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The Scholemaster (1570)

Roger Ascham (1515-1568)

Book I   |   Book II

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Note on the e-text: this Renascence Editions text was edited in 1998 by Judy Boss of Omaha, Nebraska. Content unique to this presentation is copyright © 1998 The University of Oregon. For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher.

Note (from the ASCII version): I have omitted signature designations, have transcribed Greek characters, and have expanded the usual Renaissance contractions for "m" and "n"; marginalia are separated from textual line by // and a curly bracket vertically extending over more than one line is represented by a curly bracket on each successive line; long vertical lines extending over more than one line are also indicated by a vertical line on each successive line of text. -- Judy Boss.




Or plaine and perfite way of tea-
chyng children, to vnderstand, write, and
speake, the Latin tong, but specially purposed
for the priuate brynging vp of youth in Ientle-
men and Noble mens houses, and commodious
also for all such, as haue forgot the Latin
tonge, and would, by themselues, with-
out a Scholemaster, in short tyme,
and with small paines, recouer a
sufficient habilitie, to vnder-
stand, write, and
speake Latin.

By Roger Ascham.

An. 1570.

Printed by Iohn Daye, dwelling
ouer Aldersgate.

Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Regiæ Maiestatis,
per Decennium.


To the honorable Sir William

Cecill Knight, principall Secretarie to
the Quenes most excellent Maiestie.
SOndry and reasonable be the causes why learned men haue vsed to offer and dedicate such workes as they put abrode, to some such personage as they thinke fittest, either in respect of abilitie of defense, or skill for iugement, or priuate regard of kindenesse and dutie. Euery one of those considerations, Syr, moue me of right to offer this my late husbands M. Aschams worke vnto you. For well remembryng how much all good learnyng oweth vnto you for defense therof, as the Vniuersitie of Cambrige, of which my said late husband was a member, haue in chosing you their worthy Chaunceller acknowledged, and how happily you haue spent your time in such studies & caried the vse therof to the right ende, to the good seruice of the Quenes Maiestie and your contrey to all our benefites, thyrdly how much my sayd husband was many wayes bound vnto you, and how gladly and comfortably he vsed in hys lyfe to recognise and report your goodnesse toward hym, leauyng with me then hys poore widow and a great sort of orphanes a good comfort in the hope of your good continuance, which I haue truly found to me and myne, and therfore do duely and dayly pray for you and yours: I could not finde any man for whose name this booke was more agreable for hope [of] protection, more mete for submission to iudgement, nor more due for respect of worthynesse of your part and thankefulnesse of my husbandes and myne. Good I trust it shall do, as I am put in great hope by many very well learned that can well iudge therof. Mete therefore I compt it that such good as my husband was able to doe and leaue to the common weale, it should be receiued vnder your name, and that the world should owe thanke therof to you, to whom my husband the authour of it was for good receyued of you, most dutiefully bounden. And so besechyng you, to take on you the defense of this booke, to auaunce the good that may come of it by your allowance and furtherance to publike vse and benefite, and to accept the thankefull recognition of me and my poore
children, trustyng of the continuance of your good me-
morie of
M. Ascham and his, and dayly commen-
dyng the prosperous estate of you and yours to
God whom you serue and whoes you
are, I rest to trouble you.

Your humble Margaret


A Præface to the Reader.

WHen the great plage was at London, the yeare 1563. the Quenes Maiestie Queene Elizabeth, lay at her Castle of Windsore: Where, vpon the 10. day of December, it fortuned, that in Sir William Cicells chamber, hir Highnesse Principall Secretarie, there dined togither these personages, M. Secretarie him selfe, Syr William Peter, Syr J. Mason, D. Wotton, Syr Richard Sackuille Treasurer of the Exchecker, Syr Walter Mildmaye Chauncellor of the Exchecker, M. Haddon Master of Requestes, M. John Astely Master of the Iewell house, M. Bernard Hampton, M. Nicasius, and J. Of which number, the most part were of hir Maiesties most honourable priuie Counsell, and the reast seruing hir in verie good place. I was glad than, and do reioice yet to remember, that my chance was so happie, to be there that day, in the companie of so manie wise & good men togither, as hardly than could haue beene piked out againe, out of all England beside.
      M. Secretarie hath this accustomed maner, though his head be neuer so full of most weightie affaires of the Realme, yet, at diner time he doth seeme to lay them alwaies aside: and findeth euer fitte occasion to taulke pleasantlie of other matters, but most gladlie of some matter of learning: wherein, he will curteslie heare the minde of the meanest at his Table.
      Not long after our sitting doune, I haue strange newes brought me, sayth M. Secretarie, this morning, that diuerse Scholers of Eaton, be runne awaie from the Schole, for feare of beating. Whereupon, M. Secretarie tooke occasion, to wishe, that some
M. Secretarie.
more discretion were in many Scholemasters, in vsing correction, than commonlie there is. Who many times, punishe rather, the weakenes of nature, than the fault of the Scholer. Whereby, many Scholers, that might else proue well, be driuen to hate learning, before they knowe, what learning meaneth: and so, are made willing to forsake their booke, and be glad to be put to any other kinde of liuing.
      M. Peter, as one somewhat seuere of nature, said plainlie, that the Rodde onelie, was the sworde, that must
M. Peter.
M. Wotton.

Ludus literarum.

Plato Rep. 7.

M. Mason.

M. Haddon.

The Author of this booke.

keepe, the Schole in obedience, and the Scholer in good order. M. Wotton, á man milde of nature, with soft voice, and fewe wordes, inclined to M. Secretaries iudgement, and said, in mine opinion, the Scholehouse should be in deede, as it is called by name, the house of playe and pleasure, and not of feare and bondage: and as I do remember, so saith Socrates in one place of Plato. And therefore, if a Rodde carie the feare of à Sworde, it is no maruell, if those that be fearefull of nature, chose rather to forsake the Plaie, than to stand alwaies within the feare of a Sworde in a fonde mans handling. M. Mason, after his maner, was verie merie with both parties, pleasantlie playing, both, with the shrewde touches of many courste boyes, and with the small discretion of many leude Scholemasters. M. Haddon was fullie of M. Peters opinion, and said, that the best scholemaster of our time, was the greatest beater, and named the Person. Though, quoth I, it was his good fortune, to send from his Schole, vnto the Vniuersitie, one of the best Scholers in deede of all our time, yet wise men do thinke, that that came so to passe, rather, by the great towardnes of the Scholer, than by the great beating of the Master: and whether this be true or no, you your selfe are best witnes. I said somewhat farder in the matter, how, and whie, yong children, were soner allured by loue, than driuen by beating, to atteyne good learning: wherein I was the bolder to say my minde, bicause M. Secretarie curteslie prouoked me thereunto: or else, in such à companie, and namelie in his præsence, my wonte is, to be more willing, to vse mine eares, than to occupie my tonge. Syr Walter Mildmaye, M. Astley, and the rest, said verie litle: onelie Syr Rich. Sackuill, said nothing at all. After dinner I went vp to read with the Queenes Maiestie. We red than togither in the Greke tongue, as I well remember. that noble Oration of Demosthenes against Æschines, for his false dealing in his Ambassage to king Philip of Macedonie. Syr Rich. Sackuile came vp sone after: and
Demost. peri parapresb.

Syr R. Sackuiles communication with the Author of this booke.

finding me in hir Maiesties priuie chamber, he tooke me by the hand, & carying me to à windoe, said, M. Ascham, I would not for à good deale of monie, haue bene, this daie, absent from diner. Where, though I said nothing, yet I gaue as good eare, and do consider as well the taulke, that passed, as any one did there. M. Secretarie said very wisely, and most truely, that many yong wittes be driuen to hate learninge, before they know what learninge is. I can be good witnes to this my selfe: For à fond Scholemaster, before I was fullie fourtene yeare olde, draue me so, with feare of beating, from all loue of learninge, as nowe, when I know, what difference it is, to haue learninge, and to haue litle, or none at all, I feele it my greatest greife, and finde it my greatest hurte, that euer came to me, that it was my so ill chance, to light vpon so lewde à Scholemaster. But seing it is but in vain, to lament thinges paste, and also wisdome to looke to thinges to cum, surely, God willinge, if God lend me life, I will make this my mishap, some occasion of good hap, to litle Robert Sackuile my sonnes sonne. For whose bringinge vp, I would gladlie, if it so please you, vse speciallie your good aduice. I heare saie, you haue à sonne, moch of his age: we wil deale thus togither. Point you out à Scholemaster, who by your order, shall teache my sonne and yours, and for all the rest, I will prouide, yea though they three do cost me a couple of hundred poundes by yeare: and beside, you shall finde me as fast à Frend to you and yours, as perchance any you haue. Which promise, the worthie Ientleman surelie kept with me, vntill his dying daye.
      We had than farther taulke togither, of bringing vp of children: of the nature, of quicke, and hard wittes: of the right choice of à good witte: of Feare, and loue in teachinge children. We passed from
Thr chiefe pointes of this booke.
children and came to yonge men, namely, Ientlemen: we taulked of their to moch libertie, to liue as they lust: of their letting louse to sone, to ouer moch experience of ill, contrarie to the good order of many good olde common welthes of the Persians and Grekes: of witte gathered, and good fortune gotten, by some, onely by experience, without learning. And lastlie, he required of me verie earnestlie, to shewe, what I thought of the common goinge of Englishe men into Italie. But, sayth he, bicause this place, and this tyme, will not suffer so long taulke, as these good matters require, therefore I pray you, at my request, and at your leysure, put in some order of writing, the cheife pointes of this our taulke, concerning the right order of teachinge, and honestie of liuing, for the good bringing vp of children& yong men. And surelie, beside contentinge me, you shall both please and profit verie many others. I made some excuse by lacke of habilitie, and weakenes of bodie: well, sayth he, I am not now to learne, what you can do. Our deare frende, good M. Goodricke, whose iudgement I could well beleue, did once for all, satisfye me fullie therein. Againe, I heard you say, not long agoe, that you may thanke Syr John Cheke, for all the learninge you haue: And I know verie well my selfe, that you did teach the Quene. And therefore seing God did so blesse you, to make you the Scholer of the best Master, and also the Scholemaster of the best Scholer, that euer were in our tyme, surelie, you should please God, benefite your countrie, & honest your owne name, if you would take the paines, to impart to others, what you learned of soch à Master, and how ye taught suchà scholer. And, in vttering the stuffe ye receiued of the one, in declaring the order ye tooke with the other, ye shall neuer lacke, neither matter, nor maner, what to write, nor how to write in this kinde of Argument.
      I beginning some farther excuse, sodeinlie was called to cum to the Queene. The night following, I slept litle, my head was so full of this our former taulke, and I so mindefull, somewhat to satisfie the honest request of so deare à frend, I thought to præpare some litle treatise for a New yeares gift that Christmas. But, as it chanceth to busie builders, so, in building thys my poore Scholehouse (the rather bicause the forme of it is somewhat new, and differing from others) the worke rose dailie higher and wider, than I thought it would at the beginninge.
      And though it appeare now, and be in verie deede, but a small cotage, poore for the stuffe, and rude for the workemanship, yet in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was lothe to giue it ouer, but the making so costlie, outreaching my habilitie, as many tymes I wished, that some one of those three, my deare frendes, with full pursses, Syr Tho. Smithe, M. Haddon, or M. Watson, had had the doing of it. Yet, neuerthelesse, I my selfe, spending gladlie
M. Smith. Haddon Watson. Syr I. Cheke. I. Sturmius. Plato. Aristotle. Cicero.

Syr R. Sackuill.

that litle, that I gatte at home by good Syr Iohn Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my frend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me in Reuersion by my olde Masters, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero, I haue at last patched it vp, as I could, and as you see. If the matter be meane, and meanly handled, I pray you beare, both with me, and it: for neuer worke went vp in worse wether, with mo lettes and stoppes, than this poore Scholehouse of mine. Westminster Hall can beare some witnesse, beside moch weakenes of bodie, but more trouble of minde, by some such sores, as greue me to toche them my selfe, and therefore I purpose not to open them to others. And, in middes of outward iniuries, and inward cares, to encrease them withall, good Syr Rich. Sackuile dieth, that worthie Ientleman: That earnest fauorer and furtherer of Gods true Religion: That faithfull Seruitor to his Prince and Countrie: A louer of learning, & all learned men: Wise in all doinges: Curtesse to all persons: shewing spite to none: doing good to many: and as I well found, to me so fast à frend, as I neuer lost the like before. Whan he was gone, my hart was dead. There was not one, that woare à blacke gowne for him, who caried à heuier hart for him, than I. Whan he was gone, I cast this booke àwaie: I could not looke vpon it, but with weping eyes, in remembring him, who was the onelie setter on, to do it, and would haue bene, not onelie à glad commender of it, but also à sure and certaine comfort, to me and mine, for it. Almost two yeares togither, this booke lay scattered, and neglected, and had bene quite giuen ouer of me, if the goodnesse of one had not giuen me some life and spirite againe. God, the mouer of goodnesse, prosper alwaies him & his, as he hath many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall comfort more and more. Of whom, most iustlie I may saie, and verie oft, and alwaies gladlie, I am wont to say, that sweete verse of Sophocles, spoken by Oedipus to worthie Theseus.

    echo [gar] acho dia se, kouk allon broton.
Soph. in Oed. Col.


Plato in initio Theagis. ou gar esti peri otou theioterou anthropos an bouleusaito, e peri paideias, kai ton auton, kai ton oikeion.

Thys hope hath helped me to end this booke: which, if he allowe, I shall thinke my labours well imployed, and shall not moch æsteme the misliking of any others. And I trust, he shall thinke the better of it, bicause he shall finde the best part thereof, to cum out of his Schole, whom he, of all men loued and liked best.
      Yet some men, frendly enough of nature, but of small iudgement in learninge, do thinke, I take to moch paines, and spend to moch time, in settinge forth these childrens affaires. But those good men were neuer brought vp in Socrates Schole, who saith plainlie, that no man goeth àbout à more godlie purpose, than he that is mindfull of the good bringing vp, both of hys owne, and other mens children.
      Therfore, I trust, good and wise men, will thinke well of this my doing. And of other, that thinke otherwise, I will thinke my selfe, they are but men, to be pardoned for their follie, and pitied for their ignoraunce.
      In writing this booke, I haue had earnest respecte to three speciall pointes, trothe of Religion, honestie in liuing, right order in learning. In which three waies, I praie God, my poore children may diligently waulke: for whose sake, as nature moued, and reason required, and necessitie also somewhat compelled, I was the willinger to take these paines.
      For, seing at my death, I am not like to leaue them any great store of liuing, therefore in my life time, I thought good to bequeath vnto them, in this litle booke, as in my Will and Testament, the right waie to good learning: which if they followe, with the feare of God, they shall verie well cum to sufficiencie of liuinge.
      I wishe also, with all my hart, that yong M. Rob. Sackuille, may take that fructe of this labor, that his worthie Grauntfather purposed he should haue done: And if any other do take, either proffet, or pleasure hereby, they haue cause to thanke M. Robert Sackuille, for whom speciallie this my Scholemaster was prouided.
      And one thing I would haue the Reader consider in readinge this booke, that bicause, no Scholemaster hath charge of any childe, before he enter into hys Schole, therefore I leauing all former care, of their good bringing vp, to wise and good Parentes, as à matter not belonging to the Scholemaster, I do appoynt thys my Scholemaster, than, and there to begin, where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth not long, but vntill the Scholer be made hable to go to the Vniuersitie, to procede in Logike, Rhetoricke, and other kindes of learning.
Yet if my Scholemaster, for loue he beareth to hys
Scholer, shall teach hym somewhat for hys furtherance,
and better iudgement in learning, that may serue
him seuen yeare after in the Vniuersitie, he
doth hys Scholer no more wrong, nor de-
serueth no worse name therby, than he
doth in London, who sellinge silke
or cloth vnto his frend, doth
giue hym better measure,
than either hys pro-
mise or bargaine

Farewell in Christ.


