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Signature of Walter Haddon

Walter Haddon, LL.D. (1516-1572)

WALTER HADDON, LL.D., civilian, son of William Haddon, by his wife Dorothy, daughter of Paul Dayrell, and brother of James Haddon, was born in Buckinghamshire in 1516. He was educated at Eton under Richard Cox, ultimately bishop of Ely. In 1533 he was elected from Eton to King's College, Cambridge. He declined an invitation to Cardinal College, newly founded by Wolsey at Oxford, and proceeded B. A. at Cambridge in 1537. He was one of the promising scholars who about this period attended the Greek lecture read in the university by Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) Smith. He excelled as a writer of Latin prose, commenced M.A. in 1541, and read lectures on civil law for two or three years. He sent to his friend Cox, the prince's tutor, an interesting account of a hasty visit paid to Prince Edward at Hatfield about 1546.

He was created doctor of laws at Cambridge in 1549, and served the office of vice-chancellor in 1549-50.1 He was 'one of the great and eminent lights of the reformation in Cambridge under King Edward.'2 With Matthew Parker, then master of Benet College, he acted as an executor of his friend Martin Bucer, and both delivered orations at his funeral in March 1550-1. Soon afterwards he was dangerously ill, and received a pious consolatory letter from John Cheke (19 March). Two days later he was appointed regius professor of civil law, in accordance with a petition from the university, drawn up by his friend Roger Ascham.

Haddon and Cheke were chiefly responsible for the reform of the ecclesiastical laws, prepared under Cranmer's superintendence, and with the advice of Peter Martyr, in accordance with the act of 1549, which directed that the scheme should be completed by 1552. The work was not finished within the specified time. A bill introduced into the parliament of 1552 for the renewal of the commission was not carried, and Edward's death put an end to the scheme, but Haddon and Cheke's 'Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum' appeared in 1571. On the refusal of Bishop Gardiner, master of Trinity Hall, to comply with the request of the Duke of Somerset, lord protector, to amalgamate that college with Clare Hall, the king in February 1551-2 appointed Haddon to the mastership of Trinity Hall.3 On 8 April 1552 he, Parker, Ralph Aynsworth, master of Peterhouse, and Thomas Lever, master of St. John's, were commissioned to settle a disputed claim to the mastership of Clare Hall.4 When Cheke was lying desperately ill in 1552, he recommended Haddon to the king as his successor in the provostship of King's College.

At Michaelmas 1552 the king and council removed Owen Oglethorp, president of Magdalen College, Oxford, who was opposed to further religious changes, and Haddon was appointed to succeed him. The fellows in vain petitioned the king against this flagrant breach of the college statutes. Oglethorp, finding the council inflexible, made an amicable arrangement with Haddon. He resigned on 27 Sept., and Haddon was admitted president by royal mandate on 10 Oct., Michael Renniger, one of Oglethorp's strongest opponents, addressing him in a congratulatory oration. The new president 'contrived, during his short and unstatutable career, to sell as many of the precious effects of the chapel as were valued at about a thousand pounds for £52 14s. 8d., which sum he is said to have consumed on alterations, as also nearly £120 of the public money'.5 Some libellous verses against the president, affixed to various parts of the college, were attributed to Julius Palmer, who was expelled on the ground of 'popish pranks.'

On Mary's accession (August 1553) Haddon wrote some Latin verses congratulating her majesty.6 On 27 Aug. 1558 he prudently obtained leave of absence from college for a month on urgent private affairs. The following day letters were received from the queen commanding that all injunctions contrary to the founder's statutes issued since the death of Henry VIII should be abolished; and Haddon having retired, Oglethorp was re-elected president on 31 Oct. A commission for Haddon's admission to practise as an advocate in the arches court of Canterbury was taken out on 9 May 1555.7 He was admitted a member of Gray's Inn in 1557, and was one of the members for Thetford, Norfolk, in the parliament which assembled 20 Jan. 1557-8.8

In 1557 he translated into Latin a supplicatory letter to Pope Paul IV from the parliament of England, to dissuade his holiness from revoking Cardinal Pole's legatine authority. His sympathy with protestantism was, however, displayed in a consolatory Latin poem addressed to the Princess Elizabeth on her afflictions. On her accession he was summoned to attend her at Hatfield, 'congratulated her in Latin verse, and was immediately constituted one of the masters of the court of requests. In spite of his protestant opinions he was an admirer of the learning of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstal, and composed the epitaph placed on his tomb in 1559. On 20 June in that year he was appointed one of her majesty's commissioners for the visitation of the university of Cambridge and the college of Eton; and on 18 Sept. following the queen granted him a pension of £50 per annum.9 He was in the commission for administering oaths to ecclesiastics (20 Oct. 1559); was also one of the ecclesiastical commissioners; and received from his friend, Archbishop Parker, the office of judge of the prerogative court.10

