Ester hath hang'd Haman
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Dedicated to Gloria
AN ANSWERE TO
a lewd Pamphlet, entituled, The Arraignment of
With the arraignment of lewd, idle,
froward, and vnconstant men, and
H V S B A N D S.
into two Parts.
The first proueth the dignity and worthinesse
of Women, out of diuine Testimonies.
The second shewing the estimation of the Foe-
minine Sexe, in ancient and Pagan times; all which
is acknowledged by men themselues in their
Written by Ester
Sowernam, Neither Maide,
Wife nor Widdowe, yet really all, and there-
fore experienced to defend all.
I O H N 8.7:
He that is without sin among you, let him first
cast a stone at her.
enim lex iusticior vlla
--------Quam necis Artificem arte perire sua.
Printed for Nicholas Bourne, and are to be sold at his shop
at the entrance of the Royall Exchange. 1617.
ALL RIGHT HONOV-
rable, Noble, and worthy Ladies,
Gentlewomen, and others, vertuously dis-
posed, of the Feminine Sexe.
Ight Honourable, and all others
of our Sexe, vpon my repaire
to London this last Michaelmas
Terme; being at supper
amongst friends, where the
number of each sexe were
equall; As nothing is more
vsuall for table-talke; there fell
out a discourse concerning women, some defending,
others obiecting against our Sex: Vpon which Occasion, there happened a
mention of a Pamphlet
entituled The Arraignment of Women, which I was desirous
to see. The next day a Gentleman brought me the
Booke, which when I had superficially runne ouer, I
found the discourse as far off from performing what
the Title promised, as I found it scandalous and
blasphemous: for where the Authour pretended to
write against lewd, idle, and vnconstant women, hee
doth most impudently rage and rayle generally
against all the whole sexe of women. Wherevpon, I
in defence of our Sexe, began an answer to that
shamefull Pamphlet. In which, after I had spent some small
time, word was brought mee that an Apologie for
women was already vndertaken, and ready for the
Presse, by a Ministers daughter: Vpon this newes
I stayed my pen, being as glad to be eased of my
entended labour; as I did expect some fitting
performance of what was vndertaken: At last the Maidens
Booke was brought me, which when I had likewise
runne ouer, I did obserue, that whereas the Maide
doth many times excuse her tendernesse of yeares, I
found it to be true in the slendernesse of her answer,
for she vndertaking to defend women, doth rather
charge and condemne women, as in the ensuing
discourse shall appeare: So that wheras I expected to be
eased of what I began, I do now finde my selfe
double charged, as well to make reply to the one, as to
adde supply to the other.
In this my Apologie, Right Honourable, Right
Worshpfull, and all others of our Sexe, I doe in the
first part of it plainely and resolutely deliuer the
worthinesse and worth of women; both in respect of
their Creation, as in the worke of Redemption. Next
I doe shew in examples out of both the Testaments:
what blessed and happy choyse hath beene made of
women, as gratious instruments to deriue Gods blessings,
and benefits to mankinde.
In my second part I doe deliuer of what estimate
women haue been valued in all ancient and moderne
times, which I prooue by authorities, customes, and
daily experiences. Lastly, I doe answer all materiall
obiections which haue or can be alledged against our
Sexe: in which also I doe arraigne such kind of men,
which correspond the humor and disposition of the
Author; lewd, idle, furious and beastly disposed
This being performed, I doubt not but such as
heretofore haue beene so forward and lauish against
women, will hereafter pull in their hornes, and haue
as little desire, and lesse cause so scandalously and
sladerously to write against vs then formerly they
The ends for which I vndertooke this enterprise,
are these. First, to set out the glory of Almightie
God, in so blessed a worke of his Creation. Secondly, to encourage all
Noble, Honourable, and worthy
Women, to expresse in their course of life and actions,
that they are the same Creatures which they
were designed to be by their Creator, and by their
Redeemer: And to paralell those women, whose
vertuous examples are collected briefly out of the Olde and New
Testament. Lastly, I write for the
shame and confusion of such as degenerate from
woman-hoode, and disappoint the ends of Creation,
There can be no greater encouragement to true
Nobility, then to know and stand vpon the honour
of Nobility, nor any greater confusion and shame,
then for Nobility to dismount and abase it selfe to
ignoble and degenerate courses.
You are women; in Creation, noble; in
Redemption, gracious; in vse most blessed; be not forgetfull
of your selues, nor vnthankefull to that Author from
whom you receiue all.
A L L W O R T H Y A N D H O P E-
full young youths of Great-Brittaine;
But respectiuely to the best disposed and
worthy Apprentices of L O N D O N.
Opefull and gallant youths of Great-Brittaine,
and this so famous a Citie. There hath been lately published
a Pamphlet entituled The Arraignment of lewd, idle, froward and
inconstant Women. This patched
and mishapen hotch-potch, is so
directed, that if Socrates did laugh but
once to see an Asse eate Thistles, he would surely laugh twice to
see an idle franticke direct his mishapen Labours to giddy headed
young men: he would say, as he did when the Asse did eate
Thistles, like lips, like learner, so a franticke writer doth
chuse giddy fauorites.
The Author of the Arraignment, and my
selfe, in our
labours doe altogether disagree; he raileth without cause, I
defend vpon direct proofe: He saith, women are the worst of all
Creatures, I prooue them blessed aboue all Creatures: He writeth,
that men should abhorre them for their bad conditions: I
proue that men should honour them for their best dispositions. [H]e
saith, women are the causes of mens ouerthrow, O proue, if there
be any offence in a woman, men were the beginners. Now, in
that it is farre more woman-like to maintaine a right, then it
is man like to offere a wrong, I conceiued that I could not erre in
my choyse, if I did direct a labour well intended, to worthy
young youths, which are well disposed.
When you haue past your minority, or serued your
vnder the gouernment of others, when you begin the world
for your selues, the chiefest thing you looke for
is a good Wife.
The world is a large field, and it is full of
brambles, bryers, and weedes: If there be any more tormenting, more
more poysonable weede then other, the Author hath collected
them in his lothsome Pamphlet, and doth vtter them to his
Now my selfe presuming vpon your worthy and honest
dispositions, I haue entred into the Garden of Paradice, and
haue gathered the choysest flowers, which that Garden may affoord, and
those I offer to you.
If you belieue our aduersary, no woman is good,
be vsed: if you consider what I haue written, no woman is bad
except she be abused.
If you belieue him that women are so bad
Creatures, what a
dangerous and miserable life is marriage?
If you examine my proofes to know directly what
you shall then finde there is no delight more exceeding then to be
ioyned in marriage with a Paraditian Creature. Who as shee
commeth out of the Garden, so shall you finde her a flower of
delight, answerable to the Countrey from whence she commeth.
There can be no loue betwixt man and wife, but
where there is a respectiue estimate the one towards the other. How
you loue? nay, how would you loath such a monster, to whom Ioseph
Whereas in view of what I haue described, how can
regardfully loue with the vttermost straine of affection so
incomparable a Iewll.
Some will perhaps say, I am a woman and therefore
for women then they doe deserue: To whom I answere, if they
misdoubt of what I speake, let them impeach my credit in any one
particular: In that which I write, Eue was a good woman before
she met with the Serpent, her daughters are good Virgins, if they
meet with good Tutors.
You my worthy youths are the hope of Man-hoode,
principall poynt of Man-hoode is to defend, and what more man-like
defence, then to defend the iust reputation of a woman. I know
that you the Apprentices of this Citie are as forward to maintaine
the good, as you are to put downe the bad.
That which is worst I leaue to our aduersary, but
excellently best, that I commend to you: doe you finde the gold, I doe
here deliuer you the Iewell, a rich stocke to begin the world withall,
if you be good husbands to vse it for your best aduantage.
Let not the title of this Booke in some poynt
distaste you, in
that men are arraigned, for you are quit by Non-age. None are
here arraigned, but such olde fornicators as came with full mouth
and open cry to Iesus, and brought a woman to him taken in
adultery, who when our Sauior stoopt downe and wrote on the
ground, they all fled away. Ioseph Swetnam saith, A man
may finde Pearles in dust, Pag. 47. But if they who fled had
seene any Pearles, they would rather haue stayed to haue had
share, then to flye and to leaue the woman alone, they found some
fowle reckoning against themselues in our Sauiours writing; as
they shall doe who are heare arraigned. And if they dare doe
like, as our Sauiour bad the womans accusers, He that is without
sinne throw the first stone at her; so let them raile against
women, who neuer tempted any woman to be bad: Yet this
is an hard case. If a man raile against a woman, and know no
lewdnesse by any, he shall proue himselfe a compound foole. If he
rayle at women, who in his owne experienced tryall had made many bad,
he shall shew himselfe a decompounded K. I doe not
meane Knight: The best way is, he that knoweth none bad, let
him speake well of all: he who hath made more bad then he euer
intended to make good, let him hold his peace lest hee shame
THE FIRST CHAPTER OF
Arraignment of Women.
C H A P. I.
F the Author of this Arraignment had
discourse either answerable to the Title, or the Arguments of
the Chapters; hee had beene
so farre off from being answered
by mee, that I should haue
commended so good a labour, which is imployed to
giue vice iust reproofe, and vertue honourable report.
But at the very first entrance of his discourse, in the
very first page, he discouereth hinselfe neither to haue
truth in his promise, nor religious performance. If
in this answere I doe vse more vehement speeches
then may seeme to correspond the naturall disposition
of a Woman; yet all iudicious Readers shall
confesse that I vse more mildnesse then the cause I haue
in hand prouoketh me vnto.