The first booke for the youth.

AFter the childe hath learned perfitlie the eight partes of speach, let him then learne the right ioyning togither of substantiues with adiectiues, the nowne with the verbe, the relatiue with the antecedent. And in learninge farther hys Syntaxis, by mine aduice, he shall not vse the common order in common scholes, for making of latines: wherby, the childe commonlie learneth, first, an euill choice of wordes, (and right choice of wordes, saith Cæsar, is the
Cic. de Cla. or.

Making of Lattines marreth Children.


foundation of eloquence) than, a wrong placing of wordes: and lastlie, an ill framing of the sentence, with a peruerse iudgement, both of wordes and sentences. These faultes, taking once roote in yougthe, be neuer, or hardlie, pluckt away in age. Moreouer, there is no one thing, that hath more, either dulled the wittes, or taken awaye the will of children from learning, then the care they haue, to satisfie their masters, in making of latines.
      For, the scholer, is commonlie beat for the making, when the master were more worthie to be beat for the mending, or rather, marring of the same: The master many times, being as ignorant as the childe, what to saie properlie and fitlie to the matter.
      Two scholemasters haue set forth in print, either of them a booke, of soch kinde of latines, Horman and Whittington. A childe shall learne of the better of them, that, which an other daie, if he be wise, and cum to iudgement, he must be faine to vnlearne againe.
      There is a waie, touched in the first booke of Cicero De Oratore, which, wiselie brought into scholes, truely taught, and constantly vsed, would not onely take wholly away this butcherlie feare in making of latines, but would also, with ease and pleasure, and in short time, as I know by good experience, worke a true choice and placing of wordes, a right ordering of sentences, an easie vnderstandyng of the tonge, a readines to speake, a facultie to
1. De Or.

The order of teaching.

Two paper bokes.

Children learne by prayse.

write, a true iudgement, both of his owne, and other mens doinges, what tonge so euer he doth vse.
      The waie is this. After the three Concordances learned, as I touched before, let the master read vnto hym the Epistles of Cicero, gathered togither and chosen out by Sturmius, for the capacitie of children.
      First, let him teach the childe, cherefullie and plainlie, the cause, and matter of the letter: then, let him construe it into Englishe, so oft, as the childe may easilie carie awaie the vnderstanding of it: Lastlie, parse it ouer perfitlie. This done thus, let the childe, by and by, both construe and parse it ouer againe: so, that it may appeare, that the childe douteth in nothing, that his master taught him before. After this, the childe must take a paper booke, and sitting in some place, where no man shall prompe him, by him self, let him translate into Englishe his former lesson. Then shewing it to his master, let the master take from him his latin booke, and pausing an houre, at the least, than let the childe translate his owne Englishe into latin againe, in an other paper booke. When the childe bringeth it, turned into latin, the master must compare it with Tullies booke, and laie them both togither: and where the childe doth well, either in chosing, or true placing of Tullies wordes, let the master praise him, and saie here ye do well. For I assure you, there is no such whetstone, to sharpen a good witte and encourage a will to learninge, as is praise.
      But if the childe misse, either in forgetting a worde, or in chaunging a good with a worse, or misordering the sentence, I would not haue the master, either froune, or chide with him, if the childe haue done his diligence, and vsed no trewandship therein. For I know by good experience, that a childe shall take more profit of two fautes, ientlie warned of, then of foure thinges, rightly hitt. For than, the
Ientlenes in teaching.
master shall haue good occasion to saie vnto him. N. Tullie would haue vsed such a worde, not this: Tullie would haue placed this word here, not there: would haue vsed this case, this number, this person, this degree, this gender: he would haue vsed this moode, this tens, this simple, rather than this compound: this aduerbe here, not there: he would haue ended the sentence with this verbe, not with that nowne or participle, etc.
      In these fewe lines, I haue wrapped vp, the most tedious part of Grammer: and also the ground of almost all the Rewles, that are so busilie taught by the Master, and so hardlie learned by the Scholer, in all common Scholes: which after this sort, the master shall teach without all error, and the scholer shall learne without great paine: the master being led by so sure a guide, and the scholer being brought into so plaine and easie a waie. And therefore, we do not contemne Rewles, but we gladlie teach Rewles: and teach them, more plainlie, sensiblie, and orderlie, than they be commonlie taught in common Scholes. For whan the Master shall compare Tullies booke with his Scholers translation, let the Master, at the first, lead and teach his Scholer, to ioyne the Rewles of his Grammer booke, with the examples of his present lesson, vntill the Scholer, by him selfe, be hable to fetch out of his Grammer, euerie Rewle, for euerie Example: So, as the Grammer booke be euer in the Scholers hand, and also vsed of him, as a Dictionarie, for euerie present vse. This is a liuely and perfite waie of teaching of Rewles: where the common waie, vsed in common Scholes, to read the Grammer alone by it selfe, is tedious for the Master, hard for the Scholer, colde and vncumfortable for them bothe.
      Let your Scholer be neuer afraide, to aske you any dout, but vse discretlie the best allurements ye can, to encorage him to the same: lest, his ouermoch fearinge of you, driue him to seeke some misorderlie shifte: as, to seeke to be helped by some other booke, or to be prompted by some other Scholer, and so goe aboute to begile you moch, and him selfe more.
      With this waie, of good vnderstanding the mater, plaine construinge, diligent parsinge, dailie translatinge, cherefull admonishinge, and heedefull amendinge of faultes: neuer leauinge behinde iuste praise for well doinge, I would haue the Scholer brought vp withall, till he had red, & translated ouer ye first booke of Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, with a good peece of a Comedie of Terence also.
      All this while, by mine aduise, the childe shall vse to speake no latine: For, as Cicero saith in like mater, with like wordes,
Latin speakyng.
G. Budæus.
loquendo, male loqui discunt. And, that excellent learned man, G. Budæus, in his Greeke Commentaries, sore complaineth, that whan he began to learne the latin tonge, vse of speaking latin at the table, and elsewhere, vnaduisedlie, did bring him to soch an euill choice of wordes, to soch a crooked framing of sentences, that no one thing did hurt or hinder him more, all the daies of his life afterward, both for redinesse in speaking, and also good iudgement in writinge.
      In very deede, if children were brought vp, in soch a house, or soch a Schole, where the latin tonge were properlie and perfitlie spoken, as Tib. and Ca. Gracci were brought vp, in their mother Cornelias house, surelie, than the dailie vse of speaking, were the best and readiest waie, to learne the latin tong. But, now, commonlie, in the best Scholes in England, for wordes, right choice is smallie regarded, true proprietie whollie neglected, confusion is brought in, barbariousnesse is bred vp so in yong wittes, as afterward they be, not onelie marde for speaking, but also corrupted in iudgement: as with moch adoe, or neuer at all, they be brought to right frame againe.
      Yet all men couet to haue their children speake latin: and so do I verie earnestlie too. We bothe, haue one purpose: we agree in desire, we wish one end: but we differ somewhat in order and waie, that leadeth rightlie to that end. Other would haue them speake at all aduentures: and, so they be speakinge, to speake, the Master careth not, the Scholer knoweth not, what. This is, to seeme, and not to bee: except it be, to be bolde without shame, rashe without skill, full of words without witte. I wish to haue them speake so, as it may well appeare, that the braine doth gouerne the tonge, and that reason leadeth forth the taulke. Socrates doctrine is true in Plato, and well marked, and truely vttered by Horace in Arte Poetica, that, where so euer knowledge doth accompanie the witte, there best vtterance doth alwaies awaite vpon the tonge: For, good vnderstanding must first be bred

Much writyng breedeth ready speakyng.

The second degree and order in teachyng.

in the childe, which, being nurished with skill, and vse of writing (as I will teach more largelie hereafter) is the onelie waie to bring him to iudgement and readinesse in speakinge: and that in farre shorter time (if he followe constantlie the trade of this litle lesson) than he shall do, by common teachinge of the common scholes in England.
      But, to go forward, as you perceiue, your scholer to goe better and better on awaie, first, with vnderstanding his lesson more quicklie, with parsing more readelie, with translating more spedelie and perfitlie then he was wonte, after, giue him longer lessons to translate: and withall, begin to teach him, both in nownes, & verbes, what is Proprium, and what is Translatum, what Synonymum, what Diuersum, which be Contraria, and which be most notable Phrases in all his lecture







{Rex Sepultus est

{Cum illo principe,
{Sepulta est & gloria
{et Salus Reipublicæ.

{Ensis, Gladius.
{Laudare, prædicare.

{Diligere, Amare.
{Calere, Exardescere.
{Inimicus, Hostis.

{Acerbum & luctuosum
{ bellum.
{Dulcis & lœta
{ Pax.

{Dare verba.
{abjicere obedientiam.

      Your scholer then, must haue the third paper booke: in
The thyrd paper boke.
the which, after he hath done his double translation, let him write, after this sort foure of these forenamed sixe, diligentlie marked out of eurie lesson.

Quatuor. {Propria.

Or else, three, or two, if there be no moe: and if there be none of these at all in some lecture, yet not omitte the order, but write these.

{Diuersa nulla.
{Contraria nulla. etc.

      This diligent translating, ioyned with this heedefull marking, in the foresaid Epistles, and afterwarde in some plaine Oration of Tullie, as, pro lege Manil: pro Archia Poeta, or in those three ad C. Cæs: shall worke soch a right choise of wordes, so streight a framing of sentences, soch a true iudgement, both to write skilfullie, and speake wittlelie, as wise men shall both praise, and maruell at.
      If your scholer do misse sometimes, in marking rightlie these foresaid sixe thinges, chide not hastelie: for that shall, both dull his witte, and discorage his diligence: but monish him gentelie: which shall make him, both willing to amende, and glad to go forward in loue and hope of learning.
      I haue now wished, twise or thrise, this gentle nature, to be in a Scholemaster: And, that I haue done so, neither by chance, nor without some reason, I will now declare at large, why, in mine opinion, loue is
Ientlenes in teaching.


Common Scholes.

fitter than feare, ientlenes better than beating, to bring vp a childe rightlie in learninge.
      With the common vse of teaching and beating in common scholes of England, I will not greatlie contend: which if I did, it were but a small grammatical controuersie, neither belonging to heresie nor treason, nor greatly touching God nor the Prince: although in very deede, in the end, the good or ill bringing vp of children, doth as much serue to the good or ill seruice, of God, our Prince, and our whole countrie, as any one thing doth beside.
      I do gladlie agree with all good Scholemasters in these pointes: to haue children brought to good perfitnes in learning: to all honestie in maners: to haue all fautes rightlie amended: to haue euerie vice seuerelie corrected: but for the order and waie that leadeth rightlie to these pointes, we somewhat differ. For commonlie, many scholemasters, some, as I haue seen, moe, as I haue heard tell, be of so crooked a nature, as, when they meete with a hard witted scholer, they rather breake him, than bowe him, rather marre him, then mend him. For whan the scholemaster is angrie with some other matter, then will he sonest faul to beate his scholer: and though he him selfe should be punished for his folie, yet must he beate some scholer for his pleasure:
Sharpe Scholemasters.

Nature punished.

Quicke wittes for learnyng.

though there be no cause for him to do so, nor yet fault in the scholer to deserue so. These ye will say, be fond scholemasters, and fewe they be, that be found to be soch. They be fond in deede, but surelie ouermany soch be found euerie where. But this I will say, that euen the wisest of your great beaters, do as oft punishe nature, as they do correcte faultes. Yea, many times, the better nature, is sorer punished: For, if one, by quicknes of witte, take his lesson readelie, an other, by hardnes of witte, taketh it not so speedelie: the first is alwaies commended, the other is commonlie punished: whan a wise scholemaster, should rather discretelie consider the right disposition of both their natures, and not so moch wey what either of them is able to do now, as what either of them is likelie to do hereafter. For this I know, not onelie by reading of bookes in my studie, but also by experience of life, abrode in the world, that those, which be commonlie the wisest, the best learned, and best men also, when they be olde, were neuer commonlie the quickest of witte, when they were yonge. The causes why, amongst other, which be many, that moue me thus to thinke, be these fewe, which I will recken. Quicke wittes commonlie, be apte to take, vnapte to keepe: soone hote and desirous of this and that: as colde and sone wery of the same againe: more quicke to enter spedelie, than hable to pearse farre: euen like ouer sharpe tooles, whose edges be verie soone turned. Soch wittes delite them selues in easie and pleasant studies, and neuer passe farre forward in hie and hard sciences. And therefore the quickest wittes commonlie may proue the best Poetes, but not the wisest Orators: readie of tonge to speake boldlie, not deepe of iudgement, either for good counsell or wise writing. Also, for maners and life, quicke wittes commonlie, be, in desire, newfangle, in purpose, vnconstant, light to promise any thing, readie to forget euery thing: both benefite and inurie: and therby neither fast to frend, nor fearefull to foe:
Quicke wittes, for maners & lyfe.
inquisitiue of euery trifle, not secret in greatest affaires: bolde, with any person: busie, in euery matter: sothing, soch as be present: nipping any that is absent: of nature also, alwaies, flattering their betters, enuying their equals, despising their inferiors: and, by quicknes of witte, verie quicke and readie, to like none so well as them selues.
      Moreouer commonlie, men, very quicke of witte, be also, verie light of conditions: and thereby, very readie of disposition, to be caried ouer quicklie, by any light cumpanie, to any riot and vnthriftines when they be yonge: and therfore seldome, either honest of life, or riche in liuing, when they be olde. For, quicke in witte, and light in maners, be either seldome troubled, or verie sone wery, in carying a verie heuie purse. Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, ouerquicke, hastie, rashe, headie, and brainsicke. These two last wordes, Headie, and Brainsicke, be fitte and proper wordes, rising naturallie of the matter, and tearmed aptlie by the condition of ouer moch quickenes of witte. In yougthe also they be, readie scoffers, priuie mockers, and euer ouer light and mery. In aige, sone testie, very waspishe, and alwaies ouer miserable: and yet fewe of them cum to any great aige, by reason of their misordered life when they were yong: but a great deale fewer of them cum to shewe any great countenance, or beare any great authoritie abrode in the world, but either liue obscurelie, men know not how, or dye obscurelie, men marke not whan. They be like trees, that shewe forth, faire blossoms & broad leaues in spring time, but bring out small and not long lasting fruite in haruest time: and that onelie soch, as fall, and rotte, before they be ripe, and so, neuer, or seldome, cum to any good at all. For this ye shall finde most true by experience, that amongest a number of quicke wittes in youthe, fewe be found, in the end, either verie fortunate for them selues, or verie profitable to serue the common wealth, but decay and vanish, men know not which way: except a very fewe, to whom peraduenture blood and happie parentage, may perchance purchace a long standing vpon the stage. The which felicitie, because it commeth by others procuring, not by their owne deseruinge, and stand by other mens feete, and not by their own, what owtward brag so euer is borne by them, is in deed, of it selfe, and in wise mens eyes, of no great estimation.
      Some wittes, moderate enough by nature, be many tymes marde by ouer moch studie and vse of some sciences, namelie, Musicke, Arithmetick, and Geometrie. Thies sciences, as they sharpen mens wittes ouer moch, so they change mens maners ouer sore, if they be not moderatlie mingled, & wiselie applied to som good vse of life. Marke all Mathe- maticall heades, which be onely and wholy bent to those sciences, how solitarie they be themselues, how vnfit to liue with others, & how vnapte to
Som sciences hurt mens wits, and mar mens maners.

