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Portrait of Lord Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, 1st Baron Howard de Walden.
Signature of Lord Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, 1st Baron Howard de Walden
Lord Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, 1st Baron Howard de Walden (1561-1626)

LORD THOMAS HOWARD, first Earl of Suffolk and first Baron Howard De Walden (1561-1626), born on 24 Aug. 1561, was the second son of Thomas, fourth duke of Norfolk, who was attainted, by his second wife, Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas, baron Audley of Walden. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and was restored in blood as Lord Thomas Howard on l9 Dec. l584.

Howard accompanied as a volunteer the fleet sent to oppose the Spanish Armada, and in the attack off Calais displayed such valour that he was knighted at sea by the lord high admiral [Lord Howard of Effingham] on 25 June 1588, and was afterwards made captain of a man-of-war. On 5 March 1591 he was appointed commander of the squadron which attacked, in the face of overwhelming difficulties, the Spanish treasure ships off the Azores, when Sir Richard Grenville was killed. In May 1596 he was admiral ot the third squadron in the fleet sent against Cadiz. On his return he was created K.G., 28 April 1597, and in the following June sailed as vice-admiral of the fleet despatched to the Azores.

His ability and courage commended him to the favour of the queen, who in her letters to Essex was wont to refer to him as her 'good Thomas.'1 It is said that he endeavoured to compose the differences between Essex and Raleigh. On 5 Dec. 1597 he was summoned to parliament as Baron Howard de Walden, and became lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely on 8 April I598, and admiral of a fleet on 10 Aug. 1599. In February 1601 he was marshal of the forces which besieged the Earl of Essex in his house in London, and on the 19th he sat as one of the peers on the trials of the Earls of Essex and Southampton, being at the time constable of the Tower of London.

He was sworn high steward of the university of Cambridge in February 1601, lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire on 26 June 1602, and acting lord chamberlain of the household on 28 Dec. Before going to Richmond, in January 1603, the queen visited Howard at the Charterhouse, and was sumptuously entertained. On the accession of James I Howard met him at Theobalds, was made a privy councillor on 4 May 1603, and acted from that day until 10 July 1614 as lord chamberlain of the household. Howard was created Earl of Suffolk on 21 July 1603, and was appointed one of the commissioners for making knights of the Bath at the coronation of the king. He became joint-commissioner for the office of earl-marshal of England on 4 Feb. 1604, and joint-commissioner to expel Jesuits and seminary and other priests on 6 Sept. following; he honourably, in 1604, refused a Spanish pension, though his wife accepted one of £1,000 a year, and she supplied information from time to time in return. Howard himself complained bitterly to Winwood that he and his family were suspected of endeavouring to persuade the king to ally himself with Spain. In the ensuing year he helped to discover the Gunpowder Plot.

Howard became M.A. of Cambridge on 31 June 1605, lord-lieutenant of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire on 18 July 1605, M.A. of Oxford on 30 Aug. 1605, captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners in November 1605, which post he was allowed to hand over to his son Theophilus on 11 July 1614, councillor of Wales in 1608, high steward of Ipswich on 6 June 1609, keeper in reversion of Somersham Chace, Huntingdonshire, on 26 April 1611, joint lord-lieutenant of Dorsetshire and town of Poole on 5 July 1611, keeper of the forest of Braydon, Wiltshire, on 21 March 1612, a commissioner of the treasury on 16 June 1612, and lord-lieutenant of Dorsetshire on 19 Feb. 1613. In this year, with the rest of the Howards, he supported the scheme for the divorce of his daughter Frances from Robert Devereux, third earl of Essex. On the death of his uncle, Henry, earl of Northampton, Howard was elected chancellor of the university of Cambridge on 8 July 1614. He prevailed on the king to visit the university in March 1615. On that occasion he resided at St. John's College, and is said to have spent in hospitality £1,000 a day. His wife held receptions at Magdalene College.

On 11 July 1614 Howard was constituted lord high treasurer of England, and formally held office until 19 July 1619. In November 1615 a determined attempt was made to implicate him in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. He was the father-in-law of Somerset, and to some extent responsible for his fate; the king at all events thought that Suffolk wished to escape a full investigation. On 1 Feb. 1618 he was made custos rotulorum of Suffolk, on the following 14 April was commissioned with others to discover concealed lands, encroachments, &c., and to arrange with pensioners of the crown for an exchange of their pensions for a certain portion of these lands. On 23 June of the same year he became for a second time joint-commissioner to banish Jesuits and seminary priests.