In 1560 a Latin prayer-book, prepared under the superintendence of Haddon, who took a former translation by Aless (Alexander Alebius) as a model, was authorised by the queen's letters patent for the use of the colleges in both universities and those of Eton and Winchester.11 On 22 Jan. 1560-1 he was one of the royal commissioners appointed to peruse the order of lessons throughout the year, to cause new calendars to be printed, to provide remedies for the decay of churches, and to prescribe some good order for collegiate churches in the use of the Latin service. He was one of the learned men recommended by Bishop Grindal in December 1561 for the provostship of Eton College, but the queen's choice fell upon William Day. In June 1562 he and Parker, at the request of the senate, induced Cecil to abandon his intention of resigning the chancellorship of the university of Cambridge.12

In 1563 Jerome Osorio da Fonseca, a Portuguese priest, published in French and Latin an epistle to Queen Elizabeth, exhorting her to return to the communion of the catholic church. Haddon, by direction of the government, wrote an answer, which was printed at Paris in 1563 through the agency of Sir Thomas Smith, the English ambassador. In August 1564 Haddon accompanied the queen to Cambridge, and determined the questions in law in the disputations in that faculty held in her presence.13 In the same year the queen granted him the site of the abbey of Wymondham, Norfolk, with the manor and lands pertaining to that monastery. He was employed at Bruges in 1565 ana 1566 with Viscount Montacute and Dr. Nicholas Wotton, in negotiations for restoring the ancient commercial relations between England and the Netherlands. In November 1566 he was a member of the joint committee of both houses of parliament appointed to petition the queen about her marriage.14

Osorio, who had been meanwhile created bishop of Silves, published in 1567 a reply to Haddon, and the latter commenced a rejoinder. It was left unfinished at the time of his death, but was ultimately completed and published by John Foxe. There appeared, probably at Antwerp, without date, 'Chorus alternatim canentium,' a satire in verse on the controversy between Haddon and Osorio, attached to a caricature in which Haddon, Bucer, and P. V. Vermigli are represented as dogs drawing a car whereon Osorio is seated in triumph. According to Dr. Edward Nares the English Jesuits at Louvain sought to deter Haddon from proceeding with his second confutation of Osorio, 'endeavouring to intimidate him by a prophetic denunciation of some strange harm to happen to him if he did not stop his pen.' He died, adds Nares, in Flanders, whence the warning came, and his death naturally raised suspicions of foul play.15 The Rev. George Townsend says that Haddon died at Bruges after being threatened with death if he continued the controversy with Osorio.16 As a matter of fact, however, Haddon died in London on 21 Jan. 1571-2, and was interred on the 25th at Christ Church, Newgate Street, where, previously to the great fire of London, there was a monument to his memory, with a Latin inscription preserved by Weever.17

He married, first, Margaret, daughter of Sir John Clere of Ormesby, Norfolk, by whom he had a son, Clere Haddon, who was drowned in the river Cam, probably in 1571; and secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir Henry Sutton, who survived him, and remarried Sir Henry Cobham, whom she also survived.

Queen Elizabeth being asked whether she preferred Buchanan or Haddon, adroitly replied, 'Buchannum omnibus antepono, Haddonem nemini postpone.' In his own day unqualified encomiums were bestowed on his latinity. Hallam, however, remarks of his orations: "They seem hardly to deserve any high praise. Haddon had certainly laboured at an imitation of Cicero, but without catching his manner or getting rid of the florid, semi-poetical tone of the fourth century." Of the' Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum,' the work of Haddon and Cheke, Hallam says: "It is, considering the subject, in very good language."18 Apparently Haddon was not very courtly in his manners. On coming into Queen Elizabeth's presence her majesty told him that his new boots stunk. He replied: 'I believe, madam, it is not my new boots which stink, but the old petitions which have been so long in my bag unopened.'