Mathematicall heades.


Hard wits in learning.

serue in the world. This is not onelie knowen now by common experience, but vttered long before by wise mens Iudgement and sentence. Galene saith, moch Musick marreth mens maners: and Plato hath a notable place of the same thing in his bookes de Rep. well marked also, and excellentlie translated by Tullie himself. Of this matter, I wrote once more at large, XX. yeare a go, in my booke of shoting: now I thought but to touch it, to proue, that ouer moch quicknes of witte, either giuen by nature, or sharpened by studie, doth not commonlie bring forth, eyther greatest learning, best maners, or happiest life in the end.
      Contrariewise, a witte in youth, that is not ouer dulle, heauie, knottie and lumpishe, but hard, rough, and though somwhat staffishe, as Tullie wisheth otium, quietum, non languidum: and negotium cum labore, non cum periculo, such a witte I say, if it be, at the first well handled by the mother, and rightlie smothed and wrought as it should, not ouerwhartlie, and against the wood, by the scholemaster, both for learning, and hole course of liuing, proueth alwaies the best. In woode and stone, not the softest, but hardest, be alwaies aptest, for portrature, both fairest for pleasure, and most durable for proffit. Hard wittes be hard to receiue, but sure to keepe: painefull without werinesse, hedefull without wauering, constant without newfanglenes: bearing heauie thinges, thoughe not lightlie, yet willinglie: entring hard thinges, though not easelie, yet depelie, and so cum to that perfitnes of learning in the ende, that quicke wittes, seeme in hope, but do not in deede, or else verie seldome, euer attaine vnto. Also, for maners and life, hard wittes commonlie, ar hardlie caried, either to desire euerie new thing, or else to meruell at euery strange thinge: and therfore they be carefull and diligent in their own matters, not curious and busey in other mens affaires: and so, they becum wise them selues, and also ar counted honest by others. They be graue, stedfast, silent of tong, secret of hart. Not hastie in making, but constant in keping any promise.
Hard wits in maners and lyfe.

The best wittes driuen from learnyng, to other liuyng.

Not rashe in vttering, but ware in considering euery matter: and therby, not quicke in speaking, but deepe of iudgement, whether they write, or giue counsell in all waightie affaires. And theis be the men, that becum in the end, both most happie for themselues, and alwaise best estemed abrode in the world.
      I haue bene longer in describing, the nature, the good or ill successe, of the quicke and hard witte, than perchance som will thinke, this place and matter doth require. But my purpose was hereby, plainlie to vtter, what iniurie is offered to all learninge, & to the common welthe also, first, by the fond father in chosing, but chieflie by the lewd scholemaster in beating and driuing away the best natures from learning. A childe that is still, silent, constant, and somewhat hard of witte, is either neuer chosen by the father to be made a scholer, or else, when he commeth to the schole, he is smally regarded, little looked vnto, he lacketh teaching, he lacketh coraging, he lacketh all thinges, onelie he neuer lacketh beating, nor any word, that may moue him to hate learninge, nor any deed that may driue him from learning, to any other kinde of liuing.
      And when this sadde natured, and hard witted child, is bette from his booke, and becummeth after eyther student of the common lawe, or page in the Court, or seruingman, or bound prentice to a merchant,
Hard wits proue best in euery kynde of life.

The ill choice of wittes for learnyng.

or to som handiecrafte, he proueth in the ende, wiser, happier and many tymes honester too, than many of theis quick wittes do, by their learninge.
      Learning is, both hindred and iniured to, by the ill choice of them, that send yong scholers to the vniuersities. Of whom must nedes cum all our Diuines, Lawyers, and Physicions.
      Thies yong scholers be chosen commonlie, as yong apples be chosen by children, in a faire garden about S. Iames tyde: a childe will chose a sweeting, because it is presentlie faire and pleasant, and refuse a Runnet, because it is than grene, hard, and sowre, whan the one, if it be eaten, doth breed, both wormes and ill humors: the other if it stand his tyme, be ordered and kepte as it should, is holsom of it self, and helpeth to the good digestion of other meates: Sweetinges, will receyue wormes, rotte, and dye on the tree, and neuer or seldom cum to the gathering for good and lasting store.
      For verie greafe of harte I will not applie the similitude: but hereby, is plainlie seen, how learning is robbed of hir best wittes, first by the great beating, and after by the ill chosing of scholers, to go to the vniuersities. Whereof cummeth partelie, that lewde and spitefull prouerbe, sounding to the greate hurte of learning, and shame of learned men, that, the greatest Clerkes be not the wisest men.
      And though I, in all this discourse, seem plainlie to prefer, hard and roughe wittes, before quicke and light wittes, both for learnyng and maners, yet am I not ignorant that som quicknes of witte, is a singuler gifte of God, and so most rare emonges men, and namelie such a witte, as is quicke without lightnes, sharpe without brittlenes, desirous of good thinges without newfanglenes, diligent in painfull thinges without werisomnes, and constant in good will to do all thinges well, as I know was in Syr Iohn Cheke, and is in som, that yet liue, in whome all theis faire qualities of witte ar fullie mette togither.
      But it is notable and trewe, that Socrates saith in Plato to his frende Crito. That, that number of men is fewest, which far excede, either in good or ill, in wisdom of folie, but the meane betwixt both, be the greatest number: which he proueth trewe in diuerse other thinges: as in greyhoundes, emonges which fewe are found, exceding greate, or exceding litle,
Plato inCritone.

Verie good, or verie ill men, be fewest in number.

Horsemen be wiser in knowledge of a good Colte, than scholemasters be, in knowledge of a good witte.

A good Rider better rewarded than a good Scholemaster.

Horse well broken, children ill taught.

Plato in 7. de Rep.

exceding swift, or exceding slowe: And therfore I speaking of quick and hard wittes, I ment, the common number of quicke and hard wittes, emonges the which, for the most parte, the hard witte, proueth manie times, the better learned, wiser and honester man: and therfore, do I the more lament, that soch wittes commonlie be either kepte from learning, by fond fathers, or bet from learning by lewde scholemasters.
      And speaking thus moche of the wittes of children for learning, the opportunitie of the place, and goodnes of the matter might require to haue here declared the most speciall notes of a good witte for learning in a childe, after the maner and custume of a good horsman, who is skilfull, to know, and hable to tell others, how by certein sure signes, a man may choise a colte, that is like to proue an other day, excellent for the saddle. And it is pitie, that commonlie, more care is had, yea and that emonges verie wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge man for their horse, than a cunnyng man for their children. They say nay in worde, but they do so in deede. For, to the one, they will gladlie giue a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and loth to offer to the other, 200. shillinges. God, that sitteth in heauen laugheth their choice to skorne, and rewardeth their liberalitie as it should: for he suffereth them, to haue, tame, and well ordered horse, but wilde and vnfortunate Children: and therfore in the ende they finde more pleasure in their horse, than comforte in their children.
      But concerning the trewe notes of the best wittes for learning in a childe, I will reporte, not myne own opinion, but the very iudgement of him, that was counted the best teacher and wisest man that learning maketh mention of, and that is Socrates in Plato, who expresseth orderlie thies seuen plaine notes to choise a good witte in a child for learninge.

Trewe notes of a good witte.               {1 Euphues.
{2 Mnemon.
{3 Philomathes.
{4 Philoponos.
{5 Philekoos.
{6 Zetetikos.
{7 Philepainos.

      And bicause I write English, and to Englishemen, I will plainlie declare in Englishe both, what thies wordes of Plato meane, and how aptlie they be linked, and how orderlie they folow one an other.

1. Euphues.
      Is he, that is apte by goodnes of witte, and appliable by readines of will, to learning, hauing all other qualities of the minde and partes of the bodie, that must an other day serue learning, not trobled,

The tong.

The voice.


Learnyng ioyned with a cumlie personage.

mangled, and halfed, but sounde, whole, full, & hable to do their office: as, a tong, not stamering, or ouer hardlie drawing forth wordes, but plaine, and redie to deliuer the meaning of the minde: a voice, not softe, weake, piping, wommanishe, but audible, stronge, and manlike: a countenance, not werishe and crabbed, but faire and cumlie: a personage, not wretched and deformed, but taule and goodlie for surelie, a cumlie countenance, with a goodlie stature, geueth credit to learning, and authoritie to the person: otherwise commonlie, either, open contempte, or priuie disfauour doth hurte, or hinder, both person and learning. And, euen as a faire stone requireth to be sette in the finest gold, with the best workmanshyp, or else it leseth moch of the Grace and price, euen so, excellencye in learning, and namely Diuinitie, ioyned with a cumlie personage, is a meruelous Iewell in the world. And how can a cumlie bodie be better employed, than to serue the fairest exercise of Goddes greatest gifte, and that is learning. But commonlie, the fairest bodies, ar bestowed on the foulest purposes. I would it were not so: and with examples herein I will not medle: yet I wishe, that those shold, both mynde it, & medle with it, which haue most occasion to looke to it, as good and wise fathers shold do, and greatest authoritie to amend it, as good & wise magistrates ought to do: And yet I will not let, openlie to lament the vnfortunate case of learning herein.
      For, if a father haue foure sonnes, three faire and well formed both mynde and bodie, the fourth, wretched, lame, and deformed, his choice shalbe, to put the worst to learning, as one good enoughe to becum a scholer. I haue spent the most parte of my life in the Vniuersitie, and therfore I can
Deformed creatures commonlie set to learnyng.


Aul. Gel.

Three sure signes of a good memorie.

beare good witnes that many fathers commonlie do thus: wherof, I haue hard many wise, learned, and as good men as euer I knew, make great, and oft complainte: a good horseman will choise no soch colte, neither for his own, nor yet for his masters sadle. And thus moch of the first note.

2 Mnemon.
      Good of memorie, a speciall parte of the first note euphues, and a mere benefite of nature: yet it is so necessarie for learning, as Plato maketh it a separate and perfite note of it selfe, and that so principall a note, as without it, all other giftes of nature do small seruice to learning. Afranius, that olde Latine Poete maketh Memorie the mother of learning and wisedome, saying thus.
      Vsus me genuit, Mater peperit memoria, and though it be the mere gifte of nature, yet is memorie well preserued by vse, and moch encreased by order, as our scholer must learne an other day in the Vniuersitie: but in a childe, a good memorie is well known, by three properties: that is, if it be, quicke in receyuing, sure in keping, and redie in deliuering forthe againe.

3 Philomathes.
      Giuen to loue learning: for though a child haue all the giftes of nature at wishe, and perfection of memorie at wil, yet if he haue not a speciall loue to learning, he shall neuer attaine to moch learning. And therfore Isocrates, one of the noblest scholemasters, that is in memorie of learning, who taught Kinges and Princes, as Halicarnassæus writeth, and out of whose schole, as Tullie saith, came forth, mo noble Capitanes, mo wise Councelors, than did out of Epeius horse at Troie. This Isocrates, I say, did cause to be written, at the entrie of his schole, in golden letters, this golden sentence, ean es philomathes, ese polymathes which excellentlie said in Greeke, is thus rudelie in Englishe, if thou louest learning, thou shalt attayne to moch learning.

4. Philoponos.
      Is he, that hath a lust to labor, and a will to take paines. For, if a childe haue all the benefites of nature, with perfection of memorie, loue, like, & praise learning neuer so moch, yet if he be not of him selfe painfull, he shall neuer attayne vnto it. And yet where loue is present, labor is seldom absent, and namelie in studie of learning, and matters of the mynde: and therfore did Isocrates rightlie iudge, that if his scholer were philomathes he cared for no more. Aristotle, variing from Isocrates in priuate affaires of life, but agreing with Isocrates in common iudgement of learning, for loue and labor in learning, is of the same opinion, vttered in these wordes, in his Rhetorike
2 Rhet. ad Theod.
ad Theodecten. Libertie kindleth loue: Loue refuseth no labor: and labor obteyneth what so euer it seeketh. And yet neuerthelesse, Goodnes of nature may do little good: Perfection of memorie, may serue to small vse: All loue may be employed in vayne: Any labor may be sone graualed, if a man trust alwaies to his own singuler witte, and will not be glad somtyme to heare, take aduise, and learne of an other: And therfore doth Socrates very notablie adde the fifte note.

5. Philekoos.
      He, that is glad to heare and learne of an other. For otherwise, he shall sticke with great troble, where he might go easelie forwarde: and also catche hardlie a verie litle by his owne toyle, whan he might gather quicklie a good deale, by an nothers mans teaching. But now there be some, that haue great loue to learning, good lust to labor, be willing to learne of others, yet, either of a fonde shamefastnes, or else of a proud folie, they dare not, or will not, go to learne of an nother: And therfore doth Socrates wiselie adde the sixte note of a good witte in a childe for learning, and that is.

6. Zetetikos.
      He, that is naturallie bold to aske any question, desirous to searche out any doute, not ashamed to learne of the meanest, not affraide to go to the greatest, vntill he be perfitelie taught, and fullie satisfiede. The seuenth and last poynte is.

7. Philepainos.
      He, that loueth to be praised for well doing, at his father, or masters hand. A childe of this nature, will earnestlie loue learnyng, gladlie labor for learning, willinglie learne of other, boldlie aske any doute. And thus, by Socrates iudgement, a good father, and a wise scholemaster, shold chose a childe to make a scholer of, that hath by nature, the foresayd perfite qualities, and cumlie furniture, both of mynde and bodie: hath memorie, quicke to receyue, sure to keape, and readie to deliuer: hath loue to learning: hath lust to labor: hath desire to learne of others: hath boldnes to aske any question: hath mynde holie bent, to wynne praise by well doing.
      The two firste poyntes be speciall benefites of nature: which neuerthelesse, be well preserued, and moch encreased by good order. But as for the fiue laste, loue, labor, gladnes to learne of others, boldnes to aske doutes, and will to wynne praise, be wonne and maintened by the onelie wisedome and discretion of the scholemaster. Which fiue poyntes, whether a scholemaster shall worke soner in a childe, by fearefull beating, or curtese handling, you that be wise, iudge.
      Yet some men, wise in deede, but in this matter, more by seueritie of nature, than any wisdome at all, do laugh at vs, when we thus wishe and reason, that yong children should rather be allured to learning by ientilnes and loue, than compelled to learning, by beating and feare: They say, our reasons serue onelie to breede forth talke, and passe a waie tyme, but we neuer saw good scholemaster do so, nor neuer red of wise man that thought so.
      Yes forsothe: as wise as they be, either in other mens opinion, or in their owne conceite, I will bring the contrarie iudgement of him, who, they them selues shall confesse, was as wise as they are, or else they may be iustlie thought to haue small witte at all: and that is Socrates, whose iudgement in Plato is plainlie this in these wordes: which, bicause they be verie notable, I will recite them in his owne tong, ouden mathema meta douleias chre manthanein: oi men gar tou somatos ponoi bia ponoumenoi cheiron ouden to soma apergazontai; psyche de, biaion ouden emmonon mathema: in Englishe thus, No learning ought to be learned with bondage: For bodelie labors, wrought by compulsion, hurt not the bodie: but any learning learned by compulsion,
Plato in 7. de Rep.

The right reading of Plato.

