Luminarium: Encyclopedia Project Tudor Rose England under the Tudors

Luminarium | Encyclopedia | What's New | Letter from the Editor | Bookstore | Poster Store | Discussion Forums | Search


Portrait of Francois, Duke of Alencon

FRANÇOIS, DUKE OF ALENÇON AND ANJOU (1554-1584), was the youngest of the four sons of King Henri II of France and Catherine de' Medici. In childhood, he contracted smallpox, which left him disfigured (though little of it is shown in portraits). The smallpox also left him weak and caused his growth to be stunted, which exposed him to ridicule. He was under five feet tall.1 His lack of interest and proficiency in the manly arts of sports further opened him to derision in an era where these qualities, for a great part, were the measure of a man.2

From an early age, it was clear François had a dislike of his older brother Henri (Duke of Anjou, later King Henri III). The feeling seems to have been mutual, and the brothers remained bitter rivals throughout their lives. Their older brother Charles had acceded to the throne in 1560, and in 1566, Charles IX created François Duc D'Alençon.

In the early 1570s, the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici, proposed a match for Alençon — Queen Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth objected at first on the grounds of age and disparity of religion, but the proposal was not outright refused, and the negotiations carried on for years.

After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, Alençon took part in the siege of the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle (1573) under his brother Henri. Around this time, he proposed to visit Elizabeth in England, but was warned against it, indignation for the treatment of the protestant Huguenots still running strong in England.

King Charles IX was suffering with a long-term illness, which left him incapacitated. Alençon with his brother-in-law Henri of Navarre were caught scheming for the throne, and the two were imprisoned. After a protracted illness, King Charles IX succumbed in May, 1574. Henri was declared King Henri III, and Alençon, though freed, was kept under close watch. He managed to escape the court in September, 1575, to his own domains, from where he issued a manifesto against the corrupt goverment and promising protection to both Catholics and Protestants, if they shoud support his bid for the throne.

Alençon gathered a large force, and the King and queen-mother were forced to submit to Alençon's terms. The peace made on May 6, 1576, known as "the Peace of Monsieur" (or Edict of Bealieu), conferred upon Alençon his rightful revenues, as well as the duchies of Anjou, Touraine, and Berry, including "all ecclesiastical dignities and benefices in those provinces; all other rights of royalty, and a pension of 100,000 crowns."3

At the King's insistence, in 1576 Alençon signed the Holy League. When the religious wars were renewed in 1577, Alençon was sent in command of the King's armies against the Huguenots. Resistance was ruthlessly quelled, and the war was concluded with the peace of Bergerac.

The relationship between the brothers, however, was far from easy. Alençon made little effort to disguise his distaste for Henri, who in turn was suspicious of Alençon's designs both in Netherland and in regard to the French throne. Alençon was under constant watch once more, and when he tried to leave the court, Henri personally placed him under arrest. In 1578, Alençon was able to escape by being lowered out of his sister's bedroom window with a rope!4  Alençon entered Belgium in August and was declared protector of the liberty of Belgium. Alençon got little accomplished, and disbanded his army early in 1579.

Alençon and Elizabeth had been corresponding for years, as the marriage negotiations dragged. Early in 1579, Alençon dispatched his representative, Jean de Simier, to England, to woo Elizabeth and drive his suit. Simier (whom Elizabeth dubbed her "monkey", with a play on Simier-simian) paid masterful court to Elizabeth on behalf of his master, and all signs seemed favorable. Though no contract had been written up, on August 17th Alençon himself arrived in England.

The visit was unofficial, and the two had several "secret" meetings. No records exist of their first meeting, but the friendship which had budded over years of letters, seemed to have budded into an actual romance. They spent nearly every waking moment together, Elizabeth calling him her "frog" (grenouille). By the 25th, the Spanish ambassador Mendoza ruefully reported to his King that, "The Queen is delighted with Alençon, and he with her, as she has let out to some of her courtiers, saying that she was pleased to have known him, was much taken with his good parts, and admired him more than any man."5

After Alençon left on August 27th, he sent her letters "ardent enough to set fire to water."6 The letters are in the Hatfield collection, and include passionate protestations of eternal love, with florid lines like, "on the brink of this troublesome sea I kiss your feet."7 Simier also wrote, saying how his master could not sleep "for his great grief at leaving."