C H A
P T E R II.
I am not onely prouoked by this Authour to
defend women, but I am more violently vrged to defend
diuine Maiestie, in the worke of his Creation. In
which respect I say with Saint Ierome, Meam iniuriam
patienter sustinui, impietatem contra deum ferre non potui.
For as Saint Chrisostome saith, iniurias Dei dissimulare
|Epist. ad Ciprianum.
If either Iulian the Apostata, or Lucian
should vndertake the like worke, could the [one]
deuise to write more blasphemously, or the other to
scoffe and flout at the diuine Creation of Woman,
more prophanely then this irreligious Author doth?
Homer doth report in his Illiads, that
there was at
the seige of Troy,a Græcian called Thersites, whose
was so blockish, he was not worthy to speake: yet his
disposition was so precipitate, hee could not hold his
tongue. Ioseph Swetnam in all record of Histories
cannot be so likely paraleld as with this Thersites. What
his composition of body is I know not, but for his
disposition otherwise, in this Pamphlet I know, he is as
monstrous as the worke is mishapen, which shall plainely appeare in the
examination of the first page
The Argument of the first Chapter is, to shew
what vse Women were made; it also sheweth, That
most of them degenerate from the vse they were framed
Now, to shew to what vse woman was made, hee
beginneth thus. At the first beginning a Woman was
made to bee a helper to Man: And so they are indeed,
for they helpe to consume and spend, &c. This
is all the vse, and all the end which the Authour setteth downe in all
his discourse for the creation of
woman. Marke a ridiculous jeast in this: Spending and
consuming of that which Man painfully getteth, is by
this Authour the vse for which Women were made.
And yet (saith hee in the Argument) most of them
degenerate from the vse they were framed vnto.
woman was made to spend and consume at the first:
But women doe degenerate from this vse, Ergo, Midasse
doth contradict himselfe. Beside this egregious
folly, he runneth into horrible blasphemy. VVas the
end of Gods creation in VVoman to spend and
consume? is helper to be taken in that sence, to helpe to spend?
&c. Is spending and consuming, helping?
He runneth on, and saith, They were made of a
and that their froward and crooked nature doth declare,
for a rib is a crooked thing, &c.
VVoman was made of a crooked rib, so shee is
crooked of conditions. Ioseph Swetnam was made as from Adam
of clay and dust, so he is of a durty and muddy
disposition: The inferences are both alike in either;
woman is no more crooked, in respect of the one; but
he is blasphemous in respect of the other. Did
Woman receiue her soule and disposition from the rib;
Or as it is said in Genesis, God did breath in them the
spirit of life? Admit that this Authors doctrine bee
true, that woman receueth her froward and crooked
disposition from the rib, Woman may then conclude
vpon that Axiome in Philosophy, Quicquid effecit tale, illud est
magis tale, That which giueth quality to a
thing, doth more abound in that quality; as fire which
heateth, is it selfe more hot: The Sunne which
giueth light, is of it selfe more light: So, if Woman
receiued her crookednesse from the rib, and
consequently from the Man, how doth man excell in
crookednesse, who hath more of those crooked ribs?
See how this vaine, furious, and idle Authour
furnisheth woman with an
Argument against himselfe,
and others of his Sexe.
|To take a vantage vpon a disaduantage.
The Authour hauing desperately begunne, doth
more rashly and impudently runne on in blasphemy,
which he doth euidently shew in the inference vpon
his former speeches: And therefore (saith he) Euer
since they haue beene a woe vnto Man, and follow
the li[n]e of the first leader. Now let the Christian
Reader please to consider how dishonestly this Authour
dealeth, who vndertaking a particular, prosecuteth
and persecuteth a generall, vnder the cloake and
colour of lewd, idle, and froward women, to rage and
raile against all women in generall.
Now, hauing examined what collections Ioseph
Swetnam hath wrested out of Scripture, to dishonor
and abuse all women: I am resolued, before I answere
further particulars made by him against our sexe, to
collect and note out of Scriptures; First, what incomparable and most
excellent prerogatiues God hath
bestowed vpon poor women, in honour of them, and their
Creation: Secondly, what choyse God hath made of
women, in vsing them as instruments to worke his
most gracious and glorious designes, for the generall
benefit of man-kind, both during the law of Nature,
and of Moyses: Thirdly, what excellent and diuine
graces haue beene bestowed vpon our Sexe, in the
law of Grace, and the worke of Redemption: With
a conclusion, that to manifest the worthinesse of
women, they haue beene chosen to performe and publish
the most happy and ioyfull benefits which euer came
What incomparable and
excellent prerogatiues God
hath bestowed vpon Women in their first
N this ensuing Chapter I determine briefly to
curiously to discourse at large) the singuler
bebefits and graces bestowed vpon
Women: In regard of which, it is
first to bee considered; That the
Almighty God in the worlds frame
in his Diuine wisedome, designed to himselfe a maine
end to which he ordayned all the workes of his
Creation, in which hee being a most excellent worke-master,
did so Create his workes, that euery succeeding
worke was euer more excellent then what was
formerly Created: hee wrought by degrees, prouiding
in all for that which was and should be the end.
It appeareth by that Soueraignty which God gaue
to Adam ouer all the Creatures of Sea and Land, that
man was the end of Gods creation, wherevpon it
doth necessarily, without all exception follow, that Adam,being
the last worke, is therefore the most
excellent worke of creation: yet Adam was not so
absolutely perfect, but that in the sight of God, he
wanted an Helper: Wherevpon God created the
woman his last worke, as to supply and make absolute
that imperfect building which was vnperfected in
man, as all Diuines do hold, till the happy creation of
the woman. Now of what estimate that Creature is
and ought to be, which is the last worke, vpon whom
the Almighty set vp his last rest: whom he made [to]
adde perfection. [T]o the end of all creation I leaue
rather to be acknowledged by others, then resolued
by my selfe.
|The prerogatiues giuen to women in
The last worke.
Created vpon a refined substance.
A better countrey.
It is furthermore to be considered, as the Maide, in
her Mussell for Melastomus
obserued: that God
intended to honour woman in a more excellent
degree, in that he created her out of a subiect refined, as
out of a Quintessence: For the ribbe is in Substance
more solid, in place as most neare, so in estimate most
deare, to mans heart, which doth presage that as she
was made for an helper, so to be an helper to stay, to
settle all ioy, all contents, all delights, to and in mans
heart, as hereafter shall be shewed.
That delight, solace, and pleasure, which shall
to man by woman, is prognosticated by that place
wherein woman was created: for she was framed in
Paradice, a place of all delight and pleasure, euery
element hath his creatures, euery creature doth
corresponde the temper and the inclination of that element wherein it
hath and tooke his first and principall esse, or being. So that
woman neither can or may
degenerate in her disposition from that naturall
inclination of the place, in which she was first framed,
she is a Paradician, that is, a delightfull creature, borne
in so delightfull a countrey.
When woman was created, God brought her vnto Adam,
and then did solempnise that most auspicious
Marriage bewixt them; with the greatest Maiestie,
and magnificence that heauen, or earth might afford.
God was the Father, which gaue so rich a iewell: God
was the Priest which tied so inseperable a knot. God
was the Steward which prouided all the pleasures, all
the dainties, all the blessings, which his deuine wisedome might
afford, in so delightfull a place.
|Men are worldlings, Women paradicians.
The woman was married to Adam, as with a
most sure and inseparable band, so with a most affectionate
and dutifull loue: Adam was enioyned to
receaue his wife, as is noted in the Bible printed 1595.
There is no loue (alwayes excepting the
loue) which is so highly honoured, so graciously
rewarded, so straightly commanded, or which being
broken, is so seuerely punished, as the loue and duty
which Children owe to their Parents: Yet this loue
albeit neuer so respectiue, is dispensed withall in
respect of that loue which a man is bound to beare to
his wife: For this cause, saith Adam, (as from the
of God) shall a man leaue Father and Mother, and
cleaue onely to his Wife. This word cleaue is vttered
in the Hebrew with a more significant emphasi[s], then
any other Language may expresse; such a cleauing
and ioyning together, which admitteth no seperation.
It may be necessarily obserued, that that gift of the
woman was most singularly excellent, which was to
bee accepted and entertained with so inestimable a
loue, and made inseparable by giuing and taking the
Ring of Loue, which should be endlesse.
Now, the woman taking view of the Garden, shee
was assaulted with a Serpent of the masculine gender;
who maliciously enuying the happinesse in
which man was at this time, like a mischieuous
Politician, hee practised by supplanting of the
woman, to turne him out of all: For which end he most
craftily and cunningly attempteth the woman; and
telleth her, that therefore they were forbidden to
eate of the fruit which grew in the middest of the
Garden, that in eating, they should now be like vnto
God: Wherevpon the woman accepted, tasted, and
gaue to her Husband. In accepting the Serpents offer,
there was no sinne; for there was no sinne till the fruit was eaten:
Now, albeit I haue vndertaken the defence of women, and may in that
fauoured, in taking all aduantages I may, to defend my sexe.
|The wedding Ring.
There are many pregnant places in the Scripture
which might be alleaged to extenuate the sin of the
Woman, in respect of the sinne of Adam: it is said Ecclesiast.
25. Sinne had his beginning in woman, Ergo, his
fulnesse in man.
Saint Paul saith, Rom. 5. By one mans
came into the world, without mention of the woman[.]
The same Saint Paul writeth to the Corinthians, to
whom he affirmeth, that all die in Adam, in which the
fulnesse and effects of sinne are charged vpon Adam alone, not
but that woman had her part in the
Tragedy, but not in so high a degree as the man.