Yong Ientlemen, be wiselier taught to ryde, by common ryders, than to learne, by common Scholemasters.

tarieth not long in the mynde: And why? For what soeuer the mynde doth learne vnwillinglie with feare, the same it doth quicklie forget without care. And lest proude wittes, that loue not to be contraryed, but haue lust to wrangle or trifle away troth, will say, that Socrates meaneth not this of childrens teaching, but of som other higher learnyng, heare, what Socrates in the same place doth more plainlie say: me toinyn bia, o ariste, tous paidas en tois mathemasin, alla paizontas trephe, that is to say, and therfore, my deare frend, bring not vp your children in learning by compulsion and feare, but by playing and pleasure. And you, that do read Plato, as ye shold, do well perceiue, that these be no Questions asked by Socrates, as doutes, but they be Sentences, first affirmed by Socrates, as mere trothes, and after, giuen forth by Socrates, as right Rules, most necessarie to be marked, and fitte to be folowed of all them, that would haue children taughte, as they should. And in this counsell, iudgement, and authoritie of Socrates I will repose my selfe, vntill I meete with a man of the contrarie mynde, whom I may iustlie take to be wiser, than I thinke Socrates was. Fonde scholemasters, neither can vnder- stand, nor will folow this good counsell of Socrates, but wise ryders, in their office, can and will do both: which is the onelie cause, that commonly, the yong ientlemen of England, go so vnwillinglie to schole, and run so fast to the stable: For in verie deede fond scholemasters, by feare, do beate into them, the hatred of learning, and wise riders, by ientle allurements, do breed vp in them, the loue of riding. They finde feare, & bondage in scholes, They feele libertie and freedome in stables: which causeth them, vtterlie to abhore the one, and most gladlie to haunt the other. And I do not write this, that in exhorting to the one, I would dissuade yong ientlemen from the other: yea I am sorie, with all my harte, that they be giuen no more to riding, then they be: For, of all outward qualities, to ride faire, is most cumelie for him selfe, most necessarie for his contrey, and the greater he is in blood, the greater is his praise, the more he doth excede all other therein. It was one of the three excellent praises, amongest the noble ientlemen the old Percians, Alwaise to say troth, to ride faire, and shote well: and so it was engrauen vpon Darius tumbe, as Strabo beareth witnesse.

    Darius the king, lieth buried here,
          Who in riding and shoting had neuer peare.

      But, to our purpose, yong men, by any meanes, leesing the

Strabo. 15.


loue of learning, whan by tyme they cum to their owne rule, they carie commonlie, from the schole with them, a perpetuall hatred of their master, and a continuall contempt of learning. If ten Ientlemen be asked, why they forget so sone in Court, that which they were learning so long in schole, eight of them, or let me be blamed, will laie the fault on their ill handling, by their scholemasters.

Cuspinian doth report, that, that noble Emperor Maximilian, would lament verie oft, his misfortune herein.
      Yet, some will say, that children of nature, loue pastime, and mislike learning: bicause, in their kinde, the one is easie and pleasant, the other hard and werisom: which is an opinion not so trewe, as some men weene: For, the matter lieth not so much in the disposition of them that be yong, as in the order & maner of bringing vp, by them that be old, nor yet in the difference of learnyng and pastime. For, beate a child, if he daunce not well, & cherish him, though he learne not well, ye shall haue him, vnwilling to go to daunce, & glad to go to his booke. Knocke him alwaies, when he draweth his shaft ill, and fauor him againe, though he faut at his booke, ye shall haue hym verie loth to be in the field, and verie willing to be in the schole. Yea, I saie more, and not of my selfe, but by the iudgement of those, from whom few wisemen will gladlie dissent, that if euer the nature of man be giuen at any tyme, more than other, to receiue goodnes, it is in innocencie of yong yeares, before, that experience of euill, haue taken roote in hym. For, the pure cleane witte of a sweete yong babe, is like the newest wax, most hable to receiue the best and fayrest printing: and like a new bright siluer dishe neuer occupied, to receiue and kepe cleane, anie good thyng that is put into it.
      easelie be won to be verie well willing to learne. And witte in children, by nature, namelie memorie, the onelie keie and keper of all learning, is readiest to receiue, and surest to kepe anie maner of thing, that is learned in yougth: This, lewde and learned, by


in Children.

Yong yeares aptest for learnyng.

common experience, know to be most trewe. For we remember nothyng so well when we be olde, as those things which we learned when we were yong: And this is not straunge, but common in all natures workes. Euery man sees, (as I sayd before) new wax is best for printyng: new claie, fittest for working: new shorne woll, aptest for sone and surest dying: new fresh flesh, for good and durable salting. And this similitude is not rude, nor borowed of the larder house, but out of his scholehouse, of whom, the wisest of England, neede not be ashamed to learne. Yong Graftes grow not onelie sonest, but also fairest, and bring alwayes forth the best and sweetest frute: yong whelpes learne easelie to carie: yong Popingeis learne quicklie to speake: And so, to be short, if in all other thinges, though they lacke reason, sens, and life, the similitude of youth is fittest to all goodnesse, surelie nature, in mankinde, is most beneficiall and effectuall in this behalfe.
      Therfore, if to the goodnes of nature, be ioyned the wisedome of the teacher, in leading yong wittes into a right and plaine waie of learnyng, surelie, children, kept vp in Gods feare, and gouerned by his grace, maie most easelie be brought well to serue God and contrey both by vertue and wisedome.
      But if will, and witte, by farder age, be once allured from innocencie, delited in vaine sightes, filed with foull taulke, crooked with wilfulnesse, hardned with stubburnesse, and let louse to disobedience, surelie it is hard with ientlenesse, but vnpossible with seuere crueltie, to call them backe to good frame againe. For, where the one, perchance maie bend it, the other shall surelie breake it: and so in stead of some hope, leaue an assured desperation, and shamelesse contempt of all goodnesse, the fardest pointe in all mischief, as Xenophon doth most trewlie and most wittelie marke.
      Therfore, to loue or to hate, to like or contemne, to plie this waie or that waie to good or to bad, ye shall haue as ye vse a child in his youth.
      And one example, whether loue or feare doth worke more
Xen. I. Cyri Pæd.

Lady Iane Grey.

in a child, for vertue and learning, I will gladlie report: which maie be hard with some pleasure, and folowed with more profit. Before I went into Germanie, I came to Brodegate in Lecetershire, to take my leaue of that noble Ladie Iane Grey, to whom I was exceding moch beholdinge. Hir parentes, the Duke and Duches, with all the houshould, Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the Parke: I founde her, in her Chamber, readinge Phædon Platonis in Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som ientleman wold read a merie tale in Bocase. After salutation, and dewtie done, with som other taulke, I asked hir, whie she wold leese soch pastime in the Parke? smiling she answered me: I wisse, all their sporte in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, that I find in Plato: Alas good folke, they neuer felt, what trewe pleasure ment. And howe came you Madame, quoth I, to this deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie allure you vnto it: seinge, not many women, but verie fewe men haue atteined thereunto. I will tell you, quoth she, and tell you a troth, which perchance ye will meruell at. One of the greatest benefites, that euer God gaue me, is, that he sent me so sharpe and seuere Parentes, and so ientle a scholemaster. For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie, or sad, be sowyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els, I must do it, as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number, euen so perfitelie, as God made the world, or else I am so sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened, yea presentlie some tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, and other waies, which I will not name, for the honor I beare them, so without measure misordered, that I thinke my selfe in hell, till tyme cum, that I must go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so ientlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that I thinke all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with him. And when I am called from him, I fall on weeping, because, what soeuer I do els, but learning, is ful of grief, trouble, feare, and whole misliking vnto me: And thus my booke, hath bene so moch my pleasure, & bringeth dayly to me more pleasure & more, that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deede, be but trifles and troubles vnto me. I remember this talke gladly, both bicause it is so worthy of memorie, & bicause also, it was the last talke that euer I had, and the last tyme, that euer I saw that noble and worthie Ladie.
      I could be ouer long, both in shewinge iust causes, and in recitinge trewe examples, why learning shold be taught, rather by loue than feare. He that wold see a perfite discourse of it,
Sturmius de Inst. Princ.

Qui parcit virgæ, odit filium.

1. Scholemaster.
2. Gouernour.
3. Father.

let him read that learned treatese, which my frende Ioan. Sturmius wrote de institutione Principis, to the Duke of Cleues.
      The godlie counsels of Salomon and Iesus the sonne of Sirach, for sharpe kepinge in, and bridleinge of youth, are ment rather, for fatherlie correction, then masterlie beating, rather for maners, than for learninge: for other places, than for scholes. For God forbid, but all euill touches, wantonnes, lyinge, pickinge, slouthe, will, stubburnnesse, and disobedience, shold be with sharpe chastisement, daily cut away.
      This discipline was well knowen, and diligentlie vsed, among the Græcians, and old Romanes, as doth appeare in Aristophanes, Isocrates, and Plato, and also in the Comedies of Plautus: where we see that children were vnder the rule of three persones: Præceptore, Pædagogo, Parente: the scholemaster taught him learnyng with all ientlenes: the Gouernour corrected his maners, with moch sharpenesse: The father, held the sterne of his whole obedience: And so, he that vsed to teache, did not commonlie vse to beate, but remitted that ouer to an other mans charge. But what shall we saie, whan now in our dayes, the scholemaster is vsed, both for Præceptor in learnyng, and Pædagogus in maners. Surelie, I wold he shold not confound their offices, but discretelie vse the dewtie of both so, that neither ill touches shold be left vnpunished, nor ientlesse in teaching anie wise omitted. And he shall well do both, if wiselie he do appointe diuersitie of tyme, & separate place, for either purpose: vsing alwaise soch discrete moderation as the scholehouse should be counted a sanctuarie against feare: and verie well learning, a common perdon for ill doing, if the fault, of it selfe be not ouer heinous.
      And thus the children, kept vp in Gods feare, and preserued by his grace, finding paine in ill doing, and pleasure in well studiyng, shold easelie be brought to honestie of life, and perfitenes of learning, the onelie marke, that good and wise fathers do wishe and labour, that their children, shold most buselie, and carefullie shot at.
      There is an other discommoditie, besides crueltie in
The schole house.

Youth of England brought vp with to much libertie.

Xen. 7. Cyri Ped.

scholemasters in beating away the loue of learning from children, which hindreth learning and vertue, and good bringing vp of youth, and namelie yong ientlemen, verie moch in England. This fault is cleane contrary to the first. I wished before, to haue loue of learning bred vp in children: I wishe as moch now, to haue yong men brought vp in good order of liuing, and in some more seuere discipline, then commonlie they be. We haue lacke in England of soch good order, as the old noble Persians so carefullie vsed: whose children, to the age of xxi. yeare, were brought vp in learnyng, and exercises of labor, and that in soch place, where they should, neither see that was vncumlie, nor heare that was vnhonest. Yea, a yong ientleman was neuer free, to go where he would, and do what he liste him self, but vnder the kepe, and by the counsell, of some graue gouernour, vntill he was, either maryed, or cald to beare some office in the common wealth.
      And see the great obedience, that was vsed in old tyme to fathers and gouernours. No sonne, were he neuer so old of yeares, neuer so great of birth, though he were a kynges sonne, might not mary, but by his father and mothers also consent. Cyrus the great, after he had conquered Babylon, and subdewed Riche king Crœsus with whole Asia minor, cummyng tryumphantlie home, his vncle Cyaxeris offered him his daughter to wife. Cyrus thanked his vncle, and praised the maide, but for mariage he answered him with thies wise and sweete wordes, as they be vttered by Xenophon, o kuazare, to te genos epaino, kai ten paida, kai dora boulomai de, ephe, syn te tou patros gnome kai [te] tes metros tauta soi synainesai, &c., that is to say: Vncle Cyaxeris, I commend the stocke, I like the maide, and I allow well the dowrie, but (sayth he) by the counsell and consent of my father and mother, I will determine farther of thies matters.
      Strong Samson also in Scripture saw a maide that liked him, but he spake not to hir, but went home to his father, and his mother, and desired both father and mother to make the mariage for him. Doth this modestie, doth this obedience,
Xen. 8. Cyri. Pæd.

Great mens sonnes worst brought vp.

that was in great kyng Cyrus, and stoute Samson, remaine in our yongmen at this daie? no surelie: For we liue not longer after them by tyme, than we liue farre different from them by good order. Our tyme is so farre from that old discipline and obedience, as now, not onelie yong ientlemen, but euen verie girles dare without all feare, though not without open shame, where they list, and how they list, marie them selues in spite of father, mother, God, good order, and all. The cause of this euill is, that youth is least looked vnto, when they stand [in] most neede of good kepe and regard. It auaileth not, to see them well taught in yong yeares, and after whan they cum to lust and youthfull dayes, to giue them licence to liue as they lust them selues. For, if ye suffer the eye of a yong Ientleman, once to be entangled with vaine sightes, and the eare to be corrupted with fond or filthie taulke, the mynde shall quicklie fall seick, and sone vomet and cast vp, all the holesome doctrine, that he receiued in childhoode, though he were neuer so well brought vp before. And being ons inglutted with vanitie, he will streight way loth all learning, and all good counsell to the same. And the parents for all their great cost and charge, reape onelie in the end, the frute of grief and care. This euill, is not common to poore men, as God will haue it, but proper to riche and great mens children, as they deserue it. In deede from seuen, to seuentene, yong ientlemen commonlie be carefullie enough brought vp: But from seuentene to seuen and twentie (the most dangerous tyme of all a mans life, and most slipperie to stay well in) they haue commonlie the reigne of all licens in their owne hand, and speciallie soch as do liue in the Court. And that which is most to be merueled at, commonlie, the wisest and also best men, be found the fondest fathers in this behalfe. And if som good father would seick
Wise men fond fathers.

Meane mens sonnes come th great authoritie.

Nobilitie without wisedome.

Nobilitie with wisedome.

Nobilitie with {Wisedom.
{Out wisedome.

some remedie herein, yet the mother (if the house hold of our Lady) had rather, yea, & will to, haue her sonne cunnyng & bold, in making him to lyue trimlie when he is yong, than by learning and trauell, to be able to serue his Prince and his contrie, both wiselie in peace, and stoutelie in warre, whan he is old.
      The fault is in your selues, ye noble mens sonnes, and therefore ye deserue the greater blame, that commonlie, the meaner mens children, cum to be, the wisest councellours, and greatest doers, in the weightie affaires of this Realme. And why? for God will haue it so, of his prouidence: bicause ye will haue it no otherwise, by your negligence. And God is a good God, & wisest in all his doinges, that will place vertue, & displace vice, in those kingdomes, where he doth gouerne. For he knoweth, that Nobilitie, without vertue and wisedome, is bloud in deede, but bloud trewelie, without bones & sinewes: & so of it selfe, without the other, verie weeke to beare the burden of weightie affaires.
      The greatest shippe in deede commonlie carieth the greatest burden, but yet alwayes with the greatest ieoperdie, not onelie for the persons and goodes committed vnto it, but euen for the shyppe it selfe, except it be gouerned, with the greater wisdome. But Nobilitie, gouerned by learning and wisedome, is in deede, most like a faire shippe, hauyng tide and winde at will, vnder the reule of a skilfull master: whan contrarie wise, a shippe, caried, yea with the hiest tide & greatest winde, lacking a skilfull master, most commonlie, doth either, sinck it selfe vpon sandes, or breake it selfe vpon rockes. And euen so, how manie haue bene, either drowned in vaine pleasure, or ouerwhelmed by stout wilfulnesse, the histories of England be able to affourde ouer many examples vnto vs. Therfore, ye great and noble mens children, if ye will haue rightfullie that praise, and enioie surelie that place, which your fathers haue, and elders had, and left vnto you, ye must kepe it, as they gat it, and that is, by the onelie waie, of vertue, wisedome, and worthinesse.
      For wisedom, and vertue, there be manie faire examples in this Court, for yong Ientlemen to folow. But they be, like faire markes in the feild, out of a mans reach, to far of, to shote at well. The best and worthiest men, in deede, be somtimes
Vaine pleasure, and stoute wilfulnes, two greatest enemies to Nobilitie.