Subjoined is a list of his works: 1. 'Epistola de Vita et Obitu Henrici et Caroli Brandoni, Fratrum Suflblciensium,' London, 1551, 4to. 2. 'Cantabrigienses: siue Exhortatio ad literas,' London (Richard Grafton), 1552, 12mo. This was furtively sent to the press by Thomas Wilson, afterwards knighted, who, in his dedication to John Dudley, earl of Warwick, says the theft was a 'pium facinus.' The work is reprinted in 'Lucubrationes.' 3. 'Oratio Jesu Christi Salvatoris nostri qua Populum affatus est cum ascendisset Montem. Item, Epistola Sancti Jacobi. Ad haec Psalmus Davidis centesimus tertius. Omnia haec comprehensa versibus,' London, 1555, 8vo. Reprinted in 'Lucubrationes.' 4. 'Liber Precum Publicarum,' London, 1560, 4to. 6. 'Oratio Funebris in honorem Martini Buceri,' Strasburg, 1562, 8vo, and in 'Buceri Scripta Anglicana;' also in Sir John Cheke's 'De Obitu doctissimi et sanctissimi Theologi Doctoris M. Buceri,' London, 1551, 4to. 6. 'Gualtheri Haddoni pro Reformatione Anglicana Epistola Apologetica ad Hier. Osorium, Lusitanum,' Paris (Stephens), 1563. Reprinted in 'Lucubrationes' and in Gerdes's ' Scrinium Autiquarium, sive Miscellanea Groningana Nova,' 1752, iii. 492-522. Translated into English by Abraham Hartwell, under the title of 'A Sight of the Portugall Pearle,' London [565], 16mo. A reply to Haddon, by Emanuel Dalmada, bishop of Angra, was published in Latin at Antwerp, 1566, 4to. 7. 'Lucubrationes passim collectae et editae: studio et labore Thomae Hatcheri, Cantabrigiensis,' London, 1567, 4to — a collection containing, besides the oration on Bucer and many Latin letters addressed to Henry, duke of Suffolk, John, duke of Northumberland, Sir John Cheke, George Day, bishop of Chichester, provost of King's College, Cambridge, and the vice-provost and seniors of that college, Dr. Richard Cox, Dr. Thomas Wilson, Robert, earl of Leicester, Sir Thomas Heneage, and John Sturmius, the following orations: (a) 'De laudibus eloquentiae oratio.' (b) 'In Admissione Bacchalaureorum Cantabrigiensium, Anno Domini, 1547, Oratio.' (c) 'De Laude Scientiarum oratio habita Oxonise.' (d) 'Oratio Theologica habita in regie collegio.' (e) 'Oratio quam habuit, cum Cantabrigise legum interpretationem ordiretur.' (f) 'Oratio habita Cantabrigiae cum ibi inter alios Visitator regius versaretur." (g)' Oratio ad pueros Ætonenses.' 8. 'Poemata, studio et labore Thomae Hatcheri, Cantabrigiensis, sparsim collecta et edita,' London, 1567, 4to. 9. 'Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum ex Authoritate primum Henrici 8 inchoata: deinde per Regem Edouardum 6 prouecta, adauctaque in hunc Modum, atque nunc ad pleniorem ipsarum Reformationem.' London, 1571, 4to. Translated into Latin by Haddon and Sir John Cheke. 10. 'Poematum sparsim collectorum Libri duo,' London, 1576, 12mo. In this work, which is of extreme rarity, there are some pieces not included in the collection of 1567; also poems on Haddon's death. Wood mentions a very doubtful edition, London, 1592, 8vo. 11. 'Contra Hieron. Osorium, ejusque odiosas insectationes pro Evangelicae veritatis necessaria Defensione, Responsio Apologetica. Per clariss. virum Gualt. Haddonum inchoata: Deinde suscepta et continuata per Joan. Foxum,' London, 1577, 4to. An English translation by James Bell appeared at London, 1581, 4to, and is reprinted in vol. viii. of the 'Fathers of the English Church,' edited by the Rev. Legh Richmond, London, 1812, 8vo.



1. Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses, i. 299. [link]
2. Strype, Life of Parker, ii. 365, fol. [link]
3. BL Addit. MS. 5807, f. 106.
4. Strype, Life of Parker, i. 30, p.60, fol. [link]
5. Ingram, Memorials of Oxford, Magd. Coll., p. 16 footnote. [link]
6. Strype, Eccl. Memorials, iii. 23. [link]
7. Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannica p. 367; Coote, Sketches of Eminent English Civilians, p. 41.
8. Foster, The Register of Admissions to Gray's Inn, p. 27 [link]; Official List of Members of Parliament, i. 397.
9. £50 in 1560 was roughly equivalent to £10,400 in 2008. Source: Measuring Worth
10. Strype, Life of Parker, p. 305, fol.
11. Clay, Liturgical Services in the Reign of Elizabeth, pref. p. xxiv. [link]
12. Strype, Life of Parker, i. 118, p.233. [link]
13. Cooper, Annals of Cambridge, ii. 196. [link]
14. Parliamentary History, 1763, iv. 62. [link]
15. Nares, Memoirs of the Life of Lord Burghley, ii. 306, 307. [link]
16. Townsend, Life of Foxe, pp. 209-11. [link]
17. Weever, Funerall Monuments, p. 891.
18. Hallam, Introduction to the Literature of Europe, p. 507-8. [link]




      Excerpted from:

      Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. VIII.
      Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, eds.
      New York: The Macmillan Company, 1908. 872-5.




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Henry V
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John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury
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Sir John Fastolf
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John, Lord Tiptoft

Charles VII, King of France
Joan of Arc
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The Wars of the Roses 1455-1485
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
The House of Lancaster
The House of York
The House of Beaufort
The House of Neville

The First Battle of St. Albans, 1455
The Battle of Blore Heath, 1459
The Rout of Ludford, 1459
The Battle of Northampton, 1460
The Battle of Wakefield, 1460
The Battle of Mortimer's Cross, 1461
The 2nd Battle of St. Albans, 1461
The Battle of Towton, 1461
The Battle of Hedgeley Moor, 1464
The Battle of Hexham, 1464
The Battle of Edgecote, 1469
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The Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471
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Henry VI
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Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
Edward IV
Elizabeth Woodville
Richard Woodville, 1. Earl Rivers
Anthony Woodville, 2. Earl Rivers
Jane Shore
Edward V
Richard III
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Edward Neville, Baron Bergavenny
William Neville, Lord Fauconberg
Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury
John Neville, Marquis of Montagu
George Neville, Archbishop of York
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Edmund Beaufort, 2. Duke Somerset
Henry Beaufort, 3. Duke of Somerset
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Margaret Beaufort
Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond
Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke
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Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham
Humphrey Stafford, E. of Devon
Thomas, Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby
Sir William Stanley
Archbishop Thomas Bourchier
Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex
John Mowbray, 3. Duke of Norfolk
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John Howard, Duke of Norfolk
Henry Percy, 2. E. Northumberland
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William, Lord Hastings
Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter
William Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
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Thomas de Clifford, 8. Baron Clifford
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John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester
Thomas Grey, 1. Marquis Dorset
Sir Andrew Trollop
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James Touchet, 7th Baron Audley
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Thomas, Lord Scales
John, Lord Lovel and Holand
Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell
Sir Richard Ratcliffe
William Catesby
Ralph, 4th Lord Cromwell
Jack Cade's Rebellion, 1450


Tudor Period

King Henry VII
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Arthur, Prince of Wales
Lambert Simnel
Perkin Warbeck
The Battle of Blackheath, 1497

King Ferdinand II of Aragon
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Mary Tudor, Queen of France
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Francis I, King of France
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Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
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The Siege of Boulogne, 1544

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
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Sir Richard Rich

Edward Stafford, D. of Buckingham
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Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester
George Talbot, 4. E. Shrewsbury
Francis Talbot, 5. E. Shrewsbury
Henry Algernon Percy,
     5th Earl of Northumberland
Henry Algernon Percy,
     6th Earl of Northumberland
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Henry Neville, 5. E. Westmorland
William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester
Sir Francis Bryan
Sir Nicholas Carew
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
Thomas Seymour, Lord Admiral
Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset
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Sir Geoffrey Pole
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George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon
Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter
George Neville, Baron Bergavenny
Sir Edward Neville
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William Fitzwilliam, E. Southampton
Sir Anthony Browne
Sir Thomas Wriothesley
Sir William Kingston
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Sir Richard Southwell
Thomas Fiennes, 9th Lord Dacre
Sir Francis Weston
Henry Norris
Lady Jane Grey
Sir Thomas Arundel
Sir Richard Sackville
Sir William Petre
Sir John Cheke
Walter Haddon, L.L.D
Sir Peter Carew
Sir John Mason
Nicholas Wotton
John Taylor
Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Younger

Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio
Cardinal Reginald Pole
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Thomas Linacre
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Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford

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Pope Pius V

Pico della Mirandola
Desiderius Erasmus
Martin Bucer
Richard Pace
Christopher Saint-German
Thomas Tallis
Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent
Hans Holbein, the Younger
The Sweating Sickness

Dissolution of the Monasteries
Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536
Robert Aske
Anne Askew
Lord Thomas Darcy
Sir Robert Constable

Oath of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy, 1534
The First Act of Succession, 1534
The Third Act of Succession, 1544
The Ten Articles, 1536
The Six Articles, 1539
The Second Statute of Repeal, 1555
The Act of Supremacy, 1559
Articles Touching Preachers, 1583

Queen Elizabeth I
William Cecil, Lord Burghley
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Sir Francis Walsingham
Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Thomas Bromley

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick
Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon
Sir Thomas Egerton, Viscount Brackley
Sir Francis Knollys
Katherine "Kat" Ashley
Lettice Knollys, Countess of Leicester
George Talbot, 6. E. of Shrewsbury
Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury
Gilbert Talbot, 7. E. of Shrewsbury
Sir Henry Sidney
Sir Robert Sidney
Archbishop Matthew Parker
Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich
Sir Christopher Hatton
Edward Courtenay, E. Devonshire
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Thomas Radcliffe, 3. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 4. Earl of Sussex
Robert Radcliffe, 5. Earl of Sussex
William Parr, Marquis of Northampton
Henry Wriothesley, 2. Southampton
Henry Wriothesley, 3. Southampton
Charles Neville, 6. E. Westmorland
Thomas Percy, 7. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 8. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 9. E. Nothumberland
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Henry Howard, 1. Earl of Northampton
Thomas Howard, 1. Earl of Suffolk
Henry Hastings, 3. E. of Huntingdon
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland
Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland
Henry FitzAlan, 12. Earl of Arundel
Thomas, Earl Arundell of Wardour
Edward Somerset, E. of Worcester
William Davison
Sir Walter Mildmay
Sir Ralph Sadler
Sir Amyas Paulet
Gilbert Gifford
Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague
François, Duke of Alençon & Anjou

Mary, Queen of Scots
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell
Anthony Babington and the Babington Plot
John Knox

Philip II of Spain
The Spanish Armada, 1588
Sir Francis Drake
Sir John Hawkins

William Camden
Archbishop Whitgift
Martin Marprelate Controversy
John Penry (Martin Marprelate)
Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Dee, Alchemist

Philip Henslowe
Edward Alleyn
The Blackfriars Theatre
The Fortune Theatre
The Rose Theatre
The Swan Theatre
Children's Companies
The Admiral's Men
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Citizen Comedy
The Isle of Dogs, 1597

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Council of the North
Fleet Prison
Assize
Attainder
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Livery and Maintenance
Oyer and terminer
Praemunire


The Stuarts

King James I of England
Anne of Denmark
Henry, Prince of Wales
The Gunpowder Plot, 1605
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset
Arabella Stuart, Lady Lennox

William Alabaster
Bishop Hall
Bishop Thomas Morton
Archbishop William Laud
John Selden
Lucy Harington, Countess of Bedford
Henry Lawes

King Charles I
Queen Henrietta Maria

Long Parliament
Rump Parliament
Kentish Petition, 1642

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford
John Digby, Earl of Bristol
George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax
Robert Devereux, 3rd E. of Essex
Robert Sidney, 2. E. of Leicester
Algernon Percy, E. of Northumberland
Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2. Earl of Manchester

The Restoration

King Charles II
King James II
Test Acts

Greenwich Palace
Hatfield House
Richmond Palace
Windsor Palace
Woodstock Manor

The Cinque Ports
Mermaid Tavern
Malmsey Wine
Great Fire of London, 1666
Merchant Taylors' School
Westminster School
The Sanctuary at Westminster
"Sanctuary"


Images:

Chart of the English Succession from William I through Henry VII

Medieval English Drama

London c1480, MS Royal 16
London, 1510, the earliest view in print
Map of England from Saxton's Descriptio Angliae, 1579
Location Map of Elizabethan London
Plan of the Bankside, Southwark, in Shakespeare's time
Detail of Norden's Map of the Bankside, 1593
Bull and Bear Baiting Rings from the Agas Map (1569-1590, pub. 1631)
Sketch of the Swan Theatre, c. 1596
Westminster in the Seventeenth Century, by Hollar
Visscher's Panoramic View of London, 1616. COLOR
c. 1690. View of London Churches, after the Great Fire
The Yard of the Tabard Inn from Thornbury, Old and New London




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