When Adam had eaten, and sinne was now in fulnesse, hee
beginneth to multiply sinne vpon sinne:
first he flieth from the sight of God; next, being called
to account, he excuseth his sinne; and doth expostulate (as it were)
with Almightie God, and
telleth him, That woman which thou gauest mee, gaue me,
and I did eate: As who should say, if thou hadst not
giuen the cause, I had not been guilty of the effect;
making (heerein) God the Authour of his fall.
Adam his offences vpon his fall.
Now what is become of that loue, which Adam
was bound to beare towards his wife? He chargeth
her with all the burden; so he may discharge himselfe
he careth little how he clog her.
God hauing examined the offendors, and haveing
heard the vttermost they could alledge for
themselues, he pronounceth sentence of death vpon them,
as a punishment in iustice due and deserued. Iustice
he administred to Adam: Albeit the woman doth
taste of iustice, yet mercy is reserued for her, and of
all the workes of mercy which mankinde may hope for, the greatest, the
most blessed, and the most ioyfull
is promised to woman.
Woman supplanted by tasting of fruit, she is
punished in bringing forth her owne fruit. Yet what
by fruit she lost, by fruit she shall recouer.
|Adams loue like his childrens in these
Adam punished with iustice.
Woman punished by Iustice, relieued by
The incomparable inuentions of womens
1 Sam. 12
What more gratious a gift could the Almightie
promise to woman, then to bring forth the fruit
in which all nations shall be blessed? so that as woman
was a meanes to loose Paradice, she is by this,
made a meanes to recouer Heauen. Adam could not
vpbraid her for so great a losse, but he was to honour her more for a
greater recouery: all the punishments
inflicted vpon women, are encountred with most
gratious blessings & benefits; she hath not so great
cause of dolour in one respect, as shee hath infinite cause of ioy in
another. She is commanded to obey her husband; the cause is, the more
to encrease her
glorie. Obedience is better then Sacrifice: for
nothing is more acceptable before God then to obey:
women are much bound to God, to haue so
acceptable a vertue enioyned them for their pennance.
Amongst the curses and punishments heaped vpon the
Serpent, what greater ioy could she heare, or
what greater honour could be done vnto her, then to
heare from the voyce of God these words, I will put
enmitie betwixt the woman and thee, betwixt thy seede
and her seede, and that her seed should breake the Serpents head?
This must perforce be an exceeding ioy for the woman, to heare and to
be assured that her
fruit should reuenge her wrong.
After the fall, and after they were all arraigned
and censured, and that now Adam saw his wiues
dowrie, and what blessings God hath bestowed vpon
her, hee now being a bondslaue to death and hell,
stroke dead in regard of himselfe, yet hee comforts
himselfe, he taketh heart from grace, he engageth
his hope vpon that promise which was made to the
woman. Out of this most comfortable and blessed hope hee now calleth
her Eue, which is the mother
of the liuing: which is sutable as well in respect of the promise made
to her and her seede, as in respect of
those imployments for which in her creation she and
all women are designed, to be helpers, comforters,
Ioyes, and delights, and in true vse and gouerment
they euer haue beene and euer will be, as hereafter
shall be shewed, maugre the shamefull, blasphemous
and prophane speach of Ioseph Swetnam, page 31. beginning
line 15. as followeth.
|Womans name answerable to her nature.
If God had not made them onely to be a plague to a
man, hee would neuer haue called them necessary euils.
Out of what Scripture, out of what record, can
hee proue these impious and impudent speeches?
They are onely faigned and framed out of his owne
idle, giddie, furious, and franticke imaginations. If
he had cited Euripides for his Author, hee had had
some colour, for the prophane Poet in Medea, vseth
these speeches, Quod si Deoram aliquis mulierem formauit,
opisicem se malorum sciat, maximum & hominibus
inimicum. If any of the Gods framed woman, let him
know he was the worker of that which is naught, and what is most
hurtfull to men. Thus a Pagan writeth prophanely, but for a Christian
to say, that God
calleth women Necessary euils, is most intolerable and
shamefull to be written and published.
C H A P.
What choise God hath
made of women to be instru-
ments to deriue his benefits to Mankinde.
Braham being in danger, was blessed and
preserued in respect of Sara.
Rebecca by Gods prouidence
was the means to bring the
blessing of Isaac to fall vpon Iacob.
1 Kings 19.
1 Kings 25.
2 Kings 20.
3 Kings 17.
4 Kings 4.
4 Kings 11.
The Ægyptian Mid-wiues
were a meanes to preserue the
male children of the Israelites from the murther
entended by Pharao.
Moses was preserued by the daughter of Pharao.
The Messengers sent by Duke Iosuah to view
the Land of Promise, were harboured and freed from danger by a woman.
When the Children of Israell had been
twentie yeres oppressed by Iabin King of Canaan, Debbora and
Iahell, two women; the one wonne the battell, the other
slew the Generall.
When Abimelech had murthered seauenty of
his Brethren, he was punished and slaine by a woman at the seige of Thebes.
Micholl aduentured the hazard of her
Fathers displeasure to preserue her Husband Dauid.
Abigail by incomparable wisedome with-held
Dauid from shedding of innocent bloud.
The Citie of Abdela being in danger, was
preserued by a wise woman of that Citie.
In the great famine of Samaria, the
widow of Sarepta was chosen to preserue Elias, and Elias
to preserue her.
The like prouision did the woman, a Sunamite, make for Elizeus,
and Elizeus for the woman.
2 Mach. 7.
When the bloud-Royall of Iudah had beene all murthered, Ioas
afterwards King, was preserued by a woman.
What was that noble aduenture so blessedly
performed by Iudith, in cutting off the head of Holofernes?
With what wisedome did Queene Hester
preserue her people, and caused their enemies to be hanged?
What a chast mirrour was Susanna, who
rather hazarded her life, then offend against God?
Neuer was greater magnanimity shewed by a
then by that Mother which saw her seauen children
tormented most cruelly, yet she encouraged
them to the death.
C H A P.
What excellent blessings
and graces haue beene be-
stowed vpon women in the Lawe of
He first which commeth in this place,
to be mentioned, is that
blessed mother and mirrour of al woman hood, the Virgin Marie,
who was magnified in the
birth of Iesus, glorified by Angels, chosen by the Almighty to
beare in her wombe the Sauiour of mankinde.
With what a faithfull salutation did Elizabeth,
Saint Iohn Baptist Mother, entertaine the Virgin
repaire vnto her?
Anna the old Prophetesse did miraculously
demonstrate our Sauiour.
Math. 9 17.
The woman which had the issue of bloud: the woman
of Canaan, Ioh. 4. The Samaritan woman. Martha,
the 11.of Iohn: all these and sundry others
are saued, healed, and haue their sinnes forgiuen, in
respect of their true and liuely faith.
VVhat faith? what zeale? what deuotion did
Marie Magdelen shew toward Iesus, in
her selfe at the feete of Iesus, annoynting them with
pretious oyntment, washing them with teares, and drying them with the
haire of her head?
With what bountie and deuotion did the Maryes,
the wife of Herods steward, did Ioanna, with other
contribute of their goods to Iesus?
How charitable was that poore widdow, whose
two Mites our Sauior valued at a greater estimate,
then any gift of any other whatsoeuer?
In all dangers, troubles, and extremities, which
fell to our Sauiour, when all men fled from him, liuing
or dead, women neuer forsooke him.
I should be ouer-tedious to repeate euery example
of most zealous, faithfull, and deuout women, which
I might in the new Testament, whose faith and
deuotion was censured by our Sauiour to be without compare.
I will conclude for women that they haue beene
chosen both to set out Gods glory, and for the benefit of all mankinde,
in more glorious and gratious imployments then men haue beene.
The first promise of a Messias to come was made
to a woman: the birth and bearing of that promised
Messias was performed by a woman.
The triumphant resurrection with the conquest
ouer death and hell, was first published and
proclaimed by a woman.
I might herevnto adde those wiues, widdowes, and
virgins, which flourished in the primatiue Church,
and all succeeding ages sithence, who in al vertues
haue excelled, and honoured both their sexe in
generall, and themselues in particular, who in their
martyrdomes, in their confession of Iesus, and in all
Christian, and deuine vertues, haue in no respect beene
inferiour vnto men.
Hus out of the second and third Chapters of Genesis,
and out of the Old and New Testaments,
I haue obserued in proofe of the worthinesse of our
Sexe: First, that woman was the last worke of
Creation, I dare not say the best: She was created out of the chosen
and best refined substance: She was
created in a more worthy country: She was married
by a most holy Priest: She was giuen by a most gratious
Father: Her husband was enioyned to a most inseperable and affectionate
care ouer her: The first
promise of saluation was made to a woman: There is
inseperable hatred and enmitie put betwixt the
woman and the Serpent: Her first name, Eua, doth
presage the nature and disposition of all women, not
onely in respect of their bearing, but further, for the life and
delight of heart and soule to all mankinde.
|The summon [summing] of womans
blessings and graces.
I haue further shewed the most gratious, blessed,
and rarest benefits, in all respects, bestowed vpon
women; all plainely and directly out of Scriptures.
All which doth demonstrate the blasphemous
impudencie of the authour of the Arraignement, who
would or durst write so basely and shamefully, in so
generall a manner, against our so worthy and
honored a sexe.
courteous and friendly
R E A D E R.