Ill companie marreth youth.

The Court iudgeth worst of the best natures in youth.

Xen. in I. Cyr. Pæ,d.
The Grace in Courte.

seen, but seldom taulked withall: A yong Ientleman, may somtime knele to their person, smallie vse their companie, for their better instruction.
      But yong Ientlemen ar faïne commonlie to do in the Court, as yong Archers do in the feild: that is take soch markes, as be nie them, although they be neuer so foule to shote at. I meene, they be driuen to kepe companie with the worste: and what force ill companie hath, to corrupt good wittes, the wisest men know best.
      And not ill companie onelie, but the ill opinion also of the most part, doth moch harme, and namelie of those, which shold be wise in the trewe de- cyphring, of the good disposition of nature, of cumlinesse in Courtlie maners, and all right doinges of men.
      But error and phantasie, do commonlie occupie, the place of troth and iudgement. For, if a yong ientleman, be demeure and still of nature, they say, he is simple and lacketh witte: if he be bashefull, and will soone blushe, they call him a babishe and ill brought vp thyng, when Xenophon doth preciselie note in Cyrus, that his bashfulnes in youth, was ye verie trewe signe of his vertue & stoutnes after: If he be innocent and ignorant of ill, they say, he is rude, and hath no grace, so vngraciouslie do som gracelesse men, misuse the faire and godlie word G R A C E.
      But if ye would know, what grace they meene, go, and looke, and learn emonges them, and ye shall see that it is: First, to blush at nothing. And blushyng in youth, sayth Aristotle is nothyng els, but feare to do ill: which feare beyng once lustely fraid away from youth, then foloweth, to dare do any mischief, to contemne stoutly any goodnesse, to be busie in euery matter, to be skilfull in euery thyng, to acknowledge no ignorance at all. To do thus in Court, is counted of some, the chief and greatest grace of all: and termed by the name of a vertue, called Corage & boldnesse, whan Crassus in Cicero teacheth the cleane contrarie, and that most wittelie, saying thus: Audere, cum bonis etiam rebus coniunctum, per seipsum est magnopere fugiendum. Which is to say, to be bold, yea in a good matter, is for it self, greatlie to be
Grace of Courte.

Cic. 3. de Or.

Boldnes yea in a good matter, not to be praised.

More Grace of Courte.

Men of warre, best of conditions.


      Moreouer, where the swing goeth, there to follow, fawne, flatter, laugh and lie lustelie at other mens liking. To face, stand formest, shoue backe: and to the meaner man, or vnknowne in the Court, to seeme somwhat solume, coye, big, and dangerous of looke, taulk, and answere: To thinke well of him selfe, to be lustie in contemning of others, to haue some trim grace in a priuie mock. And in greater presens, to beare a braue looke: to be warlike, though he neuer looked enimie in the face in warre: yet som warlike signe must be vsed, either a slouinglie busking, or an ouerstaring frounced hed, as though out of euerie heeres toppe, should suddenlie start out a good big othe, when nede requireth, yet praised be God, England hath at this time, manie worthie Capitaines and good souldiours, which be in deede, so honest of behauiour, so cumlie of conditions, so milde of maners, as they may be examples of good order, to a good sort of others, which neuer came in warre. But to retorne, where I left: In place also, to be able to raise taulke, and make discourse of euerie rishe: to haue a verie good will, to heare him selfe speake: To be seene in Palmestrie, wherby to conueie to chast eares, som fond or filthie taulke:
      And if som Smithfeild Ruffian take vp, som strange going: som new mowing with the mouth: som wrinchyng with the shoulder, som braue prouerbe: som fresh new othe, that is not stale, but will rin round in the mouth: som new disguised garment, or desperate hat, fond in facion, or gaurish in colour, what soeuer it cost, how small soeuer his liuing be, by what shift soeuer it be gotten, gotten must it be, and vsed with the first, or els the grace of it, is stale and gone: som part of this gracelesse grace, was discribed by me, in a little rude verse long ago.

    {To laughe, to lie, to flatter, to face:
    {Foure waies in Court to win men grace.
    {If thou be thrall to none of thiese,
    {Away good Peek goos, hens Iohn Cheese:
    {Marke well my word, and marke their dede,
    {And thinke this verse part of thy Crede.

      Would to God, this taulke were not trewe, and that som mens doinges were not thus: I write not to hurte any, but to proffit som: to accuse none, but to monish soch, who, allured by ill counsell, and folowing ill example, contrarie to their good bringyng vp, and against their owne good nature, yeld ouermoch to thies folies and faultes: I know many seruing men, of good order, and well staide: And againe, I heare saie, there be som seruing men do but ill seruice to their yong masters. Yea, rede Terence
Ill {Councell. {Company.

Seruinge men.

Serui corruptelæ iuuenum.

Multi Getæ pauci Parmenones.

and Plaut. aduisedlie ouer, and ye shall finde in those two wise writers, almost in euery commedie, no vnthriftie yong man, that is not brought there vnto, by the sotle inticement of som lewd seruant. And euen now in our dayes Getæ and Daui, Gnatos and manie bold bawdie Phormios to, be preasing in, to pratle on euerie stage, to medle in euerie matter, whan honest Parmenos shall not be hard, but beare small swing with their masters. Their companie, their taulke, their ouer great experience in mischief, doth easelie corrupt the best natures, and best brought vp wittes.
      But I meruell the lesse, that thies misorders be emonges som in the Court, for commonlie in the contrie also euerie where, innocencie is gone: Bashfulnesse is banished: moch presumption in yougthe: small authoritie in aige: Reuerence is neglected: dewties be confounded: and to be shorte, disobedience doth ouerflowe the bankes of good order, almoste in euerie place, almoste in euerie degree of man.
      Meane men haue eies to see, and cause to lament, and occasion to complaine of thies miseries: but other haue authoritie to remedie them, and will do so to, whan God shall think time fitte. For, all thies misorders, be Goddes iuste plages, by his sufferance, brought iustelie vpon vs, for our sinnes, which be infinite in nomber, and horrible in deede, but namelie, for the greate abhominable sin of vnkindnesse: but what vnkindnesse? euen such vnkindnesse as was in the Iewes, in contemninge Goddes voice, in shrinking from his woorde, in wishing backe againe for Ægypt, in committing aduoultrie and
Misorders in the countrey.

Contempt of Gods trewe Religion.

Doctrina Mores.
Publicæ Leges.
Domestica disciplina.
Cognitio boni.

hordom, not with the women, but with the doctrine of Babylon, did bring all the plages, destructions, and Captiuities, that fell so ofte and horriblie, vpon Israell.
      We haue cause also in England to beware of vnkindnesse, who haue had, in so fewe yeares, the Candel of Goddes worde, so oft lightned, so oft put out, and yet will venture by our vnthankfulnesse in doctrine and sinfull life, to leese againe, lighte, Candle, Candlesticke and all.
      God kepe vs in his feare, God grafte in vs the trewe knowledge of his woorde, with a forward will to folowe it, and so to bring forth the sweete fruites of it, & then shall he preserue vs by his Grace, from all maner of terrible dayes. The remedie of this, doth not stand onelie, in making good common lawes for the hole Realme, but also, (and perchance cheiflie) in obseruing priuate discipline euerie man carefullie in his own house: and namelie, if speciall regard be had to yougth: and that, not so moch, in teaching them what is good, as in keping them from that, that is ill.
      Therefore, if wise fathers, be not as well waare in weeding from their Children ill thinges, and ill companie, as they were before, in graftinge in them learninge, and prouiding for them good scholemasters, what frute, they shall reape of all their coste & care, common experience doth tell.
      Here is the place, in yougthe is the time whan som ignorance is as necessarie, as moch knowledge, and not in matters of our dewtie towardes God, as som wilful wittes willinglie against their owne knowledge, perniciouslie againste their owne conscience, haue of late openlie taught. In deede S. Chrysostome, that noble and eloquent Doctor, in a sermon contra fatum, and the curious serchinge of natiuities, doth wiselie saie, that ignorance therein, is better than knowledge: But to wring this sentence, to wreste thereby out of mens handes, the knowledge of Goddes
Ignoratio mali.

Some ignorance, as good as knowledge.

Chrisost. de Fato.

Iulia. Apostat.

Innocency in youth.

A childe ill brought vp.

Ill Parentes.

doctrine, is without all reason, against common sence, contrarie to the iudgement also of them, which be the discretest men, and best learned, on their own side. I know, Iulianus Apostata did so, but I neuer hard or red, that any auncyent father of the primitiue chirch, either thought or wrote so.
      But this ignorance in yougthe, which I spake on, or rather this simplicitie, or most trewlie, this innocencie, is that, which the noble Persians, as wise Xenophon doth testifie, were so carefull, to breede vp their yougth in. But Christian fathers commonlie do not so. And I will tell you a tale, as moch to be misliked, as the Persians example is to be folowed.
      This last somer, I was in a Ientlemans house: where a yong childe, somewhat past fower yeare olde, cold in no wise frame his tongue, to saie, a litle shorte grace: and yet he could roundlie rap out, so manie vgle othes, and those of the newest facion, as som good man of fourescore yeare olde hath neuer hard named before: and that which was most detestable of all, his father and mother wold laughe at it. I moche doubte, what comforte, an other daie, this childe shall bring vnto them. This Childe vsing moche the companie of seruinge men, and geuing good eare to their taulke, did easelie learne, which he shall hardlie forget, all daies of his life hereafter: So likewise, in the Courte, if a yong Ientleman will ventur him self into the companie of Ruffians, it is ouer greate a ieopardie, lest, their facions, maners, thoughtes, taulke, and deedes, will verie sone, be euer like. The confounding of companies, breedeth confusion of good maners both in the Courte, and euerie where else.
      And it maie be a great wonder, but a greater shame, to vs Christian men, to vnderstand, what a heithen writer, Isocrates, doth leaue in memorie of writing, concerning the care, that the noble Citie of Athens had, to bring
Ill companie.


In Orat. Ariopag.

vp their yougthe, in honest companie, and vertuous discipline, whose taulke in Greke, is, to this effect, in Englishe.
      "The Citie, was not more carefull, to see their Children
"well taughte, than to see their yong men well
"gouerned: which they brought to passe, not so
"much by common lawe, as by priuate discipline.
"For, they had more regard, that their yougthe, by good order
"shold not offend, than how, by lawe, they might be punished:
"And if offense were committed, there was, neither waie to
"hide it, neither hope of pardon for it. Good natures, were
"not so moche openlie praised as they were secretlie marked,
"and watchfullie regarded, lest they should lease the goodnes
"they had. Therefore in scholes of singing and dauncing, and
"other honest exercises, gouernours were appointed, more
"diligent to ouersee their good maners, than their masters were,
"to teach them anie learning. It was som shame to a yong
"man, to be seene in the open market: and if for businesse, he
"passed throughe it, he did it, with a meruelous modestie, and
"bashefull facion. To eate, or drinke in a Tauerne, was not
onelie a shame, but also punishable, in a yong man. To
"contrarie, or to stand in termes with an old man, was more
"heinous, than in som place, to rebuke and scolde with his
"owne father: with manie other mo good orders, and faire
disciplines, which I referre to their reading, that haue lust
to looke vpon the description of such a worthie common welthe.
      And to know, what worthie frute, did spring of soch worthie seade, I will tell yow the most meruell of all, and yet soch a trothe, as no man shall denie it, except such as be ignorant in knowledge of the best stories.
      Athens, by this discipline and good ordering of yougthe, did breede vp, within the circute of that one Citie, within the compas of one hondred yeare, within the memorie of one mans life, so manie notable Capitaines in warre, for worthinesse, wisdome and learning, as be scarse matchable no not in the state of Rome, in the compas of those seauen hondred yeares, whan it florished moste.
      And bicause, I will not onelie saie it, but also proue it, the names of them be these. Miltiades, Themistocles, Xantippus, Pericles, Cymon, Alcybiades, Thrasybulus, Conon, Iphicrates, Xenophon, Timotheus, Theopompus, Demetrius, and diuers other mo: of which euerie one, maie iustelie be spoken that worthie praise, which was geuen to
Good seede, worthie frute.



The noble Capitaines of Athens.


The learned of Athenes.

Scipio Africanus, who, Cicero douteth, whether he were, more noble Capitaine in warre, or more eloquent and wise councelor in peace. And if ye beleue not me, read diligentlie, Æmilius Probus in Latin, and Plutarche in Greke, which two, had no cause either to flatter or lie vpon anie of those which I haue recited.
      And beside nobilitie in warre, for excellent and matchles masters in all maner of learninge, in that one Citie, in memorie of one aige, were mo learned men, and that in a maner altogether, than all tyme doth remember, than all place doth affourde, than all other tonges do conteine. And I do not meene of those Authors, which, by iniurie of tyme, by negligence of men, by crueltie of fier and sworde, be lost, but euen of those, which by Goddes grace, are left yet vnto us: of which I thank God, euen my poore studie lacketh not one. As, in Philosophie, Plato, Aristotle, Xenophon, Euclide and Theophrast: In eloquens and Ciuill lawe, Demosthenes, Æschines, Lycurgus, Dinarchus, Demades, Isocrates, Isæus, Lysias, Antisthenes, Andocides: In histories, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon: and which we lacke, to our great losse, Theopompus and Eph[orus]: In Poetrie Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and somwhat of Menander, Demosthenes sister sonne.
      Now, let Italian, and Latin it self, Spanishe, French, Douch, and Englishe bring forth their lerning, and recite their Authors, Cicero onelie excepted, and one or two moe in Latin, they be all patched cloutes and ragges, in comparison of faire wouen broade clothes. And trewelie, if there be any good in them, it is either lerned, borowed, or stolne, from some one of those worthie wittes of Athens.
      The remembrance of soch a common welthe, vsing soch discipline and order for yougthe, and thereby bringing forth to their praise, and leauing to vs for our example, such Capitaines for warre, soch Councelors for peace, and matcheles masters, for all kinde of learninge, is pleasant for me to recite, and not irksum, I trust, for other to heare, except it be soch, as make neither counte of vertue nor learninge.
      And whether, there be anie soch or no, I can not well tell:
Learnyng, chiefly conteined in the Greke, and in no other tong.

Contemners of learnyng.

Ientlemen of France.