In the autumn of 1618 grave irregularities were discovered at the treasury. Howard was suspended from his office. He was accused of having embezzled a great part of the money received from the Dutch for the cautionary towns, with defrauding the king of £240,000 in jewels, with committing frauds in the alum business, and with extorting money from the king's subjects. The countess was indicted for extorting money from persons having business at the treasury, chiefly through the agency of Sir John Bingley, remembrancer of the exchequer. At first Howard talked boldly about publishing the real reasons of his suspension, but as the time for his trial drew near he offered his private submission. After eleven days' hearing in the Star-chamber (October-November 1619), the earl and countess were fined £30,000, commanded to restore all money wrongfully extorted, and were sentenced to be imprisoned apart in the Tower during pleasure.

Howard was popularly credited with having acted under the influence of his wife. They were released after ten days' imprisonment, but as a condition of their enlargement their sons, Lord de Walden and Sir Thomas Howard, were dismissed for a short time from their places at court. Howard pleaded inability to pay his fine, and a commission was issued for the Archbishop of Canterbury and others to inquire into his estate. Probably to defeat this inquiry, he made a great part of it over to his son-in-law, the Earl of Salisbury, and his brother, Sir W. Howard. The king threatened the earl with another Star-chamber bill, but Howard appeased him by making humble submission, and promising to pay all, though he was fully £50,000 in debt. The king and Buckingham stood sponsors for his grandson, James Howard, afterwards third earl of Suffolk (1619-1688), and in July 1620 he was received into favour again, and his fine, reduced to £7,000, was made over to John, viscount Haddington.

In 1621 Suffolk with Lord Saye and Sele strongly pressed that Bacon should be brought to the bar of the house in the beginning of the investigation into the chancellor's offences. Suffolk was probably inspired by revenge for his own treatment by Bacon in similar circumstances. A little later in the session he attempted to mediate between Arundel and Spencer in the discussion as to Yelverton's case.

In 1621 Howard became high steward of Exeter, and endeavoured to ingratiate himself with Buckingham by marrying, in December 1623, his seventh son, Edward, afterwards Lord Howard of Escrick (d. 1675), to Mary, fifth daughter of Sir John Boteler. On 9 May 1625 he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk. He died on 28 May 1626 at his bouse at Charing Cross, and was buried at Saffron Walden.

He married, first, Mary, daughter and coheiress of Thomas, fourth lord Dacre of Gillesland, who died on 7 April, 1578 without issue. In 1583 he married, secondly, Catherine, daughter and coheiress of Sir Henry Knevet, Knt., of Charlton, Wiltshire, and widow of Richard, eldest son of Robert, lord Rich. She had a great ascendency over her husband, and undoubtedly used his high office to enrich herself. Bacon, in his speech in the Star-chamber against the earl, compared the countess to an exchange woman, who kept her shop, while her creature, Sir J. Bingley, cried 'What d'ye lack?' Her beauty was remarkable, but in 1619 an attack of small-pox did it much injury. By her Suffolk had seven sons and three daughters.

1. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1595-7, p. 453.


      Goodwin, Gordon. "Lord Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk."
      Dictionary of National Biography. Vol X. Sidney Lee, Ed.
      New York: The Macmillan Company, 1908. 71-73.

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Henry V
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Charles VII, King of France
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Henry VI
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Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex
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John Howard, Duke of Norfolk
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Tudor Period

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Queen Catherine Howard
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Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
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The Siege of Boulogne, 1544

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
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Thomas, Lord Audley
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Edward Stafford, D. of Buckingham
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk
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John Russell, Earl of Bedford
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Henry Grey, D. of Suffolk
Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester
George Talbot, 4. E. Shrewsbury
Francis Talbot, 5. E. Shrewsbury
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     5th Earl of Northumberland
Henry Algernon Percy,
     6th Earl of Northumberland
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William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester
Sir Francis Bryan
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John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
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Thomas Seymour, Lord Admiral
Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury
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Sir Geoffrey Pole
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William, Lord Paget
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Sir Richard Southwell
Thomas Fiennes, 9th Lord Dacre
Sir Francis Weston
Henry Norris
Lady Jane Grey
Sir Thomas Arundel
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Walter Haddon, L.L.D
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Nicholas Wotton
John Taylor
Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Younger

Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio
Cardinal Reginald Pole
Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester
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Thomas Linacre
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Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford

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Pico della Mirandola
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Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent
Hans Holbein, the Younger
The Sweating Sickness

Dissolution of the Monasteries
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Robert Aske
Anne Askew
Lord Thomas Darcy
Sir Robert Constable

Oath of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy, 1534
The First Act of Succession, 1534
The Third Act of Succession, 1544
The Ten Articles, 1536
The Six Articles, 1539
The Second Statute of Repeal, 1555
The Act of Supremacy, 1559
Articles Touching Preachers, 1583

Queen Elizabeth I
William Cecil, Lord Burghley
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Sir Francis Walsingham
Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Thomas Bromley

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick
Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon
Sir Thomas Egerton, Viscount Brackley
Sir Francis Knollys
Katherine "Kat" Ashley
Lettice Knollys, Countess of Leicester
George Talbot, 6. E. of Shrewsbury
Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury
Gilbert Talbot, 7. E. of Shrewsbury
Sir Henry Sidney
Sir Robert Sidney
Archbishop Matthew Parker
Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich
Sir Christopher Hatton
Edward Courtenay, E. Devonshire
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Thomas Radcliffe, 3. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 4. Earl of Sussex
Robert Radcliffe, 5. Earl of Sussex
William Parr, Marquis of Northampton
Henry Wriothesley, 2. Southampton
Henry Wriothesley, 3. Southampton
Charles Neville, 6. E. Westmorland
Thomas Percy, 7. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 8. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 9. E. Nothumberland
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Henry Howard, 1. Earl of Northampton
Thomas Howard, 1. Earl of Suffolk
Henry Hastings, 3. E. of Huntingdon
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland
Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland
Henry FitzAlan, 12. Earl of Arundel
Thomas, Earl Arundell of Wardour
Edward Somerset, E. of Worcester
William Davison
Sir Walter Mildmay
Sir Ralph Sadler
Sir Amyas Paulet
Gilbert Gifford
Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague
François, Duke of Alençon & Anjou

Mary, Queen of Scots
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell
Anthony Babington and the Babington Plot
John Knox

Philip II of Spain
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Sir Francis Drake
Sir John Hawkins

William Camden
Archbishop Whitgift
Martin Marprelate Controversy
John Penry (Martin Marprelate)
Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Dee, Alchemist

Philip Henslowe
Edward Alleyn
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The Swan Theatre
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Citizen Comedy
The Isle of Dogs, 1597

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First Fruits & Tenths
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The Stuarts

King James I of England
Anne of Denmark
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George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset
Arabella Stuart, Lady Lennox

William Alabaster
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John Selden
Lucy Harington, Countess of Bedford
Henry Lawes

King Charles I
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Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford
John Digby, Earl of Bristol
George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax
Robert Devereux, 3rd E. of Essex
Robert Sidney, 2. E. of Leicester
Algernon Percy, E. of Northumberland
Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2. Earl of Manchester

The Restoration

King Charles II
King James II
Test Acts

Greenwich Palace
Hatfield House
Richmond Palace
Windsor Palace
Woodstock Manor

The Cinque Ports
Mermaid Tavern
Malmsey Wine
Great Fire of London, 1666
Merchant Taylors' School
Westminster School
The Sanctuary at Westminster


Chart of the English Succession from William I through Henry VII

Medieval English Drama

London c1480, MS Royal 16
London, 1510, the earliest view in print
Map of England from Saxton's Descriptio Angliae, 1579
London in late 16th century
Location Map of Elizabethan London
Plan of the Bankside, Southwark, in Shakespeare's time
Detail of Norden's Map of the Bankside, 1593
Bull and Bear Baiting Rings from the Agas Map (1569-1590, pub. 1631)
Sketch of the Swan Theatre, c. 1596
Westminster in the Seventeenth Century, by Hollar
Visscher's View of London, 1616
Larger Visscher's View in Sections
c. 1690. View of London Churches, after the Great Fire
The Yard of the Tabard Inn from Thornbury, Old and New London

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