Entle R E A D E
R, in my first Part
I haue (what I might) strictly
obserued a religious regard, not
to entermingle anything vnfitting
the grauitie of so respectiue an
Now that I am come to this second Part, I am
determined to solace my selfe with a little
libertie: What aduantages I did forbeare to take in the
former, I meane to make vse of in this second. Ioseph
Swetnam hath beene long vnanswered, which had beene performed
sooner, if I had heard of his Booke before
this last Terme: Or if the report of the Maidens answere
had not stayed me. I haue not so amply and absolutely
discharged my selfe in this Apologie as I would haue done, if
either my leasure had been such, as I could haue wished,
or the time more fauourable, that I might haue stayed.
What my repaire into the Countrey enforceth me to leaue
rather begunne then finished; I meane (by Gods grace) to
make perfect the next Terme: In the meane time (gentle R E A D E R ) I bid thee kindly farewell.
C H A P.
At what estimate Women
were valued in ancient
and former times.
Lato in his Bookes de Legibus,
estimateth of Women, which doe equall Men in all respects,
onely in bodie they are weaker,
but in wit and disposition
of minde nothing inferiour, if
not superiour. wherevpon he
doth in his so absolute a Common-wealth, admit
them to gouernment of Kingdomes and Commonweales,
if they be either borne therevnto by Nature,
or seated in gouernment by Election.
It is apparent, that in the prime of antiquity,
women were valued at highest estimate, in that all those
most inestimable and incomparable benefites which
might either honour or preserue Mankinde, are all
generally attributed to the inuention of women, as
may appeare in these few examples following.
When meum & tuum, Mine and Thine, when
and wrong were decided by warres, and their
weapons then were the furniture of Nature, as Fists,
Teeth, Stones, Stakes, or what came next to hand:
A Ladie of an heroicall disposition, called Bellon, did
first inuent a more man-like and honourable weapon
for warre, which was the sword, with other Armour
correspondent, for which she was at first (and so
euer since) honoured, as the Goddess of warre.
|The incomparable inuentions of womens
When at the first the finest Manchet and best
bread in vse was of Acorns, by the singular and practicall
wit of a lady called Ceres, the sowing of Corne, and
TIllage was inuented.
The inuention of the seauen liberall Sciences, of
all Arts, of all Learning, hath beene generally with
one consent ascribed to the inuention of Iupiters daughters,
the nine Muses, whose Mother was a royall
Carmentis a Ladie, first inuented Letters,
vse of them by reading and writing.
The royall and most delightfull exercise of
Hunting was first found out and practised by Diana, who
thervpon is celebrated for the Goddesse of Hunting.
The three Graces, which adde a decorum,
fauour to Persons, Actions, and Speaches, are three
Ladies, Aglaia, Thalia, and E[u]phrosune.
The heroicall exercses of Olimpus, were
first found and put in practise by Palestra a woman.
The whole world being diuided into three parts in
more ancient times, euery diuition to this day keepeth the name in
honour of a woman.
The foeminine Sexe is exceedingly honoured by
Poets in their writings: They haue no women-Goddesses,
but in things which are especially good. They haue Bacchus for
a drunken God, but no drunken Goddesse. They haue Priapus the
lustfull God of
Gardens, but no garden-Goddesses, except of late in
the garden-Allies. They will obiect here vnto mee Venus,
she indeed is the Goddesse of Loue, but it is
her blinde Sonne which is the God of Lust; poore
Ladie, she hath but her ioynture in the Mannor of
Loue, Cupid is Lord of all the rest, hee hath the
royalty, she may not strike a Deare, but she must imploy
her Sonne that sawcie Boy.
For Pride, they held it so farre from women, that
found out Nemesis or Rhamnusia to punish and
reuenge pride, but none to infect with pride.
They haue Pluto the God of Hell, but no
Goddes[s] of hell; but Proserpina,whom Pluto forcibly
tooke from Mount Aetna, and carried her away, and made her
Queene of Hell; yet she doth not remaine
in Hell but one halfe of the yeare, by a decree from Iupiter.
If I should recite and set downe all the
records and Monuments for and of women, I might
write more Bookes then I haue yet written lines. I
will leaue and passe ouer the famous testimonies of forreine Kingdomes
and Common-wealths, in
honour of our Sexe: and I will onely mention some few
examples of our owne Countrey and Kingdome,
which haue been incomparably benefitted and
honoured by women.
Amongst the olde Britaines, our first Ancestors,
valiant Boadicea, that defended the liberty of her
Countrey, against the strength of the Romans, when
they were at the greatest, and made them feele that a
woman could conquer them who had conquered
almost all the men of the then known world.
The deuout Helen, who besides that, she
Mother of that religious and great Constantine,
first seated Christian Religion in the Imperiall throne, & in that
respect may be stiled the mother of
Religion, is still more honuored for her singular
pietie and charitie towards him and his members, who dyed for vs vpon
the Crosse, then for her care and industry in finding out the wood of
that Crosse on
which he dyed.
In the time of the Danes, chaste Æmma,
innocency carried her naked feete ouer the fire-hot
Plow-shares vnfelt; with the Saxons Queene Elfgiue
the holy widdow, and the Kings daughter Eanh a
Virgin Saint, both greater Conquerers then Alexander the great,
that men so much boasted of, who could
not conquere himselfe.
Since the Normans, the heroicall vertues
wife to Edward the first, who when her Husband in
the Holy Land was wounded with a poysoned Arrow,
of which there was no hope of recouery from the
Chyrurgions, she suckt the poyson into her own
bodie to free him: together, curing that mortall wound,
and making her owne fame immortall: so that I
thinke this one act of hers may equall all the acts that
her great Husband did in those warres besides.
Philip, wife to Edward the third,
no lesse to be honoured for being the Mother of so many braue
children, then of so many good deeds, which worthily
got her the title of good.
Margaret the wise, wife to to Henrie
the sixt, who if
her Husbands fortune, valor, and foresight, had
beene answerable to hers, had left the Crowne of England to
their owne Sonne, and not to a stranger.
The other Margaret of Richmond, mother to Henrie
the seuenth, from whose brests he may seeme to haue deriued as well his
vertues as his life, in respect of her
heroicall prudence and pietie; whereof, besides
other Monuments, both the Vniuersities are still witnesses
Besides this, it was by the blessed meanes of Elizabeth,
wife to Henrie the seuenth, that the bloudy wars betwixt
the houses of Yorke and Lancaster were
ended, and the red Rose and the white vnited, &c.
It was by the meanes of the most renowmed Queene
(the happy Mother of our dread
Soueraigne) that the two Kingdomes once mortall foes,
are now so blessedly conioyned.
And that I may name no more (since in one
onely were comprized all the qualities and endowments
that could make a person eminent) Elizabeth our late
Soueraigne, not onely the glory of our Sexe, but a
patterne for the best men to imitate, of whom I will
say no more, but that while she liued, she was the
mirrour of the world, so then knowne to be, and so
still remembred, and euer will be.
Daily experience, and the common course of
Nature, doth tell vs that women were by men in those
times highly valued, and in worth by men themselues
preferred, and held better than themselues[.]
I will not say that women are better than men, but
I will say, men are not so wise as I would wish them
to be, to wooe vs in such fashion as they do, except
they should hold and account of vs as their betters.
What travaile? what charge? what studie? doe not
men vndertake to gaine our good will, loue, and
liking? what vehement suits doe they make vnto vs?
with what solemne vowes and protestations do they
solicite vs? they write, they speake, they send, to make
knowne what entire affection they beare vnto vs, that
they are so deeply engaged in loue, except we doe
compassion them with our loue and fauour, they are
men vtterly cast away. One he will starue himselfe,
another will hang, another drowne, another stab,
another will exile himselfe from kinred and country,
except they may obtaine our loues: What? will they
say that we are baser than themselues? then they
wrong themselues exceedingly, to prefer such
vehement suits to creatures inferiour to themselues;
Sutors doe euer in their suites confesse a more
worthinesse in the persons to whom they sue. These kind of
suits are from Nature, which cannot deceiue them:
Nature doth tell them what women are, and custom
doth approue what nature doth direct. Aristotle saith, Omnia
appetunt bonum, euery thing by nature doth
seeke after that which is good. Nature then doth cary
men with violence, to seeke and sue after women:
They will answere, and seeke to elude this Maxime with a
distinction, that bonum is duplex, aut verum,
aut apparens, that goodnesse or the thing which is
good, is either truely good, or but apparantly good;
so they may say, women are but apparantly good.
But the heathen Orator and the deuine philosopher
to, affirme, if we follow the true direction of nature
we shall neuer be deceiued. Nature in her vehement
motions is not deceiued with apparant shewes. It is
naturall, they will say, for the Male to follow the
Female; so it is as naturall, for the Female to be better
then the Male, as appeareth to be true in obseruation
of Hawkes: the Spar-hawke is of more esteeme then
the Musket; the Goshawke more excellent then the
Tersell; so in Falcons, the females doe excell: The like
men are bound to acknowledge women; the rather in
respect of their owne credit and honour. To what
obsequious duty and seruice doe men binde
themselues, to obtaine a fauour from their deuoted
Mistresse, which if he may obtaine he thinketh himselfe
to be much honoured, & puts in place of most noted
view, that the world may take note: He weareth in
his hat, or on his brest, or vpon his arme, the Gloue,
the Scarfe, or Ring of his Mistresse: if these were not
relickes from Saintly creatures, men would not
sacrifice so much deuotion vnto them.
|Suit is alwais preferred to the
Amongst diuers causes which proceede from
nature and custome, why men are so earnest Sutors to
women, I haue obserued one, which by practise is
daily confessed. Plato sayth, that Honestie is of that
worthinesse, that men are greatly enflamed with the
loue of it; and as they doe admire it, so they studie
how to obtaine it: it is apparant, yong men which
are vnmarried, and called batchelers, they may haue a
disposition, or may serue an apprentiship to honesty,
but they are neuer free-men, nor euer called honest
men, till they be married: for that is the portion
which they get by their wiues. When they are once
married, they are forthwith placed in the ranke of
honest men, If question be asked, what is such a man?
it is presently resolued, he is an honest man: And the
reason presently added, for hee hath a wife; shee is
the sure signe and seale of honestie. It is vsuall
amongst old and graue fathers, if they haue a sonne
giuen to spending and companie-keeping, who is of a wild and riotous
disposition, such a father shall presently
be counselled, helpe your sonne to a good
wife, marry him, marry him, that is the onely way
to bring him to good order, to tame him, to bring
him to be an honest man: The auncient fathers doe
herein acknowledge a greater worthinesse in women
then in men; the hope which they haue of an
vntowardly sonne, to reclaime him, is all engaged vpon the woman.
|Womens fauours estimated as relicks.