Franciscus 1. Nobilis.
Francorum Rex.

yet I hear saie, some yong Ientlemen of oures, count it their shame to be counted learned: and perchance, they count it their shame, to be counted honest also, for I heare saie, they medle as litle with the one, as with the other. A meruelous case, that Ientlemen shold so be ashamed of good learning, and neuer a whit ashamed of ill maners: soch do saie for them, that the Ientlemen of France do so: which is a lie, as God will haue it. Langæus, and Bellæus that be of France.
      dead, & the noble Vidam of Chartres, that is aliue, and infinite mo in France, which I heare tell of, proue this to be most false. And though som, in France, which will nedes be Ientlemen, whether men will or no, and haue more ientleshipe in their hat, than in their hed, be at deedlie feude, with both learning and honestie, yet I beleue, if that noble Prince, king Francis the first were aliue, they shold haue, neither place in his Courte, nor pension in his warres, if he had knowledge of them. This opinion is not French, but plaine Turckishe: from whens, some Frenche fetche moe faultes, than this: which, I praie God, kepe out of England, and send also those of oures better mindes, which bend them selues againste vertue and learninge, to the contempte of God, dishonor of their contrie to the hurt of manie others, and at length, to the greatest harme, and vtter destruction of themselues.
      Som other, hauing better nature, but lesse witte, (for ill commonlie, haue ouer moch witte) do not vtterlie dispraise learning, but they saie, that without learning, common experience, knowledge of all facions, and haunting all companies, shall worke in yougthe, both wisdome, and habilitie, to execute anie weightie affaire. Surelie long experience doth proffet moch, but moste, and almost onelie to him (if we meene honest affaires) that is diligentlie before instructed with preceptes of well doinge. For good precepts of learning, be the eyes of the minde, to looke wiselie before a man, which waie to go right, and which not.
      Learning teacheth more in one yeare than experience in
Experience without learnyng.


twentie: And learning teacheth safelie. when experience maketh mo miserable then wise. He hasardeth sore, that waxeth wise by experience. An vnhappie Master he is, that is made cunning by manie shippewrakes: A miserable merchant, that is neither riche or wise, but after som bankroutes. It is costlie wisdom, that is bought by experience. We know by experience it selfe, that it is a meruelous paine, to finde oute but a short waie, by long wandering. And surelie, he that wold proue wise by experience, he maie be wittie in deede, but euen like a swift runner, that runneth fast out of his waie, and vpon the night, he knoweth not whither. And verilie they be fewest of number, that be happie or wise by vnlearned experience. And looke well vpon the former life of those fewe, whether your example be old or yonge, who without learning haue gathered, by long experience, a litle wisdom, and som happines: and whan you do consider, what mischiefe they haue committed, what dangers they haue escaped (and yet xx. for one, do perishe in the aduenture) than thinke well with your selfe, whether ye wold, that your owne son, should cum to wisdom and happines, by the waie of soch experience or no.
      It is a notable tale, that old Syr Roger Chamloe, somtime cheife Iustice, wold tell of him selfe. When he was Auncient in Inne of Courte, Certaine yong Ientlemen were brought before him, to be corrected for certaine misorders: And one of the lustiest saide: Syr, we be yong ientlemen, and wisemen before vs, haue proued all facions, and yet those haue done full well: this they said, because it was well knowen, that Syr Roger had bene a good feloe in his yougth. But he aunswered them verie wiselie. In deede saith he, in yougthe, I was, as you ar now: and I had twelue feloes like vnto my self, but not one of them came to a good ende. And therfore, folow not my example in yougth, but folow my councell in aige, if euer ye thinke to cum to this place, or to thies yeares, that I am cum vnto, lesse ye meete either with pouertie or Tiburn in the way.
      Thus, experience of all facions in yougthe, beinge, in profe, alwaise daungerous, in isshue, seldom lucklie, is a waie, in deede, to ouermoch knowledge, yet
Syr Roger Chamloe.



Experience the schole-house of Foles, and ill men.

vsed commonlie of soch men, which be either caried by som curious affection of mynde, or driuen by som hard necessitie of life, to hasard the triall of ouer manie perilous aduentures. Erasmus the honor of learning of all oure time, saide wiselie that experience is the common schole- house of foles, and ill men: Men, of witte and honestie, be otherwise instructed. For there be, that kepe them out of fier, and yet was neuer burned: That beware of water, and yet was neuer nie drowninge: That hate harlottes, and was neuer at the stewes: That abhorre falshode, and neuer brake promis themselues.
      But will ye see, a fit Similitude of this aduentured experience. A Father, that doth let louse his son, to all experiences, is most like a fond Hunter, that letteth slippe a whelpe to the hole herde. Twentie to one, he shall fall vpon a rascall, and let go the faire game. Men that hunt so, be either ignorant persones, preuie stealers, or night walkers.
      Learning therefore, ye wise fathers, and good bringing vp, and not blinde & dangerous experience, is the next and readiest waie, that must leede your Children, first, to wisdom, and than to worthinesse, if euer ye purpose they shall cum there. And to saie all in shorte, though I lacke Authoritie to giue counsell, yet I lacke not good will to wisshe, that the yougthe in England, speciallie Ientlemen, and namelie no- bilitie, shold be by good bringing vp, so grounded in iudgement of learninge, so founded in loue of honestie, as, whan they shold be called forthe to the execution of great affaires, in seruice of their Prince and contrie, they might be hable, to vse and to order, all experiences, were they good were they bad, and that, according to the square, rule, and line, of wisdom learning and vertue.
      And, I do not meene, by all this my taulke, that yong Ientlemen, should alwaies be poring on a booke, and by vsing good studies, shold lease honest pleasure, and haunt no good pastime, I meene nothing lesse: For it is well knowne, that I both like and loue, and haue alwaies, and do yet still vse, all exercises and pastimes, that be fitte for my nature and habilitie. And beside naturall disposition, in iudgement also, I was neuer, either Stoick in doctrine, or Anabaptist in Religion, to mislike a merie, pleasant, and plaifull nature, if no outrage be committed, against lawe,
How experience may proffet.

Diligent learninge ought to be ioyned with pleasant pastimes, namelie in a ientleman.

Learnyng ioyned with pastimes.


mesure, and good order.
      Therefore, I wold wishe, that, beside some good time, fitlie appointed, and constantlie kepte, to encrease by readinge, the knowledge of the tonges and learning, yong ientlemen shold vse, and delite in all Courtelie exercises, and Ientlemanlike pastimes. And good cause whie: For the self same noble Citie of Athenes, iustlie commended of me before, did wiselie and vpon great consideration, appoint, the Muses, Apollo, and Pallas, to be patrones of learninge to their yougthe. For the Muses, besides learning, were also Ladies of dauncinge, mirthe and ministrelsie: Apollo, was god of shooting, and Author of cunning playing vpon Instrumentes: Pallas also was Laidie mistres in warres. Wherbie was nothing else ment, but that learninge shold be alwaise mingled, with honest mirthe, and cumlie exercises: and that warre also shold be gouerned by learning, and moderated by wisdom, as did well appeare in those Capitaines of Athenes named by me before, and also in Scipio & Cæsar, the two Diamondes of Rome.
      And Pallas, was no more feared, in weering Ægida, than she was praised, for chosing Oliva: whereby shineth the glory of learning, which thus, was Gouernour & Mistres, in the noble Citie of Athenes, both of warre and peace.
      Therefore, to ride cumlie: to run faire at the tilte or ring: to plaie at all weapones: to shote faire in bow, or surelie in gon: to vaut lustely: to runne: to leape: to wrestle: to swimme: To daunce cumlie: to sing, and playe of instrumentes cunnyngly: to Hawke: to hunte: to playe at tennes, & all pastimes generally, which be ioyned with labor, vsed in open place, and on the day light, conteining either some fitte exercise for warre, or some pleasant pastime for peace, be not onelie cumlie and decent, but also verie necessarie, for a Courtlie Ientleman to vse.
      But, of all kinde of pastimes, fitte for a Ientleman, I will, godwilling, in fitter place, more at large, declare fullie, in my booke of the Cockpitte: which I do write, to satisfie som, I trust, with som reason, that be
Learning rewleth both warre and peace.

The pastimes that be fitte for Courtlie Ientlemen.

The Cokpitte.

A booke of a lofty title, beareth the brag of ouergreat a promise.

more curious, in marking other mens doinges, than carefull in mendying their owne faultes. And som also will nedes busie them selues in merueling, and adding thereunto vnfrendlie taulke, why I, a man of good yeares, and of no ill place, I thanke God and my Prince, do make choise to spend soch tyme in writyng of trifles, as the schole of shoting, the Cockpitte, and this booke of the first Principles of Grammer, rather, than to take some weightie matter in hand, either of Religion, or Ciuill discipline.
      Wise men I know, will well allow of my choise herein: and as for such, who haue not witte of them selues, but must learne of others, to iudge right of mens doynges, let them read that wise Poet Horace in his Arte Poetica, who willeth wisemen to beware, of hie and loftie Titles. For, great shippes, require costlie tackling, and also afterward dangerous gouernment: Small boates, be neither verie chargeable in makyng, nor verie oft in great ieoperdie: and yet they cary many tymes, as good and costlie ware, as greater vessels do. A meane Argument, may easelie beare, the light burden of a small faute, and haue alwaise at hand, a ready excuse for ill handling: And, some praise it is, if it so chaunce, to be better in deede, than a man dare venture to seeme. A hye title, doth charge a man, with the heauie burden, of to great a promise: and therefore sayth Horace verie wittelie, that, that Poete was a verie foole, that began hys booke, with a goodlie verse in deede, but ouer proude

Fortunam Priami cantabo & nobile bellum,

And after, as wiselie.

Quantò rectiùs hic, qui nil molitur ineptè. etc.

Meening Homer, who, within the compasse of a smal
The right choise, to chose a fitte Argument to write vpon.
Hor. inArte Poet.

Homers wisdom in choice of his Argument.

The Cortegian, an excellent booke for a ientleman.

Syr Tho. Hobbye.

Examples better then precepts.

Argument, of one harlot, and of one good wife, did vtter so moch learning in all kinde of sciences, as, by the iudgement of Quintilian, he deserueth so hie a praise, that no man yet deserued to sit in the second degree beneth him. And thus moch out of my way, concerning my purpose in spending penne, and paper, & tyme, vpon trifles, & namelie to aunswere some, that haue neither witte nor learning, to do any thyng them selues, neither will nor honestie, to say well of other.
      To ioyne learnyng with cumlie exercises, Conto Baldesær Castiglione in his booke,
Cortegiano, doth trimlie teache: which booke, aduisedlie read, and diligentlie folowed, but one yeare at home in England, would do a yong ientleman more good, I wisse, then three yeares trauell abrode spent in Italie. And I meruell this booke, is no more read in the Court, than it is, seying it is so well translated into English by a worthie Ientleman Syr Th. Hobbie, who was many wayes well furnished with learnyng, and very expert in knowledge of diuers tonges.
      And beside good preceptes in bookes, in all kinde of tonges, this Court also neuer lacked many faire examples, for yong ientlemen to folow: And surelie, one example, is more valiable, both to good and ill, than xx. preceptes written in bookes: and so Plato, not in one or two, but diuerse places, doth plainlie teach.
      If kyng Edward had liued a litle longer, his onely example had breed soch a rase of worthie learned ientlemen, as this Realme neuer yet did affourde.
      And, in the second degree, two noble Primeroses of Nobilitie, the yong Duke of Suffolke, and Lord H. Matreuers, were soch two examples to the Court for learnyng, as our tyme may rather wishe, than looke for agayne.
      At Cambrige also, in S. Iohns Colledge, in my tyme, I do know, that, not so much the good statutes, as two Ientlemen, of worthie memorie Syr Iohn Cheke,
King Ed. 6.

The yong Duke of Suffolke.

L. H. Martreurs.

Syr Iohn Cheke.

D. Readman.

Queene Elisabeth.

and Doctour Readman, by their onely example of excellency in learnyng, of godlynes in liuyng, of diligencie in studying, of councell in exhorting, of good order in all thyng, did breed vp, so many learned men, in that one College of S. Iohns, at one time, as I beleue, the whole Vniuersitie of Louaine, in many yeares, was neuer able to affourd.
      Present examples of this present tyme, I list not to touch: yet there is one example, for all the Ientlemen of this Court to folow, that may well satisfie them, or nothing will serue them, nor no example moue them, to goodnes and learning.
      It is your shame, (I speake to you all, you yong Ientlemen of England) that one mayd should go beyond you all, in excellencie of learnyng, and knowledge of diuers tonges. Pointe forth six of the best giuen Ientlemen of this Court, and all they together, shew not so much good will, spend not so much tyme, bestow not so many houres, dayly orderly, & constantly, for the increase of learning & knowledge, as doth the Queenes Maiestie her selfe. Yea I beleue, that beside her perfit readines, in Latin, Italian, French, & Spanish, she readeth here now at Windsore more Greeke euery day, than some Prebendarie of this Chirch doth read Latin in a whole weeke. And that which is most praise worthie of all, within the walles of her priuie chamber, she hath obteyned that excellencie of learnyng, to vnderstand, speake, & write, both wittely with head, and faire with hand, as scarse one or two rare wittes in both the Vniuersities haue in many yeares reached vnto. Amongest all the benefites yt God hath blessed me with all, next the knowledge of Christes true Religion, I counte this the greatest, that it pleased God to call me, to be one poore minister in settyng forward these excellent giftes of learnyng in this most excellent Prince. Whose onely example, if the rest of our nobilitie would folow, than might England be, for learnyng and wisedome in nobilitie, a spectacle to all the world beside. But see the mishap of men: The best examples haue neuer such forse to moue to any goodnes, as the bad, vaine, light and fond, haue to all ilnes.
      And one example, though out of the compas of learning, yet not out of the order of good maners, was notable in this Courte, not fullie xxiiij. yeares a go, when all the actes of Parlament, many good Proclamations, diuerse strait commaundementes, sore punishment openlie, speciall regarde priuatelie, cold not do so moch to take away one misorder, as the example of one big one of this Courte did, still to kepe vp the same: The memorie whereof, doth yet remaine, in a common prouerbe of Birching lane.
Ill examples haue more force, then good examples.

Great men in Court, by their example, make or marre, all other mens maners.

Example in Religion.

Take hede therfore, ye great ones in ye Court, yea though ye be ye greatest of all, take hede, what ye do, take hede how ye liue. For as you great ones vse to do, so all meane men loue to do. You be in deed, makers or marrers, of all mens maners within the Realme. For though God hath placed yow, to be cheife in making of lawes, to beare greatest authoritie, to commaund all others: yet God doth order, that all your lawes, all your authoritie, all your commaundementes, do not halfe so moch with meane men, as doth your example and maner of liuinge. And for example euen in the greatest matter, if yow your selues do serue God gladlie and orderlie for conscience sake, not coldlie, and somtyme for maner sake, you carie all the Courte with yow, and the whole Realme beside, earnestlie and orderlie to do the same. If yow do otherwise, yow be the onelie authors, of all misorders in Religion, not onelie to the Courte, but to all England beside. Infinite shall be made cold in Religion by your example, that neuer were hurt by reading of bookes.
      And in meaner matters, if three or foure great ones in Courte, will nedes outrage in apparell, in huge hose, in monstrous hattes, in gaurishe colers, let the Prince Proclame, make Lawes, order, punishe, commaunde euerie gate in London dailie to be watched, let all good men beside do euerie where what they can, surelie the misorder of apparell in mean men abrode, shall neuer be amended, except the greatest in Courte will order and mend them selues first. I know, som greate and good ones in Courte, were authors, that honest Citizens of London, shoulde watche at euerie gate, to take misordered persones in apparell. I know, that honest Londoners did so: And I sawe, which I saw than, & reporte now with some greife, that som Courtlie men were offended with these good men of London. And that, which greued me most of all, I sawe the verie same tyme, for all theis
Example in apparell.

Masters, Vshers, & Scholers offense.

