking euery where so moch of the matter of eloquence, would not so precisely haue absteyned from the word Facundia, if it had bene good: that is proper for the tong, & common for mens vse. I could be long, in reciting many soch like, both olde & new wordes in Salust: but in very dede neyther oldnes nor
The cause why Salust is not like Tully.
newnesse of wordes maketh the greatest difference betwixt Salust and Tullie, but first strange phrases made of good Latin wordes, but framed after the Greeke tonge, which be neyther choisly borowed of them, nor properly vsed by him: than, a hard composition and crooked framing of his wordes and sentences, as a man would say, English talke placed and framed outlandish like. As for example first in phrases, nimius et animus be two vsed wordes, yet homo nimius animi, is an vnused phrase. Vulgus, et amat, et fieri, be as common and well known wordes, as may be in the Latin tong, yet id quod vulgò amat fieri, for solet fieri, is but a strange and grekish kind of writing. Ingens et vires be proper wordes, yet vir ingens virium is an vnproper kinde of speaking and so be likewise,

{æger consilij.
{promptissimus belli.
{territus animi.

and many soch like phrases in Salust, borowed as I sayd not choisly out of Greeke, and vsed therefore vnproperlie in Latin. Againe, in whole sentences, where the matter is good, the wordes proper and plaine, yet the sense is hard and darke, and namely in his prefaces and orations, wherein he vsed most labor, which fault is likewise in Thucydides in Greeke, of whom Salust hath taken the greatest part of his darkenesse. For Thucydides likewise wrote his storie, not at home in Grece, but abrode in Italie, and therefore smelleth of a certaine outlandish kinde of talke, strange to them of Athens, and diuerse from their writing, that liued in Athens and Grece, and wrote the same tyme that Thucydides did, as Lysias, Xenophon, Plato, and Isocrates, the purest and playnest writers, that euer wrote in any tong, and best examples for any man to follow whether he write, Latin, Italian, French, or English. Thucydides also semeth in his writing, not so much benefited by nature, as holpen by Arte, and caried forth by desire, studie, labor, toyle, and ouer great curiositie: who spent xxvii. yeares in writing his eight bookes of his history. Salust likewise wrote out of his contrie, and followed the faultes of Thuc. to moch: and boroweth of him som kinde of writing, which the Latin tong can not well beare, as Casus nominatiuus in diuerse places absolutè positus, as in
Dionys. Halycar. ad Q. Tub. de Hist. Thuc.

Ad Att. Lib. 7. Epistola. 3.

that place of Iugurth, speaking de leptitanis, itaque ab imperatore facilè quæ petebant adepti, missæ sunt eò cohortes ligurum quatuor. This thing in participles, vsed so oft in Thucyd. and other Greeke authors to, may better be borne with all, but Salust vseth the same more strangelie and boldlie, as in thies wordes, Multis sibi quisque imperium petentibus. I beleue, the best Grammarien in England can scarse giue a good reule, why quisque the nominatiue case, without any verbe, is so thrust vp amongest so many oblique cases. Some man perchance will smile, and laugh to scorne this my writyng, and call it idle curiositie, thus to busie my selfe in pickling about these small pointes of Grammer, not fitte for my age, place and calling, to trifle in: I trust that man, be he neuer so great in authoritie, neuer so wise and learned, either, by other mens iudgement, or his owne opinion, will yet thinke, that he is not greater in England, than Tullie was at Rome, not yet wiser, nor better learned than Tullie was him selfe, who, at the pitch of three score yeares, in the middes of the broyle betwixt Cæsar and Pompeie, whan he knew not, whether to send wife & children, which way to go, where to hide him selfe, yet, in an earnest letter, amongest his earnest councelles for those heuie tymes concerning both the common state of his contrey, and his owne priuate great affaires he was neither vnmyndfull nor ashamed to reason at large, and learne gladlie of Atticus, a lesse point of Grammer than these be, noted of me in Salust, as, whether he should write, ad Piræea, in Piræea, or in Piræeum, or Piræeum sine præpositione: And in those heuie tymes, he was so carefull to know this small point of Grammer, that he addeth these wordes Si hoc mihi zetema persolueris, magna me molestia liberaris. If Tullie, at that age, in that authoritie, in that care for his contrey, in that ieoperdie for him selfe, and extreme necessitie of hys dearest frendes, beyng also the Prince of Eloquence hym selfe, was not ashamed to descend to these low pointes of Grammer, in his owne naturall tong, what should scholers do, yea what should any man do, if he do thinke well doyng, better than ill doyng: And had rather be, perfite than meane, sure than doutefull, to be what he should be, in deed, not seeme what he is not, in opinion. He that maketh perfitnes in the Latin tong his marke, must cume to it by choice & certaine knowledge, not stumble vpon it by chance and doubtfull ignorance: And the right steppes to reach vnto it, be these, linked thus orderlie together, aptnes of nature, loue of learnyng, diligence in right order, constancie with pleasant moderation, and alwayes to learne of them that be best, and so shall you iudge as they that be wisest. And these be those reules, which worthie Master Cheke dyd impart vnto me concernyng Salust, and the right iudgement of the Latin tong.<


br>      Cæsar for that litle of him, that is left vnto vs, is like the halfe face of a Venus, the other part of the head beyng hidden, the bodie and the rest of the members vnbegon, yet so excellentlie done by Apelles, as all men may stand still to mase and muse vpon it, and no man step forth with any hope to performe the like.
      His seuen bookes de bello Gallico, and three de bello Ciuili, be written, so wiselie for the matter, so eloquentlie for the tong, that neither his greatest enemies could euer finde the least note of parcialitie in him (a meruelous wisdome of a man, namely writyng of his owne doynges) nor yet the best iudegers of the Latin tong, nor the most enuious lookers vpon other mens writynges, can say any other, but all things be most perfitelie done by him.
      Brutus, Caluus, and Calidius, who found fault with Tullies fulnes in woordes and matter, and that rightlie, for Tullie did both, confesse it, and mend it, yet in Cæsar, they neither did, nor could finde the like, or any other fault.
      And therfore thus iustlie I may conclude of Cæsar, that where, in all other, the best that euer wrote, in any tyme, or in any tong, in Greke or Latin, I except neither Plato, Demosthenes, nor Tullie, some fault is iustlie noted, in Cæsar onelie, could neuer yet fault be found.
      Yet neuertheles, for all this perfite excellencie in him, yet it is but in one member of eloquence, and that but of one side neither, whan we must looke for that example to folow, which hath a perfite head, a whole bodie, forward and backward, armes and legges and all.



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