Elizabeth's court and kingdom, however, were not in favor of the match, feeling that the negatives outweighed the positives. The Council drafted an address to the Queen in October, and many heated conversations ensued, Elizabeth subjecting her councillors to much indignant abuse. When a lawyer named John Stubbs published a pamphlet entitled The Discovery of a Gaping Gulf Whereunto England is Like to Be Swallowed by Another French Marriage, he paid for his insolence by having his right hand chopped off. All of London seemed against the marriage, and even Sir Philip Sidney boldly wrote a letter to her majesty to advise against the match.

A preliminary marriage contract was signed in November, 1579. It provided that Alençon and his household could continue to practice their Catholic faith in private. But her subjects' uproar and the nitpicking over the contract began to take their toll, and the relationship began to cool in the following months. One of the most passionate objectors to the marriage was the Queen's earlier favorite, Leicester. In April 1580, Simier wrote on behalf of his master: "As for your frog, his flame is immortal, and his love towards you can never end either in this world or the next. By God, Madame, lose no more time!"8

The affair dragged on for nearly two more years, but in April 1581, it seemed the matter was near to being solved. An impressive embassy of the French, headed by the Dauphin, arrived in London to meet for negations with the English, and were royally entertained. Nothing was accomplished, however, terms not being mutually agreed upon. On June 2, Alençon himself came over secretly, without permission from his brother, the King. Elizabeth promised Alençon money and support with his campaign in Cambrai, and Alençon departed.

Next year, Alençon visited Elizabeth again and the scandalized Venetian ambassador reported back to Venice that the Queen visited Alençon's chambers every morning, bringing him a cup of broth for breakfast, and that the two spent the whole of every day together, improperly unchaperoned.9  The Spanish Ambassador mendoza reported to King Philip that "present indications prove that he has got an affirmative answer."10.  On 21 November 1581, when the French ambassador Castelnau pressed the Queen for an answer as to her intentions, she replied: "You may write this to the King: that the Duke of Alençon shall be my husband."11 She kissed him on the mouth and gave him a ring from her hand as a token.

All seemed set for the marriage, save that Elizabeth wanted Parliament to give their approval and King Henri to agree to the terms of a formal alliance with England. These objects were clearly not to be accomplished. Whether the happiness of her subjects and councillors was really important enough for her to forgo marrying the man she loved, or whether she had changed her mind about marrying Alençon and was using the Parliament and the French alliance as excuses, is not conclusively known. The effect remained the same. Eventually, Elizabeth called off the match, and Alençon was indignant: "No, no, madam, you are mine," Alençon protested.12  He even threatened to take her for his wife by force. Alençon was sent away in February 1582 with the famous parting poem, "On Monsieur's Departure," by Elizabeth.

Alençon returned to the Netherlands, where he was named Duke of Brabant. In 1583, after several less than successful campaigns, the Duke withdrew to France. During his campaigns he had contracted an illness which slowly made him waste away, and he died of a fever on June 10th, 1584, barely 30 years of age. Everyone feared to tell Elizabeth the news. When she was finally told, she wore black for mourning and wept openly every day for three weeks13 and observed the anniversary of his death every year.14


1. Erickson, 296.
2. Henry IV is recorded saying that he "is so awkwardly made,
has so little gracefulness in his deportment, and so little
skill in all kinds of exercises, that I cannot persuade myself
that he will ever do anything great" (Biog. Dic. 815).
3. Ibid. 816.
4. Ibid.
5. Quoted in Hume, 212.
6. French ambassador Castelnau, quoted in Hume. 213.
7. Hume, 214.
8. Ibid. 228.
9. Ibid. 265-6.
10. Ibid. 267.
11. Ibid. 269.
12. Spanish Calendar, Elizabethan, III, 243. Quoted in Erickson, 329.
13. Denkinger, 263.
14. Williams, 213.

Works Cited:

——, The Biographical Dictionary, &c.. Vol I, Part II.
        London: Longman, &c., 1842.
        [Available at Google Books]

Denkinger, Emma Marshall. Immortal Sidney.
        New York: Brentano's, 1931.

Erickson, Carolly. The First Elizabeth.
        New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1997.

Hume, Martin A. S. The Courtships of Queen Elizabeth.
        London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898.
        [Available at Google Books]

Article Citation:

Jokinen, Anniina. "Biography of François, Duke of Alençon and Anjou."
                 Luminarium Encyclopedia.
                 18 June 2008. [Date you accessed the page].