Honestie comes by marriage,
the womans dowrie.
In no one thing, men doe acknowledge a more
excellent perfection in women then in the estimate
of the offences which a woman doth commit: the
worthinesse of the person doth make the sinne more
markeable. What an hatefull thing is to see a woman ouercome with
drinke, when as in men it is
noted for a signe of goodfellowship? and whosoeuer
doth obserue it, for one woman which doth make a
custome of drunkennesse, you shall finde an
hundred men: it is abhorred in women, and therefore
they auoyd it; it is laughed at and made but as a iest amongst men, and
therefore so many doe practise it:
Likewise if a man abuse a Maide & get her with child,
no matter is made of it, but as a trick of youth; but
it is made so hainous an offence in the maide, that
she is disparaged and vterly vndone by it. So in all
offences those which men commit, are made light and as
nothing, slighted ouer; but those which women doe commit, those are
made grieuous and
shamefull, and not without iust cause: for where God
hath put hatred betwixt the woman and the serpent,
it is a foule shame in a woman to carry fauour with the
deuill, to stayne her womanhoode with any of
his damnable qualities, that she will shake hands where God hath
|Womens faults more markable because
they are the better.
Ioseph Swetnam in his Pamphlet aggrauateth
the offences of women in the highest degree, not onely
exceeding, but drawing men into all mischiefe. If I do grant, that
women degenerationg from the true
end of womanhood, prooue the greatest offenders,
yet in graunting that, I doe thereby prooue that
women in their creation are the most excellent creatures:
for corruption, boni pessima, the best thing corrupted
proueth the worst, as for example, the most glorious creature in heauen
is by his fall the most
damned deuill in hell: all the Elements in their puritie are
most pretious, in their infection and abuse most dangerous:
so the like in women, in their most excellent
puritie of nature, what creature more gratious! but
in their fall from God, and all goodnesse, what creature more
mischieuous? which the deuill knowing
he doth more assault woman then man because his
gaine is greater by the fall of one woman, then
of twentie men. Let there be a faire maide, wife, or
woman, in Countrie, towne, or Citie, she shall want
no resort of Serpents, nor any varietie of tempter: let
there be in like sort, a beautifull or personable man,
he may sit long enough before a woman will solicite
him. For where the deuill hath good acquaintance,
he is sure of entertainment there, without resistance:
The Serpent at first tempted woman, he dare assault
her no more in that shape, now he imployeth men to
supply his part; and so they doe: for as the Serpent
began with Eue to delight her taste, so doe
instruments draw to wine and banqueting; the next, the
Serpent enticed her by pride, and tolde her shee
should be like to God; so doe his instruments; first,
they will extoll her beauty, what a paragon she is in
their eyes; next, they will promise her such maintenance,
as the best woman in the Parish or Country
shall not haue better: What care they, if they make a thousand oathes,
and commit ten thousand
periuries, so they may deceiue a woman? When they haue
done all and gotten their purpose, then they discover
all the womans shame, and imploy such an Author
as this (to whose Arraignment I doe make haste) to
raile vpon her and the whole Sexe.
|The deuill doth more violently tempt
women then men. He is sure of them when he will.
Dissembling in men.
Ioseph Swetnam, who was the
Author of the Arraignment of Women;
And vnder his person, the arraignment
of all idle, franticke, froward, and
C H A P T E
Oseph Swetnam hauing written
his rash, idle, furious and shamefull discourse against
Women, it was at last deliuered
into my hands, presently I did acquaint some of our Sexe with the
with whom I did aduise what course wee should take
with him. It was concluded (that his vnworthinesse
being much like to that of Thersites, whom I haue formerly
mentioned) wee would not answere him
either with Achilles fist, or Stafford-law; neither
plucke him in pieces as the Thracian women did Orpheus,
for his intemperate rayling against women:
But as he had arraigned women at the barre of fame
and report; wee resolued at the same barre where
he did vs the wrong, to arraigne him, that thereby we
might defend our assured right: And withall (respecting
our selues) we resolued to fauour him so far
in his triall that the world might take notice there
was no partiall or indirect dealing, but that he had as
much fauour as he could desire, and farre more then
he did or could deserue.
So that wee brought him before two Iudgesses, Reason,
and Experience, who being both in place,
man can suspect them with any indirect proceedings:
For albeit, Reason of it selfe may be blinded by
passion, yet when she is ioyned with Experience, she is
knowne to be absolute, and without compare. As
for Experience, she is knowne of her selfe to be admirable
excellent in her courses, she knoweth how to
vse euery man in her practise; she will whip the foole
to learne him more wit; she will punish the knave to
practise more honesty; she will curbe in the
prodigall, and teach him to be warie; she will trip vp the
heeles of such as are rash and giddy, and bid them
hereafter looke before they leape. To be short, there
is not in all the world, for all estates, degrees, qualities and
conditions of men, so singular a Mistresse, or
so fit to be a Iudgesse as she, onely one property she
hath aboue all the rest, no man commeth before her
but she maketh him ashamed, and shee will call and
proue almost euery man a foole, especially such who
are wise in their owne conceits.
For his Iurie, albeit we knew them to be of his
dearest, and nearest inward familiar friends, in whose
company he was euer, and did spend vpon them all
that he could get, or deuise to get; yet wee did
challenge not one of them, but were well pleased that his
fiue Senses, and the seauen deadly sinnes should stand for his
The partie which did giue euidence against him, we knew to bee a sure
Card, and one which would
not faile in proofe of any thing, and such proofe
which should be without all exception, Conscience is
a sure witnesse.
So all things being accordingly prouided, the
prisoner was brought to the barre, where he was called
and bid hold vp his hand, which hee did, but a false
hand God he knowes, his enditement was red, which was this which
C H A P.
Swetnam his Enditement.
Oseph Swetnam, thou art endited
by the name of Ioseph Swetnam of Bedlemmore in the
Countie of Onopolie*: For that
twentieth day of December, in the yeare
&c. Diddest most wickedly,
blasphemously, falsly, and
publish a lewd Pamphlet, entituled the Arraignment
of Women; In which, albeit thou diddest
honestly pretend to arraigne lewd, idle, froward and
vnconstant women, yet contrary to thy pretended
promise thou diddest rashly, and malitiously raile and
rage against all women, generally writing and
publishing most blasphemously that women by their
Creator were made for Helpers, for Helpers (thou
sayest) to spend and consume that which Man painefully
getteth; furthermore, thou dost write, That being made of a
rib, which was crooked, they are therefore crooked and
froward in conditions, and that Woman was no sooner
made, but her heart was set vpon mischiefe; which thou
doest deriue to all the Sexe generally, in these words, And
therefore euer since they haue beene a woe vnto man,
and follow the line of their first leader. Further then all
this, thou doest affirme an impudent lye vpon Almighty God, in saying,
that God calleth them necessary euils, and that therefore they were
created to bee a plague vnto man. Thou writest also, That
prowde, lasciuous, froward, curst, vnconstant, idle, impudent,
shamelesse, and that they decke and dresse themselues
to tempt and allure men to lewdnesse, with much and
many more foule, intemperate, and scandalous speaches, &c.
When Ioseph Swetnam was asked what he said
his enditement, Guilty, or not guiltie, hee pleaded the
generall issue, not guiltie, being asked how hee would be
tryed, he stood mute, for Conscience did so confront
him, that he knew vpon tryall there was no way but
one; wherevpon hee thought it much better to put
himselfe vpon our mercy, then to hazard the tryall
of his owe Iurie.
Wherevpon we did consider if we should haue
vrged him to be pressed, the disaduantage had beene
ours: for then his fauourites would haue said as some
did say, that Ioseph Swetnam did not stand mute, as
misdoubting the proofe of what he had written: But seeing the
Iudgesses, the Iurie, the Accuser, and all
others, most of them of the foeminine gender, he
suspelled the question by vs, being made Generall, that
they would rather condemne him to please a generall, although in
particular respect of himselfe he knew
they would fauour him. And besides that hee held
it a strange course, that the selfe and the same persons
should be Iudges and Accusers, wherevpon we
resolued to graunt him longer time to aduice with himselfe whether he
would put himselfe to triall, or
vpon better deliberation to recall his errours.
But that the world might be satisfied in respect
the wrongs done vnto vs, and to maintaine our
honourable reputation, it was concluded, that my selfe
should deliuer before the Iudges, to all the assembly,
speaches to these effects following.
C H A P.
The answere to all
obiections which are materiall,
made against Women.