Examples in shootyng.

good orders, commaunded from the Courte and executed in London, I sawe I say, cum out of London, euen vnto the presence of the Prince, a great rable of meane and light persons, in apparell, for matter, against lawe, for making, against order, for facion, namelie hose, so without all order, as he thought himselfe most braue, that durst do most in breaking order and was most monsterous in misorder. And for all the great commaundementes, that came out of the Courte, yet this bold misorder, was winked at, and borne withall, in the Courte. I thought, it was not well, that som great ones of the Court, durst declare themselues offended, with good men of London, for doinge their dewtie, & the good ones of the Courte, would not shew themselues offended, with ill men of London, for breaking good order. I fownde thereby a sayinge of Socrates to be most trewe that ill men be more hastie, than good men be forwarde, to prosecute their purposes, euen as Christ himselfe saith, of the Children of light and darknes.
      Beside apparell, in all other thinges to, not so moch, good lawes and strait commaundementes as the example and maner of liuing of great men, doth carie all meane men euerie where, to like, and loue, & do, as they do. For if but two or three noble men in the Court, wold but beginne to shoote, all yong Ientlemen, the whole Court, all London, the whole Realme, wold straight waie exercise shooting.
      What praise shold they wynne to themselues, what commoditie shold they bring to their contrey, that would thus deserue to be pointed at: Beholde, there goeth, the author of good order, the guide of good men. I cold say more, and yet not ouermuch. But perchance, som will say, I haue stepte to farre, out of my schole, into the common welthe, from teaching a yong scholer, to monishe greate and noble men: yet I trust good and wise men will thinke and iudge of me, that my minde was, not so moch, to be busie and bold with them, that be great now, as to giue trewe aduise to them, that may be great hereafter. Who, if they do, as I wishe them to do, how great so euer they be now, by blood and other mens meanes, they shall becum a greate deale greater hereafter, by learninge, vertue, and their owne desertes: which is trewe praise, right worthines, and verie Nobilitie in deede. Yet, if som will needes presse me, that I am to bold with great men, & stray to farre from my matter, I will aunswere them with
Written not for great men, but for great mens children.

Ad Philip

Trauelyng into Italie.

S. Paul, siue perc ontentionem, siue quocunqe modo, modò Christus prædicetur, &c. euen so, whether in place, or out of place, with my matter, or beside my matter, if I can hereby either prouoke the good, or staye the ill, I shall thinke my writing herein well imployed.
      But, to cum downe, from greate men, and hier matters, to my litle children, and poore scholehouse againe, I will, God willing, go forwarde orderlie, as I purposed, to instructe Children and yong men, both for learninge and maners.
      Hitherto, I haue shewed, what harme, ouermoch feare bringeth to children: and what hurte, ill companie, and ouermoch libertie breedeth in yougthe: meening thereby, that from seauen yeare olde, to seauentene, loue is the best allurement to learninge: from seauentene to seauen and twentie, that wise men shold carefullie see the steppes of yougthe surelie staide by good order, in that most slipperie tyme: and speciallie in the Courte, a place most dangerous for yougthe to liue in, without great grace, good regarde, and diligent looking to.
      Syr Richard Sackuile, that worthy Ientlemen of worthy memorie, as I sayd in the begynnynge, in the Queenes priuie Chamber at Windesore, after he had talked with me, for the right choice of a good witte in a child for learnyng, and of the trewe difference betwixt quicke and hard wittes, of alluring yong children by ientlenes to loue learnyng, and of the speciall care that was to be had, to keepe yong men from licencious liuyng, he was most earnest with me, to haue me say my mynde also, what I thought, concernyng the fansie that many yong Ientlemen of England haue to trauell abroad, and namely to lead a long lyfe in Italie. His request, both for his authoritie, and good will toward me, was a sufficient commaundement vnto me, to satisfie his pleasure, with vtteryng plainlie my opinion in that matter. Syr quoth I, I take goyng thither, and liuing there, for a yonge ientleman, that doth not goe vnder the kepe and garde of such a man, as both, by wisedome can, and authoritie dare rewle him, to be meruelous dangerous. And whie I said so than, I will declare at large now: which I said than priuatelie, and write now openlie, not bicause I do contemne, either the knowledge of strange and diuerse tonges, and namelie the Italian tonge, which next the Greeke and Latin tonge, I like and loue aboue all other: or else
The Italian tong.


bicause I do despise, the learning that is gotten, or the experience that is gathered in strange contries: or for any priuate malice that beare to Italie: which contrie, and in it, namelie Rome, I haue alwayes speciallie honored: bicause, tyme was, whan Italie and Rome, haue bene, to the greate good of vs that now liue, the best breeders and bringers vp, of the worthiest men, not onelie for wise speakinge, but also for well doing, in all Ciuill affaires, that euer was in the worlde. But now, that tyme is gone, and though the place remayne, yet the olde and present maners, do differ as farre, as blacke and white, as vertue and vice. Vertue once made that contrie Mistres ouer all the worlde. Vice now maketh that contrie slaue to them, that before, were glad to serue it. All men seeth it: They themselues confesse it, namelie soch, as be best and wisest amongest them. For sinne, by lust and vanitie, hath and doth breed vp euery where, common contempt of Gods word, priuate contention in many families, open factions in euery Citie: and so, makyng them selues bonde, to vanitie and vice at home, they are content to beare the yoke of seruyng straungers abroad. Italie now, is not that Italie, that it was wont to be: and therfore now, not so fitte a place, as some do counte it, for yong men to fetch either wisedome or honestie from thence. For surelie, they will make other but bad Scholers, that be so ill Masters to them selues.
      Yet, if a ientleman will nedes trauell into Italie, he shall do well, to looke on the life, of the wisest traueler, that euer traueled thether, set out by the wisest writer, that euer spake with tong, Gods doctrine onelie excepted: and that is Vlysses in Homere. Vlysses, and his trauell, I wishe our trauelers to looke vpon, not so much to feare them, with the great daungers, that he many tymes suffered, as to instruct them, with his excellent wisedome, which he alwayes and euerywhere vsed. Yea euen those, that

odys. a.

be learned and wittie trauelers, when they be disposed to prayse traueling, as a great commendacion, and the best Scripture they haue for it, they gladlie recite the third verse of Homere, in his first booke of Odyssea, conteinyng a great prayse of Vlysses, for the witte he gathered, & wisdome he vsed in his traueling.
      Which verse, bicause, in mine opinion, it was not made at the first, more naturallie in Greke by Homere, nor after turned more aptlie into Latin by Horace, than it was a good while ago, in Cambrige, translated into English, both plainlie for the sense, and roundlie for the verse, by one of the best Scholers, that euer S. Iohns Colledge bred, M. Watson, myne old frend, somtime Bishop of Lincolne, therfore, for their sake, that haue lust to see, how our English tong, in auoidyng barbarous ryming, may as well receiue, right quantitie of sillables, and trewe order of versifiyng (of which matter more at large hereafter) as either Greke or Latin, if a cunning man haue it in handling, I will set forth that one verse in all three tonges, for an Example to good wittes, that shall delite in like learned exercise.


pollon d anthropon iden astea kai noon egno.


Qui mores hominum multorum vidit & vrbes.

M. Watson.

All trauellers do gladly report great prayse of Vlysses,
For that he knew many mens maners, and saw many Cities.

      And yet is not Vlysses commended, so much, nor so oft, in Homere, bicause he was polytropos, that is, skilfull in many mens manners and facions, as bicause he was polymetis, that is, wise in all
Vlyss. {polytropos.
{ polymetis.
Pallas from heauen.

Alcynous. od. 2.

Cyclops. od. 1.
Calypso. od. e.



{ od. m.

Circes.    od. k.

od. l.

purposes, & ware in all places: which wisedome and warenes will not serue neither a traueler, except Pallas be alwayes at his elbow, that is Gods speciall grace from heauen, to kepe him in Gods feare, in all his doynges, in all his ieorneye. For, he shall not alwayes in his absence out of England, light vpon a ientle Alcynous, and walke in his faire gardens full of all harmelesse pleasures: but he shall sometymes, fall, either into the handes of some cruell Cyclops, or into the lappe of some wanton and dalying Dame Calypso: and so suffer the danger of many a deadlie Denne, not so full of perils, to distroy the body, as, full of vayne pleasures, to poyson the mynde. Some Siren shall sing him a song, sweete in tune, but sownding in the ende, to his vtter destruction. If Scylla drowne him not, Carybdis may fortune swalow hym. Some Circes shall make him, of a plaine English man, a right Italian. And at length to hell, or to some hellish place, is he likelie to go: from whence is hard returning, although one Vlysses, and that by Pallas ayde, and good counsell of Tiresias once escaped that horrible Den of deadly darkenes.
      Therfore, if wise men will nedes send their sonnes into Italie, let them do it wiselie, vnder the kepe and garde of him, who, by his wisedome and honestie, by his example and authoritie, may be hable to kepe them safe and sound, in the feare of God, in Christes trewe Religion, in good order and honestie of liuyng: except they will haue them run headling, into ouermany ieoperdies, as Vlysses had done many tymes, if Pallas had not alwayes gouerned him: if he had not vsed, to stop his eares with waxe: to bind him selfe to the mast of his shyp: to feede dayly, vpon that swete herbe Moly with the blake roote and white floore, giuen vnto hym by Mercurie, to auoide all the inchantmentes of Circes. Wherby, the Diuine
od. m.
od. k.
Moly Herba.

Psal. 33.

Poete Homer ment couertlie (as wise and Godly men do iudge) that loue of honestie, and hatred of ill, which Dauid more plainly doth call the feare of God: the onely remedie agaynst all inchantementes of sinne.
      I know diuerse noble personages, and many worthie Ientlemen of England, whom all the Siren songes of Italie, could neuer vntwyne from the maste of Gods word: nor no inchantment of vanitie, ouerturne them, from the feare of God, and loue of honestie.
      But I know as many, or mo, and some, sometyme my deare frendes, for whose sake I hate going into that countrey the more, who, partyng out of England feruent in the loue of Christes doctrine, and well furnished with the feare of God, returned out of Italie worse transformed, than euer was any in Circes Court. I know diuerse, that went out of England, men of innocent life, men of excellent learnyng, who returned out of Italie, not onely with worse maners, but also with lesse learnyng: neither so willing to liue orderly, nor yet so hable to speake learnedlie, as they were at home, before they went abroad. And why? Plato yt wise writer, and worthy traueler him selfe, telleth the cause why. He went into Sicilia, a countrey, no nigher Italy by site of place, than Italie that is now, is like Sicilia that was then, in all corrupt maners and licenciousnes of life. Plato found in Sicilia, euery Citie full of vanitie, full of factions, euen as Italie is now. And as Homere, like a learned Poete, doth feyne, that Circes, by pleasant inchantmentes, did turne men into beastes, some into Swine, som
Plat. ad Dionys. Epist. 3.

The fruits of vayne pleasure.

Causes why men returne out of Italie, lesse learned and worse manered.
Homer and Plato ioyned and expounded.
A Swyne.
An Asse.
A Foxe.

aphrosyne, Quid, et vnde.

into Asses, some into Foxes, some into Wolues etc. euen so Plato, like a wise Philosopher, doth plainelie declare, that pleasure, by licentious vanitie, that sweete and perilous poyson of all youth, doth ingender in all those, that yeld vp themselues to her, foure notorious properties.

{1. lethen
{2. dysmathian
{3. achrosynen
{4. ybrin.

      The first, forgetfulnes of all good thinges learned before: the second, dulnes to receyue either learnyng or honestie euer after: the third, a mynde embracing lightlie the worse opinion, and baren of discretion to make trewe difference betwixt good and ill, betwixt troth, and vanitie, the fourth, a proude disdainfulnes of other good men, in all honest matters. Homere and Plato, haue both one meanyng, looke both to one end. For, if a man inglutte himself with vanitie, or walter in filthines like a Swyne, all learnyng, all goodnes, is sone forgotten: Than, quicklie shall he becum a dull Asse, to vnderstand either learnyng or honestie: and yet shall he be as sutle as a Foxe, in breedyng of mischief, in bringyng in misorder, with a busie head, a discoursing tong, and a factious harte, in euery priuate affaire, in all matters of state, with this pretie propertie, alwayes glad to commend the worse partie, and euer ready to defend the falser opinion. And why? For, where will is giuen from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone caryed from right iudgement, to any fond opinion, in Religion, in Philosophie, or any other kynde of learning. The fourth fruite of vaine pleasure, by Homer and Platos iudgement, is pride in them selues, contempt of others, the very badge of all those that serue in Circes Court. The trewe meenyng of both Homer and Plato, is plainlie declared in one short sentence of the holy Prophet of God Hieremie, crying out of the vaine & vicious life of the Israelites. This people (sayth he) be fooles and dulhedes to all goodnes, but sotle, cunning and bolde, in any mischiefe. &c.
      The true medicine against the inchantmentes of Circes, the vanitie of licencious pleasure, the inticementes of all sinne, is, in Homere, the herbe Moly, with the blacke roote, and white flooer, sower at the first, but sweete in the end: which,

Hieremias 4. Cap.

Hesiodus de virtute.

Homerus, diuinus Poeta.

Hesiodus termeth the study of vertue, hard and irksome in the beginnyng, but in the end, easie and pleasant. And that, which is most to be marueled at, the diuine Poete Homere sayth plainlie that this medicine against sinne and vanitie, is not found out by man, but giuen and taught by God. And for some one sake, that will haue delite to read that sweete and Godlie Verse, I will recite the very wordes of Homere and also turne them into rude English metre.

                chalepon de t oryssein
andrasi ge thnetoisi, theoi de te panta dynantai.

In English thus.

No mortall man, with sweat of browe, or toile of minde,
But onely God, who can do all, that herbe doth finde.

      Plato also, that diuine Philosopher, hath many Godly medicines agaynst the poyson of vayne pleasure, in many places, but specially in his Epistles to Dionisius the tyrant of Sicilie: yet agaynst those, that will nedes becum beastes, with seruyng of Circes, the Prophet Dauid, crieth most loude, Nolite fieri sicut equus et mulus: and by and by giueth the right medicine, the trewe herbe Moly, In camo & freno maxillas eorum constringe, that is to say, let Gods grace be the bitte, let Gods feare be the bridle, to stay them from runnyng headlong into vice, and to turne them into the right way agayne. Dauid in the second Psalme after, giueth the same medicine, but in these plainer wordes, Diuerte à malo, & fac bonum. But I am affraide, that ouer many of our trauelers into Italie, do not exchewe the way to Circes Court: but go, and ryde, and runne, and flie thether, they make great hast to cum to her: they make great sute to serue her: yea, I could point out some with my finger, that neuer had gone out of England, but onelie to serue Circes, in Italie. Vanitie and vice, and any licence to ill liuyng in England was counted stale and rude vnto them. And so, beyng
Plat. ad Dio.
Psal. 32.

Psal. 33.

A trewe Picture of a knight of Circes Court.

Mules and Horses before they went, returned verie Swyne and Asses home agayne: yet euerie where verie Foxes with suttle and busie heades; and where they may, verie wolues, with cruell malicious hartes. A meruelous monster, which, for filthines of liuyng, for dulnes to learning him selfe, for wilinesse in dealing with others, for malice in hurting without cause, should carie at once in one bodie, the belie of a Swyne, the head of an Asse, the brayne of a Foxe, the wombe of a wolfe. If you thinke, we iudge amisse, and write to sore against you, heare, what the Italian sayth of the English man, what the master reporteth of the scholer: who vttereth playnlie, what is taught by him, and what learned by you, saying, Englese Italianato, e vn diabolo incarnato, that is to say, you remaine men in shape and facion, but becum deuils in life and condition. This is not, the opinion of one, for some priuate spite, but the iudgement of all, in a common Prouerbe, which riseth, of that learnyng, and those maners, which you gather in Italie: a good Scholehouse of wholesome doctrine: and worthy Masters of commendable Scholers, where the Master had rather diffame hym selfe for hys teachyng, than not shame his Scholer for his learning. A good nature of the maister, and faire conditions of the
The Italians iudgement of Englishmen brought vp in Italie.

The Italian diffameth him selfe, to shame the Englishe man.

An English man Italianated.

The {1 Religion.}
{2 Learning.}
{4 Pollicie.}
{4 Experience.}
{5 Maners.}
gotten in Italie.