Backto Elizabeth I
Backto Luminarium Encyclopedia

Index of Encyclopedia Entries:

Medieval Cosmology
Prices of Items in Medieval England

Edward II
Isabella of France, Queen of England
Piers Gaveston
Thomas of Brotherton, E. of Norfolk
Edmund of Woodstock, E. of Kent
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster
Roger Mortimer, Earl of March
Hugh le Despenser the Younger
Bartholomew, Lord Burghersh, elder

Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)

Edward III
Philippa of Hainault, Queen of England
Edward, Black Prince of Wales
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall
The Battle of Crécy, 1346
The Siege of Calais, 1346-7
The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Thomas of Woodstock, Gloucester
Richard of York, E. of Cambridge
Richard Fitzalan, 3. Earl of Arundel
Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
The Good Parliament, 1376
Richard II
The Peasants' Revolt, 1381
Lords Appellant, 1388
Richard Fitzalan, 4. Earl of Arundel
Archbishop Thomas Arundel
Thomas de Beauchamp, E. Warwick
Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford
Ralph Neville, E. of Westmorland
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
Edmund Mortimer, 3. Earl of March
Roger Mortimer, 4. Earl of March
John Holland, Duke of Exeter
Michael de la Pole, E. Suffolk
Hugh de Stafford, 2. E. Stafford
Henry IV
Edward, Duke of York
Edmund Mortimer, 5. Earl of March
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland
Sir Henry Percy, "Harry Hotspur"
Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester
Owen Glendower
The Battle of Shrewsbury, 1403
Archbishop Richard Scrope
Thomas Mowbray, 3. E. Nottingham
John Mowbray, 2. Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Fitzalan, 5. Earl of Arundel
Henry V
Thomas, Duke of Clarence
John, Duke of Bedford
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury
Richard, Earl of Cambridge
Henry, Baron Scrope of Masham
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk
Thomas Montacute, E. Salisbury
Richard Beauchamp, E. of Warwick
Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter
Cardinal Henry Beaufort
John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset
Sir John Fastolf
John Holland, 2. Duke of Exeter
Archbishop John Stafford
Archbishop John Kemp
Catherine of Valois
Owen Tudor
John Fitzalan, 7. Earl of Arundel
John, Lord Tiptoft

Charles VII, King of France
Joan of Arc
Louis XI, King of France
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy
The Battle of Agincourt, 1415
The Battle of Castillon, 1453

The Wars of the Roses 1455-1485
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
The House of Lancaster
The House of York
The House of Beaufort
The House of Neville

The First Battle of St. Albans, 1455
The Battle of Blore Heath, 1459
The Rout of Ludford, 1459
The Battle of Northampton, 1460
The Battle of Wakefield, 1460
The Battle of Mortimer's Cross, 1461
The 2nd Battle of St. Albans, 1461
The Battle of Towton, 1461
The Battle of Hedgeley Moor, 1464
The Battle of Hexham, 1464
The Battle of Edgecote, 1469
The Battle of Losecoat Field, 1470
The Battle of Barnet, 1471
The Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471
The Treaty of Pecquigny, 1475
The Battle of Bosworth Field, 1485
The Battle of Stoke Field, 1487

Henry VI
Margaret of Anjou
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
Edward IV
Elizabeth Woodville
Richard Woodville, 1. Earl Rivers
Anthony Woodville, 2. Earl Rivers
Jane Shore
Edward V
Richard III
George, Duke of Clarence