Ight Honourable and Worshipfull,
and you of all degrees; it hath euer
beene a common custome amongst
Idle, and humerous Poets, Pamphleters,
and Rimers, out of passionate
discontents, or hauing little otherwise
to imploy themselues about, to write some bitter
Satire-Pamphlet, or Rime, against women: in which
argument he who could deuise any thing more
bitterly, or spitefully, against our sexe, hath neuer
wanted the liking, allowance, and applause of giddy
headed people. Amongst the rable of scurill writers,
this prisoner now present hath acted his part, whom
albeit women could more willingly let passe, then
bring him to triall, and as e[u]er heretofore, rather
contemn such authors th[en] deigne them any answere, yet
seeing his booke so commonly bought vp, which
argueth a generall applause, we are therfore enforced to
make answere in defence of our selues, who are by
such an author so extreamely wronged in publike
You all see hee will not put himselfe vpon triall:
if we should let it so passe, our silence might
implead vs for guiltie, so would his Pamphlet be receiued
with a greater currant and credite then formerly
it hath beene: So that as well in respect of our sexe,
as for a generall satisfaction to the world, I will take
this course with our prisoner, I will at this present
examine all the obiections which are most materiall,
whcih our aduersarie hath vomited out against woman, and not onely what
he hath obiected, but what
other authors of more import then Ioseph Swetnam
haue charged vpon women: alas seely man he
obiecteth nothing but what he hath stolne out of
English writers, as Euphues, the Palace of
the like, which are as easily answered as vaynly obiected. He neuer
read the vehement and profest
enemies against our sexe, as for Graecians, Euripides,
Menander, Simonides, Sophocles, with the like, amongst Latine
writers Iuvenall, Plautus, &c.
But of all that euer I read, I did neuer obserue
such generall sinceritie in any, as in this aduersarie, which
you shall finde I will make as manifest as the Sunne
to shine at mid-day.
It is the maine end that our aduersarie aimeth at
in all his discourse, to proue and say that women are
bad, if he should offer this vpon particulers, no one
would denie it: but to lauish generally against all
women, who can endure it? You might M. Swetnam,
with some shew of honestie haue sayd; some women
are bad, both by custome and company, but you
cannot avoide the brand, both of blasphemie and
dishonestie, to say of women generally they are all
naught, both in their creation and by nature, and to
ground your inferences vpon Scriptures.
I let pass your obiections in your first page;
because they are formerly answered, onely whereas you
say, woman was no sooner made, but her heart was set
vpon mischiefe if you had then said, she had no sooner
eaten of the fruit, but her heart was set vpon mischiefe,
you had had some colour for your speaches;
not in respect of the womans disposition, but in
consideration both of her first Tutor and her second
instructor: For whereas scripture doth say, Woman was
supplanted by a Serpent, Ioseph Swetnam doth say, she
was supplanted by the deuill, which appeared to her in the
shape of a beautifull yong man. Men are much beholding
|The Deuill tooke the shape of man.
to this author, who will seeme to insinuate, that the
deuill would in so friendly and familier a manner,
put on the shape of a man, when he first began to
practise mischiefe: The deuill might make bold of
them, whom he knew in time would proue his familier
friends. Herevpon it may be imagined it
commeth to passe that Painters, and Picture-makers,
when they would represent the deuill, they set him
out in the deformed shape of a man; because vnder
that shape he began first to act the part of a diuell:
and I doubt he neuer changed his suite sithence.
Here it is to be obserued, that which is worst is
expressed by the shape of a man; but what is the most
glorious creature is represented in the beautie of a
woman, as Angels. Woman at the first might easily
learne mischiefe, where or how should she learne
goodnes? her first Schoole-master was abundant in
mischiefe, and her first huband did exceede in bad
examples. First, by his example he taught her how
to flye from God: next how to excuse her sinne: then
how to cample and contest with God, and to say as Adam did,
thou art the cause, for the woman whom
thou gauest me, was the cause I did eate. What Adam
did at the first, bad husbands practise with their
wiues euer sithence, I meane in bad examples. It
was no good example in Adam, who hauing
receiued his wife from the gift of God, and bound to her
in so inseperable a bond of loue, that forthwith he being taken tardie
would presently accuse his wife &
put her in all the danger; but the woman was more
bound to an vpright iudge, then to a louing husband:
it would not serue Adams turne, to charge her, therby
to free himselfe: It was an hard and strange course,
that he who should haue beene her defender, is now
become her greatest accuser. I may heare say with
Saint Paul, by one mans sinne, death, &c. so by the
contagion of originall sinne in Adam, all men are
with his diseases; and looke what examples he gaue
his wife at the first, the like examples and practises
doe all men shew to women euer sithence. Let mee
speake freely, for I will speake nothing but truly,
neither shall my words exceede my proofe.
|[The S]erpent gaue the woman bad
counsell and her husband bad example.
Men doe shew themselues the children of
In your first and second Page, you alledge Dauid
and Salomon, for exclaiming bitterly against women:
And that Salomon saith, Women (like as Wine) doe make
men drunk with their deuices. What of all this?
Ioseph Swetnam, a man which hath reason,
neuer obiect that vnto his aduersary, which when it
commeth to examination will disaduantage himselfe.
Your meaning is, in the disgrace of women to exalt
men: but is this any commendation to men, that
they haue been and are ouer-reacht by women? Can
you glory of their holinesse, whom by women proue
sinfull? or in their wisedome, whom women make
fooles? or in their strength, whom women ouercome?
can you excuse that fall which is giuen by the
weaker? or colour that foyle which is taken from women?
Is holinesse, wisedome, and strength, so slightly
seated in your Masculine gender, as to be stained,
blemished, and subdued by women? But now I pray
you let vs examine how these vertues in men so
potent, came by women to be so impotent. Doe you
meane in comparatiue degree, that women are more
holy, more wise, more strong, then men? if you
should graunt this, you had small cause to write against
them. But you will not admit this? What is,
or are the causes then why men are so ouertaken by
women? You set downe the causes in your fourth
Page; there you say, They are dangerous for men to
deale withall, for their faces are lures, their beauties
baytes, their lookes are nets, and their words are charmes, and
all to bring men to ruine: Incidit in Scyllam qui
vult vitare Charibdim, whilst he seeketh to auoide one
mischiefe, he falleth into another. It were more credit
for men to yeeld our sexe to be more holy, wise, and
strong, then to excuse themselues by the reasons
alleaged: for by this men are proued to haue as litle wit
as they are charged to exceed in wickednesse. Are
external & dumbe shews such potent paintes, nets, lures,
charmes, to bring men to ruine? Why? wilde Asses, dotterels, and
woodcockes, are not so easily
entangled and taken? are men so idle, vaine, and weake,
as you seeme to make them? Let mee now see how
you can free these men from dishonest mindes, who
are ouertaken thus with beautie, &c. How can beautie
hurt? how can it be a cause of a mans ruine, of it
selfe? what, do women forcibly draw? why, men are
|Foolish men tempted with outward
more strong? are they so eloquent to perswade? why,
men are too wise; are they mischeiuous to entise? men
are more holy; how then are women causes to bring
men to ruine? direct causes they cannot be in any
respect; if they be causes, they are but accidentall
causes: A cause as Philosophers say, Causa sine qua non:
a remote cause, which cause is seldome alleaged
for cause, but where want of wit would say
somewhat, and a guilty conscience would excuse it selfe
by something. Philosophers say, Nemo leditur nisi a
seipso, no man is hurt but the cause is in himselfe. The
prodigall person amongst the Gr&ealig;cians is
Asotos, as a destroyer, an vndoer of himselfe: When an
heart fraughted with sinne doth prodigally lauish
out a lasciuious looke out of a wanton eye; when it
doth surfeit vpon the sight, who is Asotos? who is guiltie of
his lasciuious disease but himselfe? Volenti non
sit iniuria, hee who is wounded with his owne
consent, hath small cause to complaine of anothers
wrong: Might not a man as easily, and more honestly,
when hee seeth a faire woman, which doth make the best vse that she can
to set out her beautie,
rather glorifie God in so beautifull a worke, then
infect his soule with so lasciuious a thought? And for
the woman, who haing a Iewell giuen her from so
deare a friend, is she not to be commended rather
that in the estimate which she sheweth, shee will as
carefully and as curiously as she may set out what
she hath receiued from Almighty God, then to be
censured that she doth it to allure wanton and lasciuious
lookes? The difference is in the minds, things
which are called Adiaphora, things indifferent, whose
qualities haue their name from the vses, are commonly so censured, and
so vsed, as the minde is inclined
which doth passe his verdict. A man and a woman
talke in the fields together, an honest minde will
imagine of their talke answerable to his owne
disposition, whereas an euill disposed minde will censure
|If men be hurt thanke themselues.
according to his lewd inclination. When men
complaine of beautie, and say, That womens dressings and attire are
prouocations to wantonnesse, and baites to allure
men, it is a direct meanes to know of what disposition
they are, it is a shame for men in censuring of
women to condemne themselues; but a common Inne
cannot be without a common signe; it is a common
signe to know a leacher, by complaining vpon the
cause and occasion of his surfeit; who had knowne
his disease but by his owne complaint? It is extreme
folly to complaine of another, when the roote of all
resteth within himselfe; purge an infected heart, and
turne away lasciuious eye, and then neither their
dressings, nor their beautie can any wayes hurt you.
Doe not men exceede in apparell, and therein set
themselues out to the view? Shall women betray
themselues and make it knowne that they are either
so bad in their disposition, or so wanton in their
thoughts, or so weak in their gouernment as to complaine that they are
tempted and allured by men?
Should women make themselues more vaine then
yongest children, to fall in loue with babyes.