Italian bokes translated into English.

scholers. And now chose you, you Italian English men, whether you will be angrie with vs, for calling you monsters, or with the Italianes, for callyng you deuils, or else with your owne selues, that take so much paines, and go so farre, to make your selues both. If some yet do not well vnderstand, what is an English man Italianated, I will plainlie tell him. He, that by liuing, & traueling in Italie, bringeth home into England out of Italie, the Religion, the learning, the policie, the experience, the maners of Italie. That is to say, for Religion, Papistrie or worse: for learnyng, lesse commonly than they caried out with them: for pollicie, a factious hart, a discoursing head, a mynde to medle in all mens matters: for experience, plentie of new mischieues neuer knowne in England before: for maners, varietie of vanities, and chaunge of filthy lyuing. These be the inchantementes of Circes, brought out of Italie, to marre mens maners in England: much, by example of ill life, but more by preceptes of fonde bookes, of late translated out of Italian into English, sold in euery shop in London, commended by honest titles the soner to corrupt honest maners: dedicated ouer boldlie to vertuous and honorable personages, the easielier to begile simple and innocent wittes. image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right It is pitie, that those, which haue authoritie and charge, to allow and dissalow bookes to be printed, be no more circumspect herein, than they are. Ten Sermons at Paules Crosse do not so moch good for mouyng men to trewe doctrine, as one of those bookes do harme, with inticing men to ill liuing. Yea, I say farder, those bookes, tend not so moch to corrupt honest liuyng, as they do, to subuert trewe Religion. Mo Papistes be made, by your mery bookes of Italie, than by your earnest bookes of Louain. And bicause our great Phisicians, do winke at the matter, and make no counte of this sore, I, though not admitted one of their felowshyp, yet hauyng bene many yeares a prentice to Gods trewe Religion, and trust to continewe a poore iorney man therein all dayes of my life, for the dewtie I owe, & loue I beare, both to trewe doctrine, and honest liuing, though I haue no authoritie to amend the sore my selfe, yet I will declare my good will, to discouer the sore to others.
Ad Gal. 5.



Respicit {Bonum.


Morte Arthure.

S. Paul saith, that sectes and ill opinions, be the workes of the flesh, and frutes of sinne, this is spoken, no more trewlie for the doctrine, than sensiblie for the reason. And why? For, ill doinges, breed ill thinkinges. And of corrupted maners, spryng peruerted iudgementes. And how? there be in man two speciall thinges: Mans will, mans mynde, Where will inclineth to goodnes, the mynde is bent to troth: Where will is caried from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone drawne from troth to false opinion. And so, the readiest way to entangle the mynde with false doctrine, is first to intice the will to wanton liuyng. Therfore, when the busie and open Papistes abroad, could not, by their contentious bookes, turne men in England fast enough, from troth and right iudgement in doctrine, than the sutle and image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right secrete Papistes at home, procured bawdie bookes to be translated out of the Italian tonge, whereby ouer many yong willes and wittes allured to wantonnes, do now boldly contemne all seuere bookes that sounde to honestie and godlines. In our forefathers tyme, whan Papistrie, as a standyng poole, couered and ouerflowed all England, fewe bookes were read in our tong, sauyng certaine bookes of Cheualrie, as they sayd, for pastime and pleasure, which, as some say, were made in Monasteries, by idle Monkes, or wanton Chanons: as one for example, Morte Arthure: the whole pleasure of which booke standeth in two speciall poyntes, in open mans slaughter, and bold bawdrye: In which booke those be counted the noblest Knightes, that do kill most men without any quarell, and commit fowlest aduoulteries by sutlest shiftes: as Sir Launcelote, with the wife of king Arthure his master: Syr Tristram with the wife of king Marke his vncle: Syr Lamerocke with the wife of king Lote,image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right that was his own aunte. This is good stuffe, for wise men to laughe at, or honest men to take pleasure at. Yet I know, when Gods Bible was banished the Court, and Morte Arthure receiued into the Princes chamber. What toyes, the dayly readyng of such a booke, may worke in the will of a yong ientleman, or a yong mayde, that liueth welthelie and idlelie, wise men can iudge, and honest men do pitie. And yet ten Morte Arthures do not the tenth part so much harme, as one of these bookes, made in Italie, and translated in image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right England. They open, not fond and common wayes to vice, but such subtle, cunnyng, new, and diuerse shiftes, to cary yong willes to vanitie, and yong wittes to mischief, to teach old bawdes new schole poyntes, as the simple head of an English man is not hable to inuent, nor neuer was hard of in England before, yea when Papistrie ouerflowed all. Suffer these bookes to be read, and they shall soone displace all bookes of godly learnyng. For they, carying the will to vanitie, and marryng good maners, shall easily image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right corrupt the mynde with ill opinions, and false iudgement in doctrine: first, to thinke ill of all trewe Religion, and at last to thinke nothyng of God hym selfe, one speciall pointe that is to be learned in Italie, and Italian image: dingbat of hand pointing to the right bookes. And that which is most to be lamented, and therfore more nedefull to be looked to, there be moe of these vngratious bookes set out in Printe within these fewe monethes, than haue bene sene in England many score yeare before. And bicause our English men made Italians, can not hurt, but certaine persons, and in certaine places, therfore these Italian bookes are made English, to bryng mischief enough openly and boldly, to all states great and meane, yong and old, euery where.
      And thus yow see, how will intised to wantonnes, doth easelie allure the mynde to false opinions: and how corrupt maners in liuinge, breede false iudgement in doctrine: how sinne and fleshlines, bring forth sectes and heresies: And therefore suffer not vaine bookes to breede vanitie in mens willes, if yow would haue Goddes trothe take roote in mens myndes.
      That Italian, that first inuented the Italian Prouerbe against our Englishe men Italianated, ment no more their vanitie in liuing, than their lewd opinion in Religion. For, in calling them Deuiles, he carieth them cleane from God: and yet he carieth them no farder, than they willinglie go themselues, that is, where they may freely say their mindes, to the open contempte of God and all godlines, both in liuing and doctrine.
The Italian prouerbe expounded.

Psa. 14.

And how? I will expresse how, not by a Fable of Homere, nor by the Philosophie of Plato, but by a plaine troth of Goddes word, sensiblie vttered by Dauid thus. Thies men, abhominabiles facti in studijs suis, thinke verily, and singe gladlie the verse before, Dixit insipiens in Corde suo, non est Deus: that is to say, they geuing themselues vp to vanitie, shakinge of the motions of Grace, driuing from them the feare of God, and running headlong into all sinne, first, lustelie contemne God, than scornefullie mocke his worde, and also spitefullie hate and hurte all well willers thereof. Than they haue in more reuerence, the triumphes of Petrarche: than the Genesis of Moses: They make more accounte of Tullies offices, than S. Paules epistles: of a tale in Bocace, than a storie of the Bible. Than they counte as Fables, the holie misteries of Christian Religion. They make Christ and his Gospell, onelie serue Ciuill pollicie: Than neyther Religion cummeth amisse to them: In tyme they be Promoters of both openlie: in place againe mockers of both priuilie, as I wrote once in a rude ryme.

    Now new, now olde, now both, now neither,
    To serue the worldes course, they care not with whether.

      For where they dare, in cumpanie where they like, they boldlie laughe to scorne both protestant and Papist. They care for no scripture: They make no counte of generall councels: they contemne the consent of the Chirch: They passe for no Doctores: They mocke the Pope: They raile on Luther: They allow neyther side: They like none, but onelie themselues: The marke they shote at, the ende they looke for, the heauen they desire, is onelie, their owne present pleasure,
The Italian Chirche in London.
and priuate proffit: whereby, they plainlie declare, of whose schole, of what Religion they be: that is, Epicures in liuing, and atheoi in doctrine: this last worde, is no more vnknowne now to plaine English men, than the Person was vnknown somtyme in England, vntill som Englishe man tooke peines, to fetch that deuelish opinion out of Italie. Thies men, thus Italianated abroad, can not abide our Godlie Italian Chirch at home: they be not of that Parish, they be not of that felowshyp: they like not yt preacher: they heare not his sermons: Excepte somtymes for companie, they cum thither, to heare the Italian tonge naturally spoken, not to hear Gods doctrine trewly preached.
      And yet, thies men, in matters of Diuinitie, openlie pretend a great knowledge, and haue priuatelie to them selues, a verie compendious vnderstanding of all, which neuertheles they will vtter when and where they liste: And that is this: All the misteries of Moses, the whole lawe and Cerimonies, the Psalmes and Prophetes, Christ and his Gospell, G O D and the Deuill, Heauen and Hell, Faith, Conscience, Sinne, Death, and all they shortlie wrap vp, they quickly expounde with this one halfe verse of Horace.

Credat Iudæus Appella.         

      Yet though in Italie they may freely be of no Religion, as they are in Englande in verie deede to, neuerthelesse returning home into England they must countenance the profession of the one or the other, howsoeuer inwardlie, they laugh to scorne both. And though, for their priuate matters they can follow, fawne, and flatter noble Personages, contrarie to them in all respectes, yet commonlie they allie themselues with the worst Papistes, to whom they be wedded, and do well agree togither in three proper opinions: In open contempte of Goddes worde: in a secret securitie of sinne: and in a bloodie desire to haue all taken away, by sword or burning, that be not of their faction. They that do read, with indifferent iudgement, Pygius and Machiauel, two indifferent Patriarches of thies two Religions, do know full well that I say trewe.
      Ye see, what manners and doctrine, our Englishe men fetch out of Italie: For finding no other there, they can bring no other hither. And therefore, manie godlie and excellent learned Englishe men, not manie yeares ago, did make a better choice, whan open crueltie draue them out of this contrie, to place themselues there, where
Papistrie and impietie agree in three opinions.



Wise and honest trauelers.




Seruice of God in England.

Seruice of God in Italie.

The Lord Maior of London.

The Inquisitors in Italie.

Christes doctrine, the feare of God, punishment of sinne, and discipline of honestie, were had in speciall regarde.
      I was once in Italie my selfe: but I thanke God, my abode there, was but ix. dayes: And yet I sawe in that litle tyme, in one Citie, more libertie to sinne, than euer I hard tell of in our noble Citie of London in ix. yeare. I sawe, it was there, as free to sinne, not onelie without all punishment, but also without any mans marking, as it is free in the Citie of London, to chose, without all blame, whether a man lust to weare Shoo or pantocle. And good cause why: For being vnlike in troth of Religion, they must nedes be vnlike in honestie of liuing. For blessed be Christ, in our Citie of London, commonlie the commandementes of God, be more diligentlie taught, and the seruice of God more reuerentlie vsed, and that daylie in many priuate mens houses, than they be in Italie once a weeke in their common Chirches: where, masking Ceremonies, to delite the eye, and vaine soundes, to please the eare, do quite thrust out of the Chirches, all seruice of God in spirit and troth. Yea, the Lord Maior of London, being but a Ciuill officer, is com- monlie for his tyme, more diligent, in punishing sinne, the bent enemie against God and good order, than all the bloodie Inquisitors in Italie be in seauen yeare. For, their care and charge is, not to punish sinne, not to amend manners, not to purge doctrine, but onelie to watch and ouersee that Christes trewe Religion set no sure footing, where the Pope hath any Iurisdiction. I learned, when I was at Venice, that there it is counted good pollicie, when there be foure or fiue brethren of one familie, one, onelie to marie: & all the rest, to waulter, with as litle shame, in open lecherie, as Swyne do here in the common myre. Yea, there be as fayre houses of Religion, as great prouision, as diligent officers, to kepe vp this misorder, as Bridewell is, and all the Masters there, to kepe downe misorder. And therefore, if the Pope himselfe, do not onelie graunt pardons to furder thies wicked purposes abrode in Italie, but also (although this present Pope, in the beginning, made som shewe of misliking thereof) assigne both meede and merite to the maintenance of
An ungodlie pollicie.

Contempt of mariage.

stewes and brothelhouses at home in Rome, than let wise men thinke Italie a safe place for holsom doctrine, and godlie manners, and a fitte schole for yong ientlemen of England to be brought vp in.
      Our Italians bring home with them other faultes from Italie, though not so great as this of Religion, yet a great deale greater, than many good men can well beare. For commonlie they cum home, common contemners of mariage and readie persuaders of all other to the same: not because they loue virginitie, but, being free in Italie, to go whither so euer lust will cary them, they do not like, that lawe and honestie should be soch a barre to their like libertie at home in England. And yet they be, the greatest makers of loue, the daylie daliers, with such pleasant wordes, with such smilyng and secret countenances, with such signes, tokens, wagers, purposed to be lost, before they were purposed to be made, with bargaines of wearing colours, floures, and herbes, to breede occasion of ofter meeting of him and her, and bolder talking of this and that &c. And although I haue seene some, innocent of all ill, and stayde in all honestie, that haue vsed these thinges without all harme, without all suspicion of harme, yet these knackes were brought first into England by them, that learned them before in Italie in Circes Court: and how Courtlie curtesses so euer they be counted now, yet, if the meaning and maners of some that do vse them, were somewhat amended, it were no great hurt, neither to them selues, nor to others.
      An other propertie of this our English Italians is, to be meruelous singular in all their matters: Singular in knowledge, ignorant of nothyng: So singular in wisedome (in their owne opinion) as scarse they counte the best Counsellor the Prince hath, comparable to them: Common discoursers of all matters: busie searchers of most secret affaires: open flatterers of great men: priuie mislikers of good men: Faire speakers, with smiling countenances, and much curtessie openlie to all men. Ready bakbiters, sore nippers, and spitefull reporters priuilie of good men. And beyng brought vp in Italie, in some free Citie, as all Cities be there: where a man may freelie discourse against what he will, against whom he lust: against any Prince, agaynst any gouernement, yea against God him selfe, and his whole Religion: where he must be, either Guelphe or Gibiline, either French or Spanish: and alwayes compelled to be of some partie, of some faction, he shall neuer be compelled to be of any Religion: And if he medle not ouer much with Christes true Religion, he shall haue free libertie to embrace all Religions, and becum, if he lust at once, without any let or punishment, Iewish, Turkish, Papish, and Deuillish.
      A yong Ientleman, thus bred vp in this goodly schole, to learne the next and readie way to sinne, to haue a busie head, a factious hart, a talkatiue tonge, fed with discoursing of factions: led to contemne God and his Religion, shall cum home into England, but verie ill taught, either to be an honest man him self, a quiet subiect to his Prince, or willyng to serue God, vnder the obedience of trewe doctrine, or within the order of honest liuing.
      I know, none will be offended with this my generall writing, but onelie such, as finde them selues giltie priuatelie therin: who shall haue good leaue to be offended with me, vntill they begin to amende them selues. I touch not them that be good: and I say to litle of them that be nought. And so, though not enough for their deseruing, yet sufficientlie for this time, and more els when, if occasion so require.
      And thus farre haue I wandred from my first purpose of teaching a child, yet not altogether out of the way, bicause this whole taulke hath tended to the onelie aduauncement of trothe in Religion, and honestie of liuing: and hath bene wholie within the compasse of learning and good maners, the speciall pointes belonging in the right bringyng vp of youth.
But to my matter, as I began, plainlie and simplie
with my yong Scholer, so will I not leaue him,
God willing, vntill I haue brought him a per-
fite Scholer out of the Schole, and placed
him in the Vniuersitie, to becum a fitte
student, for Logicke and Rhetoricke:
and so after to Phisicke, Law, or
Diuinitie, as aptnes of na-
ture, aduise of frendes, and
Gods disposition shall
lead him.

The ende of the first booke.


To continue: Book II.

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