Ralph Neville, 2. Earl of Westmorland
Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
Edward Neville, Baron Bergavenny
William Neville, Lord Fauconberg
Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury
John Neville, Marquis of Montagu
George Neville, Archbishop of York
John Beaufort, 1. Duke Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 2. Duke Somerset
Henry Beaufort, 3. Duke of Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 4. Duke Somerset
Margaret Beaufort
Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond
Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke
Humphrey Stafford, D. Buckingham
Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham
Humphrey Stafford, E. of Devon
Thomas, Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby
Sir William Stanley
Archbishop Thomas Bourchier
Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex
John Mowbray, 3. Duke of Norfolk
John Mowbray, 4. Duke of Norfolk
John Howard, Duke of Norfolk
Henry Percy, 2. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 3. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 4. E. Northumberland
William, Lord Hastings
Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter
William Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
Thomas de Clifford, 8. Baron Clifford
John de Clifford, 9. Baron Clifford
John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester
Thomas Grey, 1. Marquis Dorset
Sir Andrew Trollop
Archbishop John Morton
Edward Plantagenet, E. of Warwick
John Talbot, 2. E. Shrewsbury
John Talbot, 3. E. Shrewsbury
John de la Pole, 2. Duke of Suffolk
John de la Pole, E. of Lincoln
Edmund de la Pole, E. of Suffolk
Richard de la Pole
John Sutton, Baron Dudley
James Butler, 5. Earl of Ormonde
Sir James Tyrell
Edmund Grey, first Earl of Kent
George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent
John, 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton
James Touchet, 7th Baron Audley
Walter Blount, Lord Mountjoy
Robert Hungerford, Lord Moleyns
Thomas, Lord Scales
John, Lord Lovel and Holand
Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell
Sir Richard Ratcliffe
William Catesby
Ralph, 4th Lord Cromwell
Jack Cade's Rebellion, 1450

Tudor Period

King Henry VII
Queen Elizabeth of York
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Lambert Simnel
Perkin Warbeck
The Battle of Blackheath, 1497

King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Queen Isabella of Castile
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

King Henry VIII
Queen Catherine of Aragon
Queen Anne Boleyn
Queen Jane Seymour
Queen Anne of Cleves
Queen Catherine Howard
Queen Katherine Parr

King Edward VI
Queen Mary I
Queen Elizabeth I
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond

Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland
James IV, King of Scotland
The Battle of Flodden Field, 1513
James V, King of Scotland
Mary of Guise, Queen of Scotland

Mary Tudor, Queen of France
Louis XII, King of France
Francis I, King of France
The Battle of the Spurs, 1513
Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador
The Siege of Boulogne, 1544

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex
Thomas, Lord Audley
Thomas Wriothesley, E. Southampton
Sir Richard Rich

Edward Stafford, D. of Buckingham
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk
Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire
George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford
John Russell, Earl of Bedford
Thomas Grey, 2. Marquis of Dorset
Henry Grey, D. of Suffolk
Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester
George Talbot, 4. E. Shrewsbury
Francis Talbot, 5. E. Shrewsbury
Henry Algernon Percy,
     5th Earl of Northumberland
Henry Algernon Percy,
     6th Earl of Northumberland
Ralph Neville, 4. E. Westmorland
Henry Neville, 5. E. Westmorland
William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester
Sir Francis Bryan
Sir Nicholas Carew
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
Thomas Seymour, Lord Admiral
Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury
Henry Pole, Lord Montague
Sir Geoffrey Pole
Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland
Henry Manners, Earl of Rutland
Henry Bourchier, 2. Earl of Essex
Robert Radcliffe, 1. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 2. Earl of Sussex
George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon
Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter
George Neville, Baron Bergavenny
Sir Edward Neville
William, Lord Paget
William Sandys, Baron Sandys
William Fitzwilliam, E. Southampton
Sir Anthony Browne
Sir Thomas Wriothesley
Sir William Kingston
George Brooke, Lord Cobham
Sir Richard Southwell
Thomas Fiennes, 9th Lord Dacre
Sir Francis Weston
Henry Norris
Lady Jane Grey
Sir Thomas Arundel
Sir Richard Sackville
Sir William Petre
Sir John Cheke
Walter Haddon, L.L.D
Sir Peter Carew
Sir John Mason
Nicholas Wotton
John Taylor
Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Younger

Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio
Cardinal Reginald Pole
Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester
Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London
Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London
John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester
John Aylmer, Bishop of London
Thomas Linacre
William Grocyn
Archbishop William Warham
Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham
Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester
Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford

Pope Julius II
Pope Leo X
Pope Clement VII
Pope Paul III
Pope Pius V

Pico della Mirandola
Desiderius Erasmus
Martin Bucer
Richard Pace
Christopher Saint-German
Thomas Tallis
Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent
Hans Holbein, the Younger
The Sweating Sickness

Dissolution of the Monasteries
Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536
Robert Aske
Anne Askew
Lord Thomas Darcy
Sir Robert Constable

Oath of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy, 1534
The First Act of Succession, 1534
The Third Act of Succession, 1544
The Ten Articles, 1536
The Six Articles, 1539
The Second Statute of Repeal, 1555
The Act of Supremacy, 1559
Articles Touching Preachers, 1583