Women are so farre off from being in any sort prouoked
to loue vpon the view of mens apparell, and setting
forth themselues, that no one thing can more draw
them from loue, then their vanitie in apparell.
|Womans beauty is good, but the heart
which doth surfeit is naught.
Women make difference betwixt colours and conditions,
betwixt a faire shew, and a foule substance: It shewes
a leuitie in man to furnish himselfe more with trim
colours, then manlike qualities: besides that, how can
we loue at whom we laugh? We see him gallant it
at the Court one day, & braue it in the Country the
next day; we see him weare that on his backe one
week, which we heare is in the brokers shop the next:
furthermore we see diuers weare apparell and colours
made of a Lordship, lined with Farmes and Granges,
embrodered with all the plate, gold, and wealth,
their Friends and Fathers left them: Are these
motiues to loue or to laughter? Will or dare a woman
trust to their loue for one Moneth, who will turne
her of the next? This is the surfeit which women take
by braue apparell. They rather suspect his worth,
then wish his loue, who doth most exceede in brauerie. So Mr. Swetnam,
doe you and all yours forbeare
to censure of the dressings and attires of women for
any such lewd intent, as you imagine: Bad minds are
discouered by bad thoughts and hearts. Doe not say
and rayle at women to be the cause of mens ouerthrow,
when the originall roote and cause is in your
selues. If you bee so affected that you cannot looke
but you must forthwith be infected, I doe maruaile (Ioseph Swetnam)
you set downe no remedies for that
torment of Loue, as you call it: You bid men shunne
and auoyde it, but those be common and ordinary
rules and instructions: yet not so ordinary, as able to
restraine the extraordinary humors of your giddy
company. I will do you and your friends a kindnesse
if you be so scorched with the flames of loue. Diogines
did long since discouer the souerainge salue for
such a wound: The receipt is no great charge, your
selfe may be the Apothecarie, it is comprehended in
three words: First, trie with [chronos], next with [limos], if
|Women doe not fall in loue with men
for their apparell.
both these faile, the third is sure, [biochos]. This was Dioenes
Antidote against that venemous infection.
There are more milder remedies which you may put
in practise: If your hearts be so fleshly, or your eies
so tender that you dare trust neither of them, then
trust to your reason to turne your eyes away, or trust
to your heeles as Ioseph did, to carrie all away.
|A medicine for loue. Time. Hanger. A
After you haue railed against women, you bring
in a fable of a contempt betwixt the Winde and the Sunne;
and you apply the morall to women, when as it hath a farre other
relation: for it euer hath been
applyed to men, to instruct them in the gouernment
of woman, for I pray you who is to gouerne, or who
are to be gouerned? You should seeme to come from
the Sauromatioans, whose wiues were their Masters: but I will
set you downe both the Fable and the Morrall, as it was written in
English verse long sithence.
He Sunne and Winde at variance did
Whose force was greatest in the open field:
A trauailer they chuse to deale withall;
Who makes him first vnto their force to yeeld
To cast off Cloake, they that agreement make,
The honour of the victory must take.
The Winde began
and did encrease, each blast
With raging beate vpon the silly man;
The more it blew, the more he grasped fast
And kept his Cloake, let Winde doe what it can:
When all in vaine the Winde his worst had done,
It ceast, and left a tryall to the Sunne.
beginnes his beames for to display,
And by degrees in heate for to encrease;
The Trauailer then warme, doth make a stay,
And by degrees his Cloake he doth release:
At length is forc'd both Coate and Cloake to yeeld,
So giues the Sunne the honour of the field.
Who by extreames
doth seeke to worke his will,
By raging humours thinking so to gaine;
May like the Winde augment his tempest still,
But at the length he findes his furie vaine:
For all he gets by playing franticke parts,
He hard'neth more the mild and gentle hearts.
Like as all Plants,
when at the first they spring,
Are tender, and soft bark'd on euery side;
But as they grow continuall stormes doe bring
Those are more hard which Northerne blasts abide:
What's toward the Southerne tenderer we finde,
And that more hard which feeles the Northern winde.
Nature his course
most carefully doth bend,
From violence to seeke it selfe to arme;
Where raging blasts the trees would breake and rend,
There Nature striues to keepe her Plants from harme:
Where violence is vnto Nature strange,
Continuall custome there doth Nature change.
So 'tis with women,
who by Nature milde,
If they on froward crabbed Husbands light;
Continuall rage by custome makes them wilde,
For crooked natures alter gentle quite;
Men euermore shall this in triall finde,
Like to her vsage so is womans minde.
As of themselues,
let men of others iudge,
What man will yeeld to be compel'd by rage?
At crabbednesse and crustnesse hearts doe grudge,
And to resist, themselues they more engage:
Forbeare the Winde, shine with the Sunne
Though she be angry she will forthwith smile.
This is the true application of the Morrall. As
that crookednesse and frowardnesse with which you
charge women, looke from whence they haue it; for
of themselues and their owne disposition it doth not
proceede, which is prooued, directly by your owne testimonie: for in
your 45. Page, Line 15. You say, A
young woman of tender yeares is flexible, obedient, and
subiect to doe any thing, according to the will and pleasure
of her Husband. How commeth it then that this
gentle and milde disposition is afterwards altered? your
selfe doth giue the true reason, for you giue a great
charge not to marrie a widdow. But why? because
say you in the same Page, A widdow is framed to the
conditions of another man. Why then, if a woman
haue froward conditions, they be none of her owne,
she was framed to them. Is not our aduersarie
ashamed of himselfe to raile against women for those
faults which doe all come from men? Doth not hee
most grieuously charge men to learne their wiues
bad and corrupt behauiour? for hee saith plainely, Thou must
vnlearne a widdow, and make her forget and
forgoe her former corrupt & disordered behauiour. Thou
must vnlearne her, Ergo, what fault shee hath, shee
learned, her corruptnes commeth not from her own
disposition, but from her Husbands destruction. Is it
not a wonder, that your Pamphlets are so
dispersed? Are they not wise men to cast away time and
money vpon a Booke which cutteth their owne
throates? 'Tis pittie but that men should reward
you for your writing; if it bee but as the Romane Sartorious did
the idle Poet, hee gaue him a reward,
but not for his writing, but because he should neuer
write more; as for women, they laugh that men haue no more able a
champion. This author commeth to
baite women, or as hee foolishly sayth, the Beare
bayting of Women, and he bringeth but a mungrell
Curre, who doth his kinde to braule and barke, but
cannot bite. The milde and flexible dispostion of
a woman is in philosophy proued in the composition
of her body, for it is a Maxime, Mores animi sequntur
temperaturam corporis, The disposition of the minde
is answerable to the temper of the body. A woman
in the temperature of her body is tender, soft, and
|Woman of her owne disposition gentle,
beautifull, so doth her disposition in minde corresponde accordingly;
she is milde, yeelding, and
vertuous; what disposition accidentally happeneth vnto
her, is by the contagion of a froward husband, as Ioseph Swetnam
|The disposition of the minde doth
answere the composition of the body.
May men complaine of women without cause?
And experience proueth. It is a shame for a man
to complaine of a froward woman, in many respects
all concerning himselfe. It is a shame he hath no more
gouernment ouer the weaker vessell. It is a shame he
hath hardned her tender sides, and gentle heart
with his boistrous & Northren blasts. It is a shame for
a man to publish and proclaime houshold secrets,
which is a common practise amongst men, especially
Drunkards Leachers, and prodigall spend-thrifts:
These when they come home drunke, or are called in
question for their riotous msidemeanours, they
presently shew themselues, the right children of Adam.
They will excuse themselues by their wiues, and say
that their vnquietnesse and frowardnesse at home,
is the cause that they run abroad. An excuse more
fitter for a beast then a man. If thou wert a man thou
wouldest take away the cause which vrgeth a woman
to griefe and discontent, and not by thy frowardnesse
encrease her distemperature: forbeare thy drinking,
thy luxurious riot, thy gaming, and spending, and
thou shalt haue thy wife giue thee as little cause at
home, as thou giuest her great cause of disquiet
abroad. Men which are men, if they chance to be
matched with froward wiues, either of their own making,
or others marring, they would make a benefit of the
discommodity, either try his skill to make her milde,
or exercise his patience to endure her curstnesse:
for all crosses are inflicted either for punishment of
sinnes, or for exercise of vertues; but humorous men
will sooner marre a thousand women, then out of an
hundred make one good.
And this shall apeare in the imputation which
our aduersarie chargeth vpon our sexe, to be lasciuious,
wanton and lustfull: He sayth, Women temp,
alure, and prouoke men. How rare a thing it is for
women to prostitute and offer themselues? how common
a practise is it for men to seeke and solicite women to lewdnesse? what
charge doe they spare? what
trauell doe they bestow? what vowes, oathes and
protestations doe they spend, to make them dishonest? They hyer
Pandors, they write letters, they seale
them with damnations, and execrations, to assure
them of loue, when the end proues but lust: They
know the flexible disposition of Women and the
sooner to ouerreach them, some will pretend they are
so plunged in loue that except they obtaine their
desire they will seeme to drown'd, hang, stab,
poyson,or banish themselues from friends and countrie:
What motiues are these to tender dispositions? Some
will pretend marriage, another offer continuall
maintenance, but when they haue obtained their
purpose, what shall a woman finde, iust that which
is her euerlasting shame and griefe, shee hath made
her selfe the vnhappie subiect to a lustfull bodie; and
the shamefull stall of a lasciuious tongue. Men may
with foule shame charge women with this sinne
which they had neuer committed if shee had not
trusted, nor had euer trusted if shee had not beene
deceiued with vowes, oathes, and protestations. To
bring a woman to offend in one sinne, how many
damnable sinnes doe they commit? I appeale to their
owne consciences. The lewd disposition of sundry men doth appeare in
this; If a woman or maide will
yeeld vnto lewdnesse, what shall they want? But if
they would liue in honestie, what helpe shall they
haue? How much will they make of the lewd? how
base account of the honest? how many pounds will they
spend in bawdie
houses? but when will they
bestowe a penny vpon an honest maide or woman,
except it be to corrupt them?
Our aduersary bringeth many examples of men
which haue beene ouerthrowne by women. It is
answered, before the fault is their owne. But I would
haue him, or any one liuing, to shew any woman
that offended in this sinne of lust, but that she was first sollicited
by a man.
|Shew a womans offence, but that man
was the beginner.
Helen was the cause of Troyes
burning; first, Paris did sollicite her, next, how many knaues
and fooles of
the male kinde had Troy, which to maintaine whoredome
would bring their Citie to confusion.
When you bring in examples of lewd women,
and of men which haue beene stained by women, you
shew your selfe both franticke, and a prophane
irreligious foole to mention Iudith for cutting off Holofernes
head, in that rancke.
You challenge women for vntamed and vnbridled
tongues, there was neuer woman was euer noted
for so shamelesse, so brutish, so beastly a scold as you proue your
selfe in this base and odious Pamphlet:
You blaspheme God, you raile at his Creation, you abuse and slander his
Creatures; and what immodest
or impudent scurilitie is it, which you doe not
expresse in this lewd and lying Pamphlet?
Hitherto I haue so answered all your obiections
against Women, that as I haue not defended the wickednesse of any; so I
haue set downe the true state of
the question, As Eue did not offend without the
temptation of a Serpent; so women doe seldome
offend, but it is by prouocation of men. Let not
your impudencie, nor your consorts dishonestie,
charge our sexe hereafter, with those sinnes of which
you yourselues were the first procurers. I haue in
my discourse, touched you, and all yours, to the
quick. I haue taxed you with bitter speaches; you
will (perhaps) say I am a rayling scold. In this obiection, Ioseph
Swetnam, I will teach you both wit and
honestie: The difference betwixt a railing scold, and
and an honest accuser, is this, the first rageth vpon
passionate furie, without bringing cause or proofe;
the other bringeth direct proofe for what she alleageth:
you charge women with clamorous words, and
bring no proofe; I charge you with blasphemie, with
impudencie, scurilitie, foolery, and the like. I shew
iust and direct proofe for what I say; it is not my
desire to speake so much, it is your desert to prouoke
me vpon iust cause so farre; it is no railing to call
a Crow blacke, or a Wolfe a rauenour, or a
drunkard a beast; the report of the truth is neuer to be
blamed, the deseruer of such a report, deserueth the
|A difference betwixt accusing and
Now, for this time, to draw to an end; let me aske
according to the question of Cassian, Cui bono? what
haue you gotten by publishing your Pamphlet; good
I know you can get none. You haue (perhaps)
pleased the humors of some giddy, idle conceited
persons: But you haue died your selfe in the colours
of shame, lying, slandering, blasphemie, ignorance,
and the like.
The shortnesse of time and the weight of
businesse call me away, and vrge me to leaue off
thus abruptly, but assure your selfe where I leaue now, I
will by Gods grace supply the next Terme, to your
small content. You haue exceeded in your furie
against Widdowes, whose defence you shall heare of
at the time aforesaide, in the meane space recollect
your wits, write out of deliberation, not out of furie;
write out of aduice, not out of idlenesse; forbeare to charge women
with faults which come from the
contagion of Masculine serpents.
Women, against the Author
of the Arraignment of Women.
C H A P.
idle companion was raging of late,
Who in furie 'gainst Women expresseth his hate:
Hee writeth a Booke, an Arraignment he calleth,
In which against women he currishly bawleth.
He deserueth no answere but in Ballat or Ryme,
Vpon idle fantastickes who would cast away time:
Any answere may serue an impudent lyar,
Any mangie scab'd horse doth fit a scal'd Squire:
In the ruffe of his furie, for so himselfe saith,
The blasphemous companion he shamefully playeth.
The woman for an Helper, God did make he doth say,
But to Helpe to consume and spend all away.
Thus, at Gods creation to flout and to iest,
Who but an Atheist would so play the beast?
The Scriptures doe proue that when Adam did fall,
And to death and damnation was thereby a thrall.
Then woman was an Helper, for by her blessed seed,
From Hell and damnation all mankinde was freed.
He saith, women are froward, which the rib doth declare,
For like as the Rib, so they crooked are:
The Rib was her Subiect for body we finde,
But from God came her Soule, and dispose of her minde.
Let no man think much if women compare,
That in their creation they much better are:
More blessings therein to women doe fall,
Then vnto mankinde haue been giuen at all.
Women were the last worke, and therefore the best,
For what was the end, excelleth the rest.
For womans more honour, it was so assign'd,
She was made of the rib of mettall refin'd:
The Countrey doth also the woman more grace,
For Paradice is farre the more excellent place.
Yet women are mischieuous, this Author doth say,
But Scriptures to that directly say nay:
God said, 'twixt the Woman and Serpent for euer,
Strong hatred he would put, to be qualified neuer.
The woman being hatefull to the Sepents condition,
How excellent is she in her disposition?
The Serpent with men in their workes may agree,
But the Serpent with women that neuer may be.
If you aske how it happens some women proue naught,
By men turn'd to Serpents they are ouer wrought.
What the Serpent began, men follow that still,
They temp what they may to make women doe ill.
They will temp, and prouoke, and follow vs long:
They deceiue vs with oathes, and a flattering tongue.
To make a poore Maiden or woman a whore,
They care not how much they spend of their store.
But where is there a man that will anything giue
That woman or maide may with honestie liue?
If they yeeld to lewd counsell they nothing shall want,
But for to be honest, then all things are scant.
It proues a bad nature in men doth remaine.
To make women lewd their purses they straine.
For a woman that's honest they care not a whit,
Theyle say she is honest because she lackes wit.
Theyle call women whores, but their stakes they might saue,
There can be no Whore, but there must be a Knaue.
They say that our dressings, and that our attire
Are causes to moue them to lustfull fire.
Of all things which are we euermore finde,
Such thoughts doe arise as are like to the minde.
Mens thoughts being wicked they wracke on vs thus,
That scandall is taken, not giuen by vs.
If their sight be so weake, and their frailtie be such,
Why doe they then gaze at our beauty so much?
Plucke away those ill roots whence sinne doth arise,
Amend wicked thoughts, or plucke out the eyes.
The humors of men, see how froward they bee;
We know not to please them in any degree:
For if we goe plaine we are sluts they doe say,
They doubt of our honesty if we goe gay;
If we be honest and merrie, for giglots they take vs,
If modest and sober, then proud they doe make vs:
Be we housewifly quicke, then a shrew he doth keepe,
If patient and milde, then he scorneth a sheepe.
What can we deuise to doe or to say,
But men doe wrest all things the contrary way.
'Tis not so vncertaine to follow the winde,
As to seeke to please men of so humerous minde.
Their humors are giddy, and neuer long lasting,
We know not to please them, neither full nor yet fasting.
Either we doe too little, or they doe too much:
They straine our poore wits, their humors are such.
They say, women are proud, wherein made they triall?
They moou'd some lewd suit, and had the deniall:
To be crost in such suites, men cannot abide,
And therupon we are entitled with pride.
They say we are curst and froward by kinde,
Our mildnesse is vnchanged, where raging we finde,
A good Iacke sayes the prouerbe, doth make a good Gill,
A curst froward Husband doth change woman's will.
They vse vs (they say) as necessary euils,
We haue it from them, for they are our deuils.
When they are in their rages and humerous fits,
They put vs poore women halfe out of our wits.
Of all naughty women name one if you can,
If she be prou'd bad, it came by a man.
Faire Helen forsooke her husband of Greece,
A man called Paris, betrayed that peece.
Medea did rage, and did shamefully murther,
A Iason was cause, which her mischiefe did further.
A Cresside was false, and changed her loue,
Diomedes her heart by constraint did remoue.
In all like examples the world may see,
Where women proue bad, there men are not free.
But in those offences they haue the most share,
Women would be good, if Serpents would but spare.
Let Women and Maides whatsoeuer they be,
Come follow my counsell, be warned by me.
Trust not mens suites, their loue proueth lust,
Both hearts, tongues and pens, doe all proue uniust.
How farre they will speake and write in their loue,
But put them to tryall how false doe they proue?
They loue hot at first, when loue is a stranger,
But they will not be tied to racke and to manger.
What loue call you that when men are a wooing,
And seeke nothing else but shame and undoing.
As women in their faults I doe not commend,
So with I all men their lewd faultes they would end.
Let women alone, and seeke not their shame,
You shall haue no cuse then women to blame,
'Tis like that this Author against such doth bawle,
Who by his temptations haue gotten a fall:
For he who of women so wickedly deemeth,
Hath made them dishonest, it probably seemeth.
He hath beene a Traueller, it may be well so,
By his tales and reports as much we doe know.
He promiseth more poyson against women to thrust,
He doth it for phisicke, or else he would brust.
Thus I bid him farewell till next we doe meete,
And then as cause moueth, so shall we greete.
I O A N E S H A R P.
Page 33. Line 1.
for cary, read curry. p.36.l.30 for sincerity
p.38.l.28. for something, r. any thing. Ibid. for countrey,
r. counter. p.40.
l.5. for contempt, r. contention.