Queen Elizabeth I
William Cecil, Lord Burghley
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Sir Francis Walsingham
Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Thomas Bromley

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick
Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon
Sir Thomas Egerton, Viscount Brackley
Sir Francis Knollys
Katherine "Kat" Ashley
Lettice Knollys, Countess of Leicester
George Talbot, 6. E. of Shrewsbury
Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury
Gilbert Talbot, 7. E. of Shrewsbury
Sir Henry Sidney
Sir Robert Sidney
Archbishop Matthew Parker
Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich
Sir Christopher Hatton
Edward Courtenay, E. Devonshire
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Thomas Radcliffe, 3. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 4. Earl of Sussex
Robert Radcliffe, 5. Earl of Sussex
William Parr, Marquis of Northampton
Henry Wriothesley, 2. Southampton
Henry Wriothesley, 3. Southampton
Charles Neville, 6. E. Westmorland
Thomas Percy, 7. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 8. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 9. E. Nothumberland
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Henry Howard, 1. Earl of Northampton
Thomas Howard, 1. Earl of Suffolk
Henry Hastings, 3. E. of Huntingdon
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland
Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland
Henry FitzAlan, 12. Earl of Arundel
Thomas, Earl Arundell of Wardour
Edward Somerset, E. of Worcester
William Davison
Sir Walter Mildmay
Sir Ralph Sadler
Sir Amyas Paulet
Gilbert Gifford
Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague
François, Duke of Alençon & Anjou

Mary, Queen of Scots
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell
Anthony Babington and the Babington Plot
John Knox

Philip II of Spain
The Spanish Armada, 1588
Sir Francis Drake
Sir John Hawkins

William Camden
Archbishop Whitgift
Martin Marprelate Controversy
John Penry (Martin Marprelate)
Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Dee, Alchemist

Philip Henslowe
Edward Alleyn
The Blackfriars Theatre
The Fortune Theatre
The Rose Theatre
The Swan Theatre
Children's Companies
The Admiral's Men
The Lord Chamberlain's Men
Citizen Comedy
The Isle of Dogs, 1597

Common Law
Court of Common Pleas
Court of King's Bench
Court of Star Chamber
Council of the North
Fleet Prison
First Fruits & Tenths
Livery and Maintenance
Oyer and terminer

The Stuarts

King James I of England
Anne of Denmark
Henry, Prince of Wales
The Gunpowder Plot, 1605
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset
Arabella Stuart, Lady Lennox

William Alabaster
Bishop Hall
Bishop Thomas Morton
Archbishop William Laud
John Selden
Lucy Harington, Countess of Bedford
Henry Lawes

King Charles I
Queen Henrietta Maria

Long Parliament
Rump Parliament
Kentish Petition, 1642

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford
John Digby, Earl of Bristol
George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax
Robert Devereux, 3rd E. of Essex
Robert Sidney, 2. E. of Leicester
Algernon Percy, E. of Northumberland
Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2. Earl of Manchester

The Restoration

King Charles II
King James II
Test Acts

Greenwich Palace
Hatfield House
Richmond Palace
Windsor Palace
Woodstock Manor

The Cinque Ports
Mermaid Tavern
Malmsey Wine
Great Fire of London, 1666
Merchant Taylors' School
Westminster School
The Sanctuary at Westminster


Chart of the English Succession from William I through Henry VII

Medieval English Drama

London c1480, MS Royal 16
London, 1510, the earliest view in print
Map of England from Saxton's Descriptio Angliae, 1579
London in late 16th century
Location Map of Elizabethan London
Plan of the Bankside, Southwark, in Shakespeare's time
Detail of Norden's Map of the Bankside, 1593
Bull and Bear Baiting Rings from the Agas Map (1569-1590, pub. 1631)
Sketch of the Swan Theatre, c. 1596
Westminster in the Seventeenth Century, by Hollar
Visscher's View of London, 1616
Larger Visscher's View in Sections
c. 1690. View of London Churches, after the Great Fire
The Yard of the Tabard Inn from Thornbury, Old and New London

Site copyright ©1996-2023 Anniina Jokinen. All Rights Reserved.
  This page created by Anniina Jokinen on June 18, 2008. Last updated February 14